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without an exception, prove, that the original signification of the word was every or every one, applicable to the separate individuals of any indefinite number. So far the point is established beyond the possibility of being controverted.
Modern authorities are equally decisive of the question. Skinner and Junius have already been cited. Bailey, who, as far as his definitions go, is more correct than Johnson, defines each by every one, giving it no other signification. The late compilers of dictionaries, having copied Johnson's definitions, are chargeable with the same inaccuracies.
In twenty passages of scripture out of twenty eight, cited in Cruden's Concordance, in which each is used, the word refers to more than two. The translators did not "confound terms," as the Reviewers insinuate; they used the word in its true sense, either as applicable to two or to any other number; and so is the word still used by every man who speaks English; nor, until Johnson's definition appeared, was it ever supposed that the word had any appropriate ref. erence to two. Each soldier in the army, and each ship in the navy are perfectly good English. Indeed each is applied to two, only for the same reason that it is to any other number, viz. because that is the whole number which is the subject of discourse.
There is one other authority in my favour, which, I presume, must be conclusive with these gentlemen, and this is, their own use of the word, The Reviewers say, "each must be used of two," but in the very number of the Review in which this criticism is found, they apply the word to a greater number. Page 10, "In a volume of sermons, each discourse must have its head and tail piece."
Surely the gentlemen do not mean a volume of two sermons only. Page 26, speaking of Courts Martial in general, they say, "The fundamental laws. by which they are governed, their different kinds, the analogy they bear to each other...." If the gentlemen are not satisfied with all the authorities cited, supported by their own, they would not be "persuaded though one should rise from the dead."
My remarks on either are equally well supported by authorities. To save trouble, the Reviewers are refer. red to Lye's Saxon Dictionary, where the senses of either are explained and the authorities cited. Lye defines the word by uterque and ambo. It was appropriately used for two, equiv. alent to each, when used of two only. See the authorities cited. Mat. ix. 17. xiii. 30. Gen. xxi. 31. xiii. 11, and others in Lye's Dictionary; to which I can add a multitude of passages, which I have marked on the margins of Saxon books, but the insertion of them would be of no use to readers in general. Its disjunctive use was anciently very rare, but since it is established by usage, I do not com. plain of the change; I contend only that the original sense of the word, "on either side," for" on each side," is still a legitimate use of the word, which no man has a right to proscribe. In poetry, it has a peculiar force and beauty; and it is not the man, who vindicates such ancient and long established usages, who "annihilates precision and introduces confusion;" but it is the learned critics, the Johnsons! and Lowths, who condemn such usages, without that mi nute attention to the history, progress, and present state of the language, which the intricate nature of the subject deserves. N. WEBSTER. (To be continued.)
An Account of the origin and progress of
In my last, I had mentioned my ap
pointment by the Committee of Mis sions, to the superintendence of edu. cation among the Cherokee Indians. In this I shall notice the progress of the mission. Upon my return home in the month of July, I had several interviews with the Chiefs of the na tion, and sent letters, or as they call them, talks, to their councils, in which
was stated the design and advantages of such an institution; taking care not to propose any thing, in the performance of which, I could not exceed the promise; as a single failure would have destroyed my credit and ruined the design. The effect was, that in October, at the time of the distribution of the annuity, a council, consisting of upwards of 2000 Indians, assembled, including all the Chiefs of the nation. Before this council I laid my plan, and stated all the points I conceived necessary to aid me in its execution.
After spending a day or two in close deliberation, I received their appro. bation in writing, with a declaration that they would send their children according to my wishes; at the same time they agreed to assist me in fixing a place for the school. The place was chosen near the Highwassee river, in a part of the nation most unlikely to be civilized. A school-house, and a house for the teacher were immediately erected. The school-house was so constructed that it might serve the children to eat in, and be comfortable for the lodging of the males, The females were appointed to sleep in the master's family. I was remarkably fortunate in the choice of a master; he was a man of prudence, good sense, and piety; with a heart fully set on the work. His family was conveniently small, consisting of a wife and one child.
All things being now fully prepared, the school was opened in the spring of 1804. In the course of the first week we had twenty-one children, who all gave flattering evidences of promising geniuses.
I had conceived it would be one of my greatest difficulties to keep the children at the school. In order to guard against this contemplated evil, I had agreed with the Chiefs, that if any of the children should leave the school without permission, or if per. mitted to go home should stay ten days longer than allowed, without a reasonable excuse, they should forfeit the clothing I had given them. The Chiefs were bound to send the clothes back, or on their refusal, then, at the distribution of the next annuity, I should have a right to deduct the amount from the dividend of such Chief, to be applied to the use of the school. This proved an effectual
check to their leaving the school, till they become so pleased, that checks were unnecessary.
With regard to order and discipline, I presume few schools can exceed this. Between inducements and strict discipline, the children were insensibly brought to yield entire submission to the regulations of the school.
At each examination a prize was proposed for the next examination, to be given to the one making the greatest progress. This was faithfully giv en according to promise. And lest the others should be depressed and discouraged, small presents were giv. en to each one according to his merits. All this was done, as much as possible, under the eye of their parents. As my design was to introduce Christianity, as the young mind should be capable of receiving it, the first principles of religion, as contained in the Shorter Catechism, were early taught, together with other short questions of a similar nature. Many hymns of praise were committed to memory from Dr. Watts' Divine Songs, Rippon's Selection, and other compositions. They were taught to sing plain and melodious tunes with a great deal of ease and sweetness. During all these exercises the utmost care was taken to impress them with solemnity, in order to avoid those habits of levity so often discovered among ourselves, when acquiring the music we expect to use in the worship of God. With one of these songs, a portion of Scripture, and prayer, the school was begun and closed each day. This acquisition of songs of praise was also useful, in assisting to open the minds of the parents to hear the truths designed to be communicated to them. While seated round in a convenient semi-circle, and the children in the midst, after communi cating a few ideas by an interpreter, (which was one of the children, as soon as they were capable of the service) the children would join in one of those songs of Zion. Then more instruction could be given, and then another song, and in this way the mind be kept open to the truth; and also the profiting of the children be made to ap pear to their parents and friends. I will not say music can transform, but sure I am, it has a remarkable tendency to soften, the savage mind. I
To the Presbytery of Union,
WE your Committee beg leave to report, that we attended at and examined the Highwassee Indian school, and do highly approve of the progress the children have made in every branch of literature they have attempted: reading, writing, cyphering, spelling off the book, and singing spiritual songs. Their progress is really flattering in those different branches, and perhaps is not exceed. ed in any school amongst ourselves. They appear to understand the things they have attempted to learn, as well as they are generally understood by white children. We highly approve the method of teaching and the order of the school, and the children appear to have as just conceptions of order, and as cheerfully to submit to discipline, as any children.
JOSH. B. LAPSLEY,
N. B. The School contains from 45 to 50 Scholars.
Marysville, Feb. 25, 1807.
IT is hereby certified, that on the 3d of January, 1807, I spent some time in the Highwassee Indian School, established by the Rev. Gideon Blackburn. The number of the scholars was near fifty. Their progress in literature, and their advancement in civilization exceed all belief. The modesty of their deportment, the eave and decorum of their manners, is not sur passed by any school of white children I have ever seen, nor have I ever witnessed greater docility, or submission to discipline, in the course of my life.
Extract of a Letter from the Rev. Dr. William Carey, dated at Calcutta Jan. 20, 1807, to the Rev. Dr. Staughton, of Philadelphia.
MY DEAR BROTHER,
By the return of Mr. M'Farlane, I take the opportunity of sending a few hasty lines, to inform you of the changes which have taken place since I wrote you last.
Through a severe affliction brother Biss has been obliged to leave his station here and return to Europe. I hope, that the Lord, who knows the wants of all his churches, will eventually overrule this very afflicting providence for the good of his church, and for the furtherance of the gospel. He will probably arrive in America before this reaches you. If he be still with you, give my, and all our brethren and sisters' love to him and sister Biss.*
When captain Wickes was here we were directed to plan a mission to the Burman empire. I expected to have been able to say, that our brethren are gone thither; but the ship is delayed a day or two for a pilot. They came down this evening, thinking to go on board to-morrow. I believe they will go the next day. May the Lord send prosperity!
When captain Wickes was with us he attended a meeting, which was held at a place (formerly an idol temple) belonging to the Rev. Mr. Brown, first chaplain of the presidency, on ac. count of a pious clergyman being dis missed to his station. In that same place we this day met, and commend
Mr. Biss died on his passage to America, about four weeks after his embarkation from Serampore; leaving a widow and four children, who are now in Philadelphia, and to whom, we doubt not, all that attention will be paid, which their situation requires. It is said, that Mrs. Biss contemplates a return to India. As. Mag.
ed our brethren Chater and Mardon to God, for the work to which they are called. Little did the builder of that edifice think to what purpose it would be appropriated. From thence have seven ministers of the gospel been dismissed to their various stations within a few months; and in these services churchmen, independents and baptists, have united as brethren in the most cordial manner: I think with a cordiality unknown in England. Two baptists, two independents, and three churchmen, have been from thence sent to their work.
This day we heard a long letter from a minister, who has lately gone to visit the Christian churches and the Jews in the south. He has found much real Christianity among some in those parts, and has just visited a number of Syrian Chiristian churches hid among the mountains of Malabar, which, it is supposed, were planted in the fourth century. These Christians had never seen a printed Bible, but have the Syriac Bible in manuscript. Some of their manuscripts are very ancient. Some of them did not know that there were any other Christians in the world besides themselves and the Roman Catholics at Goa, whom they abhor, having been severely persecuted by them. Some of the bishops talked about the necessity of the religion of the heart, and I should hope the fear of God is among them.
An order was sent out from the court of directors to new model the college of Fort William," and to make
The college of Fort William, in Bengal, was instituted in 1800, upon a suggestiou by the marquis of Wellesley. It met with great opposition at first, but this was overcome by the cogent reasons urged in favour of the establishment, from which important advantages were expected. Suitable instructers are employed in teaching the languages of the country, with others adapted to be useful in India. Nor is English composition neglected; but, together with the study of oriental dialects, proper attention is paid to the language of the mother country, to the sciences, arts, and improvements of Europe. The meritorious student is rewarded by a degree of honour, which the college confers; by
very great reductions in the expenses. In the old state I was teacher of Bengalee, Sangskrit and Mahratta, with a salary of five hundred rupees per month. Last week I received a letter from government acquainting me, that I was appointed by the governor general in council professor of the Bengalee and Sangskrit languages, with a salary of one thousand rupees per month, or one hundred twenty five pounds sterling. Thus the earth helpeth the woman. This will enable us to do something more for our Lord.t
the attention of those in power, by
resolved to devote nothing to private use.
Remarks respecting the Christians found in Malabar, mentioned in the foregoing letter.
The information given in this letter is very interesting. We cannot but hope that Providence has separated these Christians from the rest of the Christian world, for the purpose of making them unsuspected depositaries of important truth; that from the mountains of Malabar new light Tay arise for the confirmation of Christian faith; that manuscripts will be discovered, which will afford additional proof of the uncorrupted preservation of the Scriptures, and assist in settling disputed passages of the sacred text. Among a people so long secluded in mountains, sufficient traces we hope may be found of ancient usages and modes of thinking to remove the obscurity in which some parts of the New Testament are yet involved. Perhaps not only the sacred writings, but other valuable works of antiquity may be found on this retired spot. We are also anxious to know what views these Christians entertain of the leading doctrines of the gospel. But the letter is not particular enough to gratify the curiosity which it excites.
We are not informed of the evidence on which it is supposed, that these churches were planted in Malabar in the 4th century. It is probable that they have some traditions respecting their origin; and their religious customs may help to fix the time when they were separated from the great body of Eastern Christians. It is well known that in the beginning of the 4th century, Christians were cruelly persecuted in the Eastern part of the Roman empire, under Diocletian and Galerius. This event may have driven these churches into the interior of India.
We learn from ecclesiastical historians, that the Nestorians, a numerous sect of Christians, which arose in the 5th century, and which in two centuries overspread the countries of the East, introduced Christianity very early into India; and to this day, many Nestorians, or, as they are commonly called, Christians of St. Thomas, are found in Malabar. It may be supposed by some, that the churches mentioned in the letter are of this sect, especially as the Nestorians "have
been severely persecuted by the Catholics at Goa." But it is presumed, that our informant, who visited the other churches in Malabar, and who must have known the very obvious peculiarities of the Nestorians, could not have been deceived on this point. If no traces of the Nestorian controversy should be found in these churches, this will be an argument of their great antiquity, since the Nestorians after the 5th century filled the countries nearest to India, and penetrated India itself.
It is hoped that the missionaries in India will feel interested in obtaining all possible information respecting these Christians. They will naturally direct their first attention to the manuscripts of the Syriac Bible in their possession. It is well known that the Old Syriac holds the highest rank among the versions of Scripture. Biblical criticism will receive great assistance by a discovery of the state of this version in the 4th century.
Perhaps further inquiry will disap. point the hopes we have here expressed. But let it be observed, that we have expressed not our belief, but only our hopes; and where the heart is interested, how natural is it to indulge in hope!
Had we not already expressed our sentiments at large on the subject of the following paper, we should have had much to say on this occasion. It is with peculiar pleasure we observe, that the reasons in favour of a GENERAL ASSOCIATION in this Commonwealth have received so much attention, and, are more and more satisfactory to those who candidly examine them. Late events strengthen the hope, that the association will become general, and that the important ends, contemplated by the friends of Zion, will be accomplished. Several Associations, not represented at the late meeting at Windsor, are well known to be friendly to the plan, and will doubtless act in its favour before the next meeting; which, being appointed in such a central place, will, we trust, comprise a much larger number of associations, than any previous meeting. The objects of