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into execution, yet the pains which Schwartz had bestowed for a year and a half upon the acquisition of the Talmul language, were not thrown away, since this became, the occasion (the late Mr. Franke being also acquainted with his upright intentions) of his being appointed to go in the capacity of a missionary to the East Indies. He accepted this appointment; and although, some days after, an advantageous situation, as preacher, not far from Halle, was offered him, he declined it in the firm persuasion that it was the will of God he should go to the East Indies. His father, also, whom he visited before he set out upon his mission, gave his consent to it; and the event has shewn that God had chosen him to preach the gospel to the Heathen.
On the 8th of August, 1749, Schwartz set out, with two other missionary candidates, Polzenhagen and Huettemann (the latter being destined for the English mission) for Copenhagen. After they had there received ordination, they returned to Halle; from thence they proceeded on their way to London. On the 21st of January, 1750, they left London, embarked the 29th, and arrived on the 16th of July at Cadelar, and on the 30th at Tranquebar, in good health. As early as the 5th of November following, Schwartz delivered his first discourse in the Talmul language.
In the year 1767, he was transferred to the English society, as missionary in Tirutchinapalli, after having several times already preached the gospel there, and met with great attention. In the year 1779, he went
to Tanschaur, where he had already founded a congregation during his abode at Tirutchina palli, and where he remained till his decease.
At both places he received from the government at Madras an annual salary of 1001. as garrison preacher. At Tirutchinapalli he expended the whole of this sum in the service of the mission, particularly in the building of the church and school, and also in augmenting the allowances of the national helpers. At Tanschaur he gave one half of his salary to Mr. Kohlhoff, whom he had educated and instructed until he was ordained at Tranquebar to be missionary at Tanschaur. The other half he likewise expended upon the mission.
The fidelity with which he laboured, the self denial which he exercised, the blessing which attended his preaching of the gospel, the esteem in which he was held both by the Europeans and Talmuls, the veneration which
*The excellent conduct of Mr. confidence of all ranks of people. In Schwartz was such as to secure the the time of war, when the fort of Tanjore was in a distressed situation, a powerful enemy at hand, and not provision enough even for the garrison; and when, to add to this mis
fortune, the neighbouring inhabitants, who, by ill treatment had lost all confidence in the Europeans, and the Rajah had in vain entreated the help of the people, the only hope left was in Mr. Schwartz. "We have all lost our credit," said the Rajah to an English gentleman; "let us try whether the inhabitants will trust Mr. Schwartz." Accordingly, he was desired to make an agreement with them. There was no time to be
lost. The Seapoys fell down as dead people, being emaciated with hunger. The streets were lined with
all his brethren paid to him, as to their father, counsellor, and pattern, appears sufficiently from the missionary accounts. Much has he laboured; great will be his reward.
He enjoyed an almost uninterrupted good state of health, and could always perform his functions with ease; only in the last years he wrote, that he was no longer able to go about among the Heathen as formerly.
sent, therefore, letters in every direction, promising to pay, with his own hands, for every bullock that might be taken by the enemy. In a day or two he got above a thousand bullocks. He sent Catechists and other Christians into the country, at the risk of their lives, who returned in a short time, and brought into the fort a great quantity of corn.
the fort was saved; and when all was over, he paid all the people, made them a small present, and sent them home.
At another time, the inhabitants of the Tanjore country were so miserably oppressed by the Madras Dubashes and others, that they quitted the country; in consequence of which all cultivation ceased, and every one dreaded a famine. The Rajah endeavoured to recall the people, promising that their oppressions should be removed, and justice should be done them; but they would not believe him. Mr. Schwartz was then desired by the Rajah to write letters to them, assuring them that, at his intercession, kindness should be shewn them. He was credited. Seven thousand came back in one day, and the rest of the inhabitants followed. He then exhorted them to exert themselves to the utmost at the time, for cultivation was nearly lost. They replied, "As you have shewed kindness to us, you shall not have reason to repent of it: we intend to work day and night, to shew our regard to you."
These facts, and other similar ones, were related by Mr. Schwartz, in a
But, in the beginning of Nqvember, 1797, a cold, which he had taken, became the occasion of a severe fit of illness. At that time great apprehensions were entertained for his life. God, however, was pleased so far to bless the use of the medicines, that were employed, that he was enabled once more to resume several of his occupations, although some diminution of the energy of his mind was observ
letter to the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge, (Feb. 1794) in vindication of himself and the mission, from the unjust charges of a gentleman in a newspaper. He closes his letter thus:
"I might have enlarged my account; but fearing that some characters might have suffered by it, I stop here. One thing, however, I affirm before God and man: That if Christianity, in its plain and undisguised form, was properly promoted, the country would not suffer, but be benefitted by it.
God, of his divine perfections, and of The knowledge of his mercy to mankind, may be abus. ed; but there is no other method of reclaiming mankind than by instructing them well. To hope that the Heathens will live a good life, without the knowledge of God, is a chimera.
"The praise bestowed on the Hea then of this country by many of our historians, is refuted by a close (I might almost say, superficial) inspec tion of their lives. Many historical works are more like romance than history. Many gentlemen here are astonished how some historians have prostituted their talents by writing fables.
"I am now at the brink of eternity; but, to this moment, I declare, that I do not repent of having spent forty three years in the service of my divine Master. Who knows but God may remove some of the great obstacles to the propagation of the gospel ?
Should a reformation take place among the Europeans, it would, no doubt, be the greatest blessing to this country."
able. But, in the beginning of February, 1798, just when Mr. Gericke had arrived with Mr. Holzberg, the missionary destined for Tanschaur, he was attacked with a dangerous complaint in his foot. The mortification, which threatened to supervene, was indeed prevented; but he sunk into such a state of debility, that he was obliged to be lifted and carried about like an infant.
Concerning the last days of his life, and his conversation on his death bed, Mr. Gericke writes thus :
"I returned on the 7th of February, 1798, from a short visit which I had made at Tirutchinapalli, to Tanschaur, where I found that Mr. Schwartz's leg was become very bad, and full of black spots, which were continually spreading. The physician had begun to apply the Peruvian bark in embrocations. As we had every hour to expect the dissolution of our beloved brother, the rest of the brethren requested that I would stay with them, and help them to bear the burden. But it was at the same time a great blessing to me to behold, in this expiring Christian, an edifying example of faith, hope, and resignation. When spiritval and heavenly things were the subjects of conversation, when he prayed, admonished, or spoke of the tranquillity and peace, which his soul enjoyed, through the mercy of God in Christ, it could never be perceived that his powers of recollection were impaired. Frequently he quoted texts of scripture, or verses out of hymns, which were very apposite, and always in the language of those to whom he
addressed himself. Till last Friday evening, he frequently said, that he did not yet think his end to be very near at hand, but that it would be attended with much pain. But since then, he said several times, 66 Now, I think, I shall soon go to my heavenly Father." Being once asked, whether he had the hope that, after his death, the kingdom of God would be further extended in this country? he answered, "Yes; but it will pass through trials and tribulation." Another time, when he was asked, whether he had any thing yet to say with regard to the congregation? he answered, "Do you help, that they may all come to heaven." He once said, "There is with many a good beginning of Christianity; but, if any one should object that there is nothing perfect to be seen yet, let him first examine himself." When we expressed ourselves rejoiced to see him so patient and resigned, he replied, "Human misery is universal; and I really suffer very little ;" and frequently repeated the words," Our faithful God helps in distress, and chastens with moderation. But how would it be if he should deal with us according to our sins? But yonder, pain will be no more; and for that we have to thank the Lord Jesus." To his Malabar attendants, who faithfully assisted him, he was very thankful, and said sometimes to us, "We must not complain much, were it only on account of these poor people, who certainly do their best, lest we should render their attendance more burdensome to them."
"On the 10th, in the morning, his tongue was quite parched,
furred, and blackish; and strong spasms in the bowels, with difficulty of breathing, came on. By his desire, we offered up a prayer, and thought this would be his last; but, towards evening, he again felt easier, and the fever had greatly abated. On the following day came Samuel, the physician, (who, however, had nothing to do with the patient in the capacity of a physician, but merely assisted in lifting him and applying the embrocations; and who yesterday announced to me his approaching dissolution) and said, "The Lord has worked a wonder; symptoms which yesterday gave reason to expect impending death have disappeared." The English physician also said, upon inspection of the foot, that he was astonished at the sudden amendment; adding, that he was no longer apprehensive that the patient would die of an external mortification, although a recovery was not to be expected,
"On the 12th, I intended, in the afternoon, to have set out on my return home. The patient also gave me my dismission, and said, "You intend then to leave us to day. Salute all the brethren, and tell them to attend always to the chief point. I
shall now soon go to the Lord Jesus if he will receive me, and not enter into judgment with me, but deal with me according to his mercy, all will go well with me, and I will praise him. He might reject us also on count of our works, because sin cleaves to them all." He thank ed God that he suffered him to leave the world in the midst of his faithful brethren; and that he had conducted things so, that
he should come to him in his greatest weakness, in order to extol Jesus, as the only Saviour, the Resurrection, and the Life. "Now," he added, " pray still once more with me." I knelt down with Mr. Kohlhoff, who, in the mean time, had entered the chamber, and adapted my prayer to the contents of the hymn, "To thee alone, Lord Jesus Christ," &c.
"After fresh dressings had been applied to the diseased foot, and we had given him some refreshment, and had him removed into another chamber, (which was done once every day, because the air in the close room was very much vitiated by the embrocations, the coal-fire used in preparing them, and the many attendants that were required) we for the first time perceived the extreme state of debility to which he was reduced, and he seemed even nearer to his dissolution than he had done the Saturday before. I was therefore again detained. In the afternoon he conversed much with Mr. Janicke. In the evening I came to him with the physician, whom he knew very well, and said to him, "Let us all take care that none of us be left behind." He expressed his gratitude for the attention of the physician and the assistance of his brethren and Malabar attendants. The latter did every thing in their power with the greatest alacrity: their love to their paternal teacher made every thing easy to them; and every word of instruction, which he spoke to them, they caught up with the greatest avidity, and delighted to be about him. The physician was much affected, and said, he hoped I
would not leave the patient and set out on my return, as he was so weak.
"This evening he suffered more than he had done before; for the lifting him and moving his body, on account of the embrocations, which it was necessary should be often repeated, and even sitting and lying in bed were extremely burthensome to him. But his patience and resignation did not diminish; not a complaint was heard from him; his sighs only expressed how much he suffered. I said to him, among other things, "God grant that we may one day, in our last extremity, await our dissolution in such peace, and such a happy frame as you, to our comfort and satisfaction, now enjoy." "May he grant it!" he rejoined, "in the richest measure.” All our hearts were moved by the affectionate energy with which he uttered these words.
"In the night between the 12th and 13th, he enjoyed some sleep in the intervals when he could be left quiet; and the following forenoon he fell into a kind of stupor; and his pulse were very feeble. When he awoke he spoke indeed; but only detached words were intelligible; however, he seemed clearly to understand whatever was spoken to him. We thought he was about to slumber thus out of the body; but about noon he became again more lively. We sung the hymn, "Christ is my life," &c. in which he began to join us. He spoke very humbly of himself, and in praise of his Redeemer, wishing to be dissolved, and to be with Christ. "Had it pleased him," he said, "that I
had remained here longer, I should have liked it, for then I might have spoken a word more to the poor and sick; but His will be done! May he only receive me in mercy! Into thy hands I commend my spirit ; thou hast redeemed me, thou faithful God!" The Malabar attendants afterwards sang the last verses of the hymn," Head full of wounds and bruises!" in which he frequently joined. He then rested a little; after which he desired to be raised up, and suddenly he opened his mouth, (out of which so much instruction and comfort, so much fervent prayer had issued till the 73d year of his life) and expired between four and five o'clock, in the arms of the faithful and affectionate Malabar fellow labourers of this place. It was very affecting to hear the wailing and lamentations of the inhabitants of the two Christian villages on both sides of the garden, which we could do the whole night through. The sorrow at having lost him, who had been their teacher, their comforter, their tutor, their benefactor, their adviser, their advocate, was universal. Not only we, the congregations, the schools and the mission, but the whole country has lost a father. Whoever had but known him, wept.
"On the following day, between four and five in the afternoon, we deposited his remains in the grave, which was dug in the church in the garden. Serfogee, the Tanschaur prince, whose tutor he was, came to see his corse before the coffin was nailed down, bedewed it with his tears, and accompanied it to the grave. The Malabar assistants wished to carry the body; but as Euro