Imatges de pÓgina
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ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE, HISTORY, POLITICS AND

BIOGRAPHY,

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Philadelphia:

CAREY AND LEA,
SOLD IN PHILADELPHIA BY E. L. CAREY AND A. HART-IN NEW YORK

BY G. & C. & H. CARVILL-IN BOSTON BY

CARTER, HENDEE & BABCOCK.

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EASTERN DISTRICT OP PENNSYLVANIA, to scrito BE !T REMEMBERED, that on the tenth day of August, in the fifty-fourth year of the Independence of the United States of America, A. D. 1829, Carey, Lea & Carey, of the said district, have deposited in this office the title of a book, the right whereof they claim a propriotori, in the words following, to wit :

“Encyclopædia Americana. A Popular Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literaturo, History, Politics and Biography, brought down to the prosent Time; including a copious Collection of Original Articles in American Biography; on the Basis of the woventh Edition of the German Conversations-Lexicon. Edited by Francis Lieber, assisted by E. Wigglesworth."

In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United States, entitled, “ An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of mapy, charts and books to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein

mentioned :" and also to the act, entitled, "An Act supplementary to an act, entitled, * An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charte and books to the authors and proprietors of such copios, during the times therein mentioned ;' and extending the benefits thereof to the aris of designing, engraving and arching historical and oiber priate."

D. CALDWELL,
Clork of the Eastern District of Pennsyloenis.

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ENCYCLOPÆDIA AMERICANA.

Greece, Ancient. The name of Gre- mountains are covered with the plants of cia originated in Italy, and was prob- the polar régions. In Athens, the therably derived from Pelasgian colonies, mometer very seldom falls below the who, coming from Epirus, and calling freezing point, or rises above 25° Réauthemselves Grecians, from Græcus, the mur (88 Fahrenheit). In the islands, evoson of their ancestor, Thessalus, occa- ry evening, at a particular hour, a gentle sioned the application of this name to all sea breeze sets in, which tempers the heat the people who spoke the same language of the day. But in the plains of Thessawith them. In earlier times, e. g., in the ly, which lie 1200 feet above the level of time of Homer, Greece had no general the sea, and more especially in the mounname among the natives. It afterwards tains of Arcadia, the winter is as severe received the name of Hellas, and still lat- as in England. The fruits of the soil are er, after the country was conquered by as abundant as they are various. Even the Romans, the name of Achaia; under where it is not adapted for the purposes of which Macedonia and Epirus were not husbandry, it produces thyme, marjoram, included. The Grecian tribes were so and a number of aromatic herbs, which widely dispersed, that it is difficult to de- afford a rich pasturage: Greece produces termine, with precision, the limits of eight kinds of corn and ten kinds of Greece, properly so called. The name olives. It is, perhaps, the native country was sometimes applied only to that coun- of the grape, particularly of the small try which was surrounded on three sides sort, from which the currants of comby the Mediterranean sea, was separated merce are made. The name of these is from Macedonia by the Cambunian moun- a corruption of Corinth, the chief plantatains, and contained about 42,000 square tion having formerly been on the isthmus miles; sometimes it was taken in a wider of this name. There are 40 kinds of Gresense, including Macedonia and Epirus, cian grapes known. The boney of this having mount Hæmus and the Ægean country is very famous. (See Hymettus.) and Ionian seas for its boundaries, and Greece produces all the necessaries of comprising the islands of these two seas. life, and there is no country whose coast Greece consists partly of continental, is so well supplied with bays and harborg and partly of insular regions. A chain for commerce. The main land is now of mountains, extending from the Ambra- divided into Northern Greece, Middle cian gulf, in the west, to Thermopyle, on Greece, Greece Proper, or Hellas, in its the east, separates Northern Greece from narrower sense, and the Peloponnesus Southern. The climate is alternately se- (Morea). I. Northern Greece includes, vere or mild, as the mountains or valleys i. Thessaly (9. v.) (now Janna); 2. Epipredominate, but it is agreeable and rus (q. v.) (now Albania); 3. Macedonia healthy. People are not unfrequently (now Macedonia, or Filiba-Vilajeti), acfound here, whose age is over 100 years. counted a part of Greece from the time The soil of the valleys and plains is favor of Philip and Alexander, and making a able to the growth of the finest tropical link in the chain between Greece and fruits, while the suinmits of the high Thrace, of which, in earlier times, Mace

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