Imatges de pÓgina

Ta naoj gciñ déag 4 fitead. He has thirty-nine.
Tri gaile capall bealaig. Three (stomachs of) road horses.
Сjun bo bajје.

Three milk cows.
Cuingir ċapall reirriže. A yoke of plough horses.
Da bolóig 615.

Two young oxen.
Da reafaig big.

Two young heifers. Tri caoirig déag

Thirteen sheep Seact nuan, agus aon rean Seven lambs, and one old mare.

lair. Ca réad daoine cloiñe 4g How many children has your hacair ?

father ? Ta mór reisjur cloiñe aige. He has seven children. Ca méad clan mac?

How many sons ? Ta centrar clan riac, agus He has four sons and three orjur cailín.

daughters. Gač uile la ra mbliadain. Every day in the year. Do reacain re gać uile oroċ He shunned every bad man.




(117.) 1. Personal pronouns agree in number, gender, and person, with the nouns to which they refer; as, ir mór na daoine 140, they are great men.

2. If a sentence be in place of the antecedent, the pronoun is in the third person singular, masculine; as, un šrjan a fajceál is aojbin é, to see the sun is pleasant.

3. If two or more persons or things be spoken of in a sentence, the pronoun will

agree with the first person rather than the second, and with the second person rather than the third ; as, cuaid tusa agus miri go Bailęc cliac, agus by riñ añ o beálTine go dtí an luźnora, you and I went to Dublin, and we were there from May until August.

4. The pronouns re, ri, rin, rib, riad, are commonly used in the nominative; and é, 1, 1b, 140, in the accusative; as, do buail riñ 140, we struck them; do buail riád is, they struck us.

* e, i, iñ, jad, are used in the nominative after an, ba, ar, ca, nać, gurab, creud; as, nac iad sin na daoine ? are not these the men ar, ero, or 're so an la, this is the day. (118.)

5. The datives of the personal pronouns may be 'aspirated or not, as shall sound most smoothly. But after n, o, or o, they


are dever aspirated; as, ir fearr out, or duit, it is better for you; ir mian dan), I desire. THE CONSTRUCTION OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS PROMISCUOUSLY EX

EMPLIFIED. T464 or an leine glan. Give me the clean shirt. Thug ri acmuran geur do. She gave him a sharp rebuke. Dorpréag re go geur e.

She rebuked him sharply, Is mait an duine e; is breağ He is a good man, she is a fine

an bean í. Ir from an čloc s, ir fuar an It is a heavy stone, it is a cold maidin í.

morning. Chuajo se cuma dunais tuite He went to his country house. Ir gasún oroimhuinge é.

He is a naughty boy. Ta se na gasún öroċriuinte. Ta me fóğlaim mo leigion. I am learning my lesson. Sgrioban reisean a cleaco. He writes his exercise. Ni riad morán goran. They make such noise. Racalo mo' dearbrats 4gus My brother and I will go to the misi cum an aonaig.

fair. Fus re é faoi na corab. He found it under his feet. Worán raotar 4 beagán bjó Much labour and little meat. Ir mór 4 člaojien se an corp. Greatly it afflicts the body. Ir beag 4 cuiread re orm I would think little of walking

riubal 4 coir go luimneac. to Limerick. Bár na gcarad re buaióir ra The death of my friends is what mearajó me.

troubles and distresses me. Se a cluinim gać la ag cac 04 I hear each day every person

airit, gur fainnigeac cás saying, that your soft hair is do cul cair.

in ringlets. A bejó am donar indjaig To be alone after all, is what

Čaić re a ofág me a noću has left me this night in sor

F4oj brón. (119.) Go de a člog é ?

What o'clock is it ? Ta re an do, &c.

It is two, &c. Ta re let ug in ojaig an do. It is half after two. Ir aoibin an aimsir í. It is delightful weather. Bhi re gruama air maidin, It was gloomy in the morning. Rajb tu fjarn 4 f4ge ? Were you ever on sea ?



1. The possessive pronouns mo, do, a, 4, and bur, are always placed before their nouns; as, mo ceañ, my head; do cor,

thy foot

2. Wo, do, and a, his, aspirate their substantives; as, ino šort, my corn; do rrón, thy nose ; a cean, bis head ;* but a cean, her head.

3. Wo before F, or a vowel, loses o; as, manam, my soul ; m'feoil, my flesh. Do before a vowel, is changed into h; before g, into o, or o; as, hanam, thy soul; d'feoil, or o'feoil, thy flesh. 4, her, prefixes h to the following vowel; as, a hanam, her soul.

4. Ar, bur, and a their, eclipse the following consonant, except r; and prefix to the following vowel; as, 4 naty, our father; 4 ndia, their God; bur nuaman, your terror.

5. For the manner in which the possessive pronouns are combined with le, ua, do, and añ; see page 35. To which add fam, fad, fan, and fa compound of far, about, and mo, do, a, and 4; in which manner they used before vowels, and sometimes before aspirated consonants; as, lem fe, with my care ; leo coil, your will. THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS PROMISCUOUSLY

EXEMPLIFIED. a braca cu mo garoasa? Did you see my garden Tar liom go bfeicfe tu mo Come with me until you see my lubgoro.

garden. Déan ar mo ronra é. Do it for


sake. Ca bfuil do le64 ?

Where is


book ?
Go de dimtig 4a cuio peñad. What has become of his pen.
Bhfuil dúil agad a oul fa na


a mind to go to ndéin?

them? Ta m'at ir mo mhac un. My father and mother are sick. Do bris an capall a irian sa The horse broke his bridle, and agasuar.

his halter. Bheara se qir rib do vútuig He shall bring you again to the bur naitreac.

land of


fathers. Ar natt a ta 4 nean.

Our father who art in heaven. Do ríñe rí a cig.

She builded her house. Bfhrl sibi a Gract fam atare. Are you talking of my father ? Thug me rgéula dom 404. I gave tidings to my father. 30 brug me litir om ingean. That I got a letter from my



1. The relative agrees with its antecedent; as, an té a cig, the person who comes.

2. When a is used to denote the owner or possessor of any thing, it takes r, as, an fer 4 leis tu, the man to whom you belong.

Which, compounded with do, makes dar; as, an feau dar céile cu,


whose wife you are. With do and ba, it makes darab, or darb; as, bean darb ainm Waire, a woman whose name was Mary

With le, it makes ler; as, ce be ler mjan, whoever has a desire.

With le, and ba, it makes lerb; as, ce be lepb aill, whoever had a wish.

3. As the relative always comes before the verb, and has no inflexion, it must be determined by the verb itself, or the noun following, whether the relative denotes the agent or the object ; as, an fer a buailim, the man whom I strike; an fear a buailear me, the man who strikes me

4. The relative is often omitted, when it is either preceded or followed by a vowel, or an aspirated consonant; as, an ziolla Tug an jemán léis, the boy that brought the horse with him ; an fear ólar an ceud deoć, the man who takes the first drink; buo rioñać bj añ, it was a fox that was there.




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An fear ler bualaó me. The man by whom I was struck.
Un fear a buailear re. The man whom he strikes.
An fear a buailear é. The man who strikes him.
Si rin an aindear a laby lęs. That is the damsel who spoke

to you. An é po an hata úr a céñaig Is this the new hat that you

bought ? Ta eolus agam air an fear a I know the man with whom you rajb tu caint leir.

were talking. Carad dilios, añ a gcuiriom A dear friend, in whom I place muinigin.

confidence. Ta fios agam ca air a bfuil I know of what you are thinktu smuainead.

ing. Ir meanar don te ar leir e. Happy is the man who possesses

it. Ir maing don te ler mian é. Wretched is the man who de

sires it. Ir mairg don té dar cinean. Wretched is the man whose fate uin a fajail.

it is to get it. An tóglac cuaid tart.


The man that went past.


1. The interrogative pronouns cia, ce, ci, and cjad agree with their objects or respondents, in gender, and number, as, cia, or ce an fear ? who is the man ? duine uasal, a gentleman ; ci fein; who is she ? baintigearna, a lady; cad? who are they ? daoine móra, great men.

2. The neuter verb is never expressed with the interrogative pronoun; as, cia miri? who am I?

3. The interrogatives always precede the verb or preposition by which they are governed; as, cja o bfuq tu e ? from whom did you get it?



Go de an munmur sin ort? What muttering do you make ?
Creud is ciall do rin? What is the meaning of that ?
Cja fa bfuil tu faiteac? Why are you timorous ?
Cia he, or ca an fear rin a Who is the man

who spoke labair leat ?


you 1? Ci hi, or ci an bean rin a oul Who is that woman going past

tart? Creud a beir eagla ord ? What brings fear upon you ? Go de ta Tu ag jarraig ? What are you seeking ? U ciğearna, cia coinneoċur Lord, who shall dwell in thy añ do tabernacuil ?

tabernacle ? Cja aca is mó, mfallainte no Which is larger, my mantle or

Cia hjad, or chad fein 4 t4 Who are they coming in ?

Geact a steac.
Ca leis a raib tu anjus ? With whom are you to-day?
Cja buail tu ?

Whom did you strike ?

your mantle ?


1. The demonstrative pronouns immediately follow the noun or adjectives with which they are connected ; as, an bean rin, that woman; an duine so, this man; na daoine uasal ud, those gentlemen.

Except, when the neuter verb is understood; for it is never expressed with demonstratives ; as, to an fear, this is the man.

2. When so is joined to the noun, whose last vowel is broad, it is commonly changed into ra; but, if the last vowel is small, into re; as, an fearra, this man; an fáinnere, this ring.

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