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her lying-in : I doubt she has got some cold : she is lame in one of her legs with a rheumatic pain. Dr Arbuthnot and Mrs Hill go to-morrow to Kensington to see her, and return the same night. Mrs Hill and I dined with the doctor to-day. I rode out this morning with the doctor to see Cranburn, a house of Lord Ranelagh's, and the Duchess of Marlborough's lodge, and the park ; the finest places they are for nature, and plantations, that ever I saw; and the finest riding upon

artificial roads, made on purpose for the queen. Arbuthnot made me draw up a sham subscription for a book, called a History of the Maids of Honour since Harry the Eighth, showing they make the best wives, with a list of all the Maids of Honour since, &c. to pay a crown in hand, and t’other crown upon delivery of the book ; and all in the common forms of those things. We got a gen. tleman to write it fair, because my hand is known, and we sent it to the maids of honour when they came to supper. If they bite at it, 'twill be a very good court jest ; and the queen will certainly have it ; we did not tell Mrs Hill.

20. To-day I was invited to the green cloth by Colonel Godfrey, who married the Duke of Marlborough's sister, mother to the Duke of Berwick by King James : I must tell you those things that happened before you were born : but I made my excuses, and young

Harcourt (lord-keeper's son) and I dined with my next neigh

*

* Arabella Churchill, daughter of Sir Winston Churchill, maid of honour to the duchess, and mistress to the Duke of York. She bore him two sons, the celebrated Duke of Berwick, and Henry Fitz-James, grand prior of France; and a daughter who became a

To Colonel Godfrey she had two daughters.

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bour Dr Adams Mrs Masham is better, and will be here in three or four days. She had need; for the Duchess of Somerset is thought to gain ground daily.-We have not yet sent you over all your bills; and I think we have altered your money-bill. The Duke of Ormond is censured here by those in power for very wrong management in the affair of the mayoralty. He is governed by fools ; and has usually much more sense than his advisers, but never proceeds by it. I must know how your health continues after Wexford. Walk and use exercise, sirrahs both ; and get somebody to play at shuttle-cock with you, Madam Stella, and walk to the dean's and Donnybrook.

21. Colonel Godfrey sent to me again to-day ; so I dined at the green cloth, and we had but eleven at dinner, which is a small number there, the court being always thin of company till Saturday night. This new ink and pen make a strange figure; I must write larger, yes, I must, or Stella won't be able to read this. * S. S. S. there's your S s for you, Stella. The maids of honour are bit, and have all contributed their crowns, and are teazing others to subscribe for the book. I will tell lord-keeper and lord-treasurer to-morrow; and I believe the queen will have it. After a little walk this evening, I squandered away the rest of it in sitting at Lewis's lodging, while he and Dr Arbuthnot played at picquet. I have that foolish pleasure, which I believe nobody has beside me, except old Lady Berkeley. But I fretted when I came away; I will loiter so no more, for I have a plaguy deal of business upon my hands, and very little time to do it. The pamphleteers begin to be

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* These words in Italics are written enormously large.

very busy against the ministry: I have begged Mr Secretary to make examples of one or two of them ; and he assures me he will. They are very bold and abusive. *

* Parties were so equally poised at this time, and the approaching change of the dynasty was so animating a subject of contention, that De Foe has given us the following striking account of the virulence of contending factions :-“ All the arts and engines imaginable are made use of, to bring the people to a wilful giving up themselves to names and parties, without examining into things, and into the substance or merits of the debate; to this end they heat their blood with wine, foment their passions by continued reproachings, expose them to one another by studied quarrels, and keep up contention to bring in peace.

No man but he who sees these things, as this author now to his amazement does, could believe it possible, that the animosities of this nation could, in so short a time, and after such views of the danger these things have formerly brought them to, be capable of such inflammations; the name of peace

is become a scandal, union is so abhorred among you, for the sake of Scotland, you cannot love the very

word;

the animosities between us and the French are trifles to this. There we fight like men of war and men of honour, give fair quarter, exchange civilities, and treat one another upon the square. But in England, we strive not like men, but like devils, like furies; we fight not as if we would kill one another only, but as if we would tear one another's souls out of our bodies; we fight with all the addition of personal envy, revenge, hellish rage, irreconcileable, implacable malice. In war, we make declarations, and show the reasons of . our quarrel, and pretend a willingness to peace; but here we assign no cause, aim at no end, regard no measures, and show no mercy

“ Nor do we fight with clubs, as at Marlow, Whitchurch, &c.; with swords and staves, as at Coventry; with stones and brickbats,

but we fight with the poison of the tongue, with words that speak like the piercing of a sword, with the gall of envy, the venom of slander, the foam of malice, and the poison of reproach, bitter revilings, unsufferable taunts, injurious backbitings, and unmannerly railings.-This is the present temper of the people where

as at

22. This being the day the ministry comes to Windsor, I ate a bit or two at Mr Lewis's lodgings, because I must sup with lord-treasurer; and at half an hour after one, I led Mr Lewis a walk up the avenue, which is two miles long : we walked in all about five miles, but I was so tired with his slow walking, that I left him here, and walked two miles toward London, hoping to meet lord-treasurer, and return with him, but it grew darkish, and I was forced to walk back, so I walked nine miles in all, and lord-treasurer did not come till after eight, which is very wrong, for there was no moon, and I often tell him how ill he does to expose himself so, but he only makes a jest of it. I supped with him, and staid till now, when it is half an hour after two. He is as merry, and careless, and disengaged, as a young heir at one-and-twenty. 'Tis late indeed.

23. The secretary did not come last night, but at three this afternoon; I have not seen him yet, but I verily think they are contriving a peace as fast as they can, without which it will be impossible to subsist. The queen was at church to-day, but was carried in a chair. I and Mr Lewis dined privately with Mr Lowman, clerk of the kitchen. I was to see lord-keeper this morning, and told him the jest of the maids of honour, and lord-treasurer had it last night. That rogue Arbuth

I have been, and too much so all over the nation, wounding not men's bodies only, that might be healed by a surgeon, but stabbing their reputation, blackening their characters, reproaching their morals, ripping up all the miscarriages of their lives, and wounding their families, without any regard to truth, to honour, or to the great duty left by our Saviour upon us all ;

Quod tibi fieri non vis, alteri ne feceris.De Foe's Review of the State of the British Nation, Vol. VI. p. 85.

not puts it all upon me. The court was very full today; I expected lord-treasurer would have invited me to supper, but he only bowed to me, and we had no discourse in the drawing-room. 'Tis now seven at night, and I am at home, and I hope lord-treasurer will not send for me to supper; if he does not, I will reproach him, and he will pretend to chide me for not coming. So farewell till I go to bed, for I am going to be busy. 'Tis now past ten, and I went down to ask the servants about Mr Secretary ; they tell me the queen is yet at council, and that she went to supper, and came out to the council afterward. 'Tis certain they are managing a peace. I will go to bed, and there's an end. 'Tis now eleven, and a messenger is come from lord-treasurer to sup with them, but I have excused myself, and am glad I am in bed, for else I should sit up till two, and drink till I was hot. Now I'll go sleep.

London, 24. I came to town by six with lord-treasurer, and have staid till ten.

That of the queen's going out to sup, and coming in again, is a lie, as the secretary told me this morning, but I find the ministry are very busy with Mr Prior, and I believe he will go again to France. I am told so much, that we shall certainly have a peace very soon. I had charming weather all last week at Windsor, but we have had a little rain to-day, and yesterday was windy. Prior's Journey sells still; they have sold two thousand, although the town is empty. I found a letter from Mrs Fenton here, desiring me, in Lady Gifford's name, to come and pass a week at Sheen, while she is at Moor Park. I will answer it with a vengeance ; and now you talk of answering, there is MD's N. 20 is yet to be answered : I had put it up so safe I could hardly find it; but here it is,

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