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Entered, according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1832, by

CAREY AND LEA, In the Clerk's office of the District Court of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

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ENCYCLOPÆDIA AMERICANA.

Stevben, Frederic William Augustus, vere censure upon the negligent. Nubaron von ; a distinguished Prussian offi- merous anecdotes are related illustrative cer, who attached himself to the Ameri- of the generosity, purity and kindness of can cause in the revolution of 1776. He his disposition. After the treacherous dehad been aid-de-camp to Frederic the fection of Arnold, the baron held his name Great, and had attained the rank of lieu- in the utmost abhorrence. One day, he was tenant-general in his army. Sacrificing inspecting a regiment of light horse, when his honors and emoluments in Europe, that navne struck his ear. The man was Steuben came to America in 1777, and ordered to the front, and presented an extendered his services to congress, as a vol- cellent appearance. Steuben told him unteer in their army, without claiming that he was too respectable to bear the any rank or compensation. He received name of a traitor; and at his request the the thanks of that body, and joined the soldier adopted that of the baron, whose main army under the commander-in- bounty he afterwards experienced, and chief at Valley Forge. Baron Steuben brought up a son by the same name. At soon rendered himself particularly useful the siege of Yorktown, baron Steuben to the Americans, by disciplining the was in the trenches at the head of a diforces. On the recommendation of gen- vision, where he received the first offer eral Washington, congress, in May, 1778, of lord Cornwallis to capitulate. The appointed the baron inspector-general of marquis de la Fayette appeared to relieve the army, with the rank of major-general. him in the morning ; but, adhering to the His efforts in this capacity were continu- European etiquette, the baron would not ed with remarkable diligence, until he quit his post until the surrender was comhad placed the troops in a situation to pleted or hostilities recommenced. The withstand the enemy. In the estimates matter being referred to general Washof the war office, 5000 extra muskets ington, the baron was suffered to remain were generally allowed for waste and de- in the trenches till the enemy's flag was struction in the army; but such was the struck. After the capture of Cornwallis, exact order under the superintendence of when the superior American officers were Steuben, that in his inspection return, but paying every attention to their captives, three muskets were deficient, and those Steuben sold his favorite horse in order to accounted for. A complete scheme of raise money to give an entertainment to exercise and discipline, which he com- the British officers, as the other majorposed, was adopted in the army by the generals had previously done. His watch direction of congress.

He possessed the be had previously disposed of to relieve the right of command in the line, and at one wants of a sick friend. On another occaperiod was at the head of a separate de- sion, when he desired to reciprocate the intachment in Virginia. At the battle of vitations of the French officers, he ordered Monmouth, he was engaged as a volun- his people to sell his silver spoons and forks, teer. When reviewing the troops, it was saying it was anti-republican to make use his constant custom to reward the disci- of such things, and adding, that the gentleplined soldier with praise, and to pass se- men should have one good dinner if he ate

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his meals with a wooden spoon for ever paper-mill, and a flour and cotton facafter. Steuben continued in the army till tory, also moved by steam. There are the close of the war, perfecting its disci- two printing-offices, an academy, two pline. The silence and dexterity of his banks, the county buildings, and many movements surprised the French allies. shops for mechanics and traders. The He

possessed the particular esteem of gen- country around it, on the Virginia as well eral Washington, who took every proper as the Ohio side of the river, is rich and opportunity to recommend him to con- populous. gress; from which body he received several STEVENS, George Alexander, a whimsums of money, that were chiefly expend- sical and eccentric character, was born in ed in acts of charity, or in rewarding the London, and brought up to a mechanical good conduct of the soldiers.

business, which he quitted to become a Upon the disbandment of the conti- strolling player. In 1751, he published nental army at Newburgh, many affec

a poem

entitled Religion, or the Libertine tionate bonds, formed amidst the danger Repentant, which was succeeded, in 1754, and hardships of a long and arduous ser- by the Birthday of Folly. These were vice, were to be broken asunder for ever. followed by a novel called Tom Fool, At this season of distress, the benevolent and the Dramatic History of Master EdSteuben exerted himself to alleviate the ward and Miss Ann. He subsequently forlorn condition of many. He gave his invented his entertainment, called a Leclast dollar to a wounded black, to procure ture on Heads, which possessed no small him a passage home. Peace being estab- portion of drollery, and became very poplished, the baron retired to a farm in the ular. Several of his songs have also been vicinity of New York, where, in the socie- much admired. ty of his friends, and the amusements of STEVENS, Edward, an officer in the books and chess, he passed his time as American revolution, was a native of Vircomfortably as his exhausted purse would ginia. At the battle of the great bridge, allow. The state of New Jersey had near Norfolk, he commanded a battalion given him a small farm, and that of New of riflemen. Soon afterwards, he was York 16,000 acres of land in the county made a colonel. At the battle of Brandyof Oneida. The exertions of colonel wine, he was greatly instrumental in savHamilton and general Washington sub- ing the American forces, and received the sequently procured him an annuity of public thanks of the commander-in-chief. $2500, from the general government. He He was honored in the same way for his built a log house, and cleared 60 acres of behavior at the battle of Germantown. his tract of land, a portion of which he He was soon afterwards intrusted with partitioned out, on easy terms, to twenty the command of a brigade, and despatchor thirty tenants, and distributed nearly ed to the southern army. He evinced his a tenth among his aid-de-camps and ser- wonted gallantry in the battle of Camden. vants. In this situation he lived content. In that of Guilford court-house, he reedly, until the year 1795, when an apo- ceived a severe wound in his thigh ; but, plectic attack put an end to his life, in his before quitting the field, he brought off his sixty-fifth year. An abstract of his sys- troops in good order. He closed his miltem of military manæuvres was published itary career at the siege of Yorktown. in 1779. The year preceding his death, From the foundation of the state constihe published a letter on the established tution until the year 1790, he was a prommilitia and military arrangements. (For inent member of the senate of Virginia. further information concerning baron He died in August, 1820. Steuben, see Johnson's Life of Greene, STEWARD. The lord high steward of Thatcher's Journal, Garden's Añecdotes.) England was formerly an officer who

STEUBENVILLE, a flourishing post-town had the supervision and regulation, next of Ohio, on Ohio river, is the seat of jus- under the king, of all affairs of the realm, tice for Jefferson county. It was laid out both civil and military. The office was in 1798, with streets crossing each other hereditary, belonging to the earls of Leiat right angles. In 1810, it contained cester until forfeited to Henry III. (See 800 inhabitants; in 1817, 2032; and in Montfort.) The p,wer of this officer was 1830, 2937. It is 147 miles east by north so great, that the office has for a long time from Columbus, and thirty-eight west of only been granted for some particular act, Pittsburg; lat. 40° 25 N.; lon. 80° 35 as the trial of a peer on indictment for W. It contains three churches, a market- a capital offence, the solemnization of a house, a woollen factory,—the machinery coronation, &c. The lord high steward of which is moved by steam,--a steam is the first of the nine great officers of the crown.-The lord steward of the of the Human Mind (1792) was succeedhousehold is the chief officer of the king's ed by Outlines of Moral Philosophy, for the household: his authority extends over all Use of Sudents (1793); Doctor Adam officers and servants of the royal house- Smith's Essays on Philosophical Subjects, hold except those of the chamber, chapel with an Account of the Life and Writings and stable. Under the lord steward, in of the Author (1801); An Account of the counting-house, are the treasurer of the Life and Writings of Doctor Robertthe household, cofferer, controller, clerks son (1803); An Account of the Life and of the green cloth, &c. It is called the Writings of Doctor Thomas Reid. The mecounting-house because the household ac- moirs of Smith, Reid and Robertson were counts are kept in it. (See Courts.) afterwards collected into one volume, with

STEWARD, in naval affairs, is an officer additional notes. In the election of a in a ship of war, appointed by the purser mathematical professor of the university to distribute the different species of pro- of Edinburgh, Mr. Stewart was reflected visions to the officers and crew.

on for his conduct to the successful canSTEWART, sir James Denham, an emi- didate, and he therefore thought proper to nent political writer, was born at Edin- publish a statement of facts relative to burgh, Oct. 10, 1713. His father was so- that election (1805). In 1796, he again licitor-general of Scotland. After having took a number of pupils under his care; been admitted to the bar, he travelled on and, besides adding a course of lectures the continent five years, and formed an on political economy to the usual courses intimacy with the Pretender, whom he of his chair, he repeatedly supplied the aided in his attempt in 1745. On the place of his colleagues in case of illness failure of that attempt, Stewart retired to or absence. In 1806, he accompanied France, and, in 1755, to Flanders. Here his friend, the earl of Lauderdale, on his he published a Vindication of Newton's mission to Paris, and, in 1810, relinquishChronology, a Treatise on German Coins, ed his professorship, and retired to Kinand a Dissertation on the Doctrine and neil house, about twenty miles from EdPrinciples of Money. He returned to inburgh, where he continued to reside till Scotland in 1763, where he was allowed his death, June 11, 1828. His publicato remain unmolested, and concluded his tions subsequently to his removal were Inquiry into the Principles of Political Philosophical Essays (1810); Dissertation Economy—a work of much research and on the Progress of Metaphysical and Ethacuteness, though the style and method ical Philosophy, prefixed to the Suppleare imperfect. He obtained a full pardon ment to the Encyclopædia Britannica (unin 1771, and afterwards published various fortunately rendered imperfect by the auworks of a philosophical and politico-eco- thor's ignorance of German philosophy, nomical character. His complete works and left incomplete in regard to ethical were published in 1805 (in 6 vols., 8vo.). philosophy—a deficiency partly supplied He died in 1780.

by Mackintosh's Essay on the Progress of Stewart, Dugald, was born in 1753, Ethical Philosophy); a second volume of and was the son of doctor Matthew Stew- the Philosophy of the Human Mind (1813), art, professor of mathematics in the uni- with a continuation (1827); and the Phiversity of Edinburgh. He was educated losophy of the Active and Moral Powers at the high school, and admitted, at the (1828). Stewart was a man of extensive age of thirteen, as a student in the college, and various acquisition, but not of a prounder the tuition of doctor Blair and doc- found or original mind. As a writer, he is tor Ferguson. Such was the progress he too often heavy and prolix, though bis style made, that, at the age of eighteen, he was is clear, pure and elaborate. În philosoappointed to read lectures for his father, phy, he was a disciple of Reid, whose which he continued to do till the death of method and principles he followed with the latter. In 1780, he received a num- little deviation. (See Philosophy.) ber of pupils into his house, and, in 1783, STEWART, John; commonly called visited the continent in company with the Walking Stewart, from his pedestrian marquis of Lothian. When doctor Fergu- feats; an eccentric individual, who wanson was sent to North America on a mis- dered, on foot, over a great part of the sion, Mr. Stewart taught his class in mor- habitable globe. He was born in Lonal philosophy during his absence; and, in don, and, having received the rudiments 1785, when the professor resigned, Mr. of education at the Charter-house, was Stewart was chosen to fill his chair,in which sent out, in 1763, as a writer to Madras. he continued many years with great rep- Before he had been in that situation quite utation. His Elements of the Philosophy two years, he wrote a letter to the directors, telling them that he was born for nobler carefully finished, but never completed the pursuits than to be a copier of invoices remainder. He made several copies, all and bills of lading to a company of gro- varying from the original. His death occers, haberdashers, and cheese-mongers ;" curred at Boston, in July, 1828; and such and a few weeks after, he took his leave of his works as could be collected were of the presidency. Prosecuting his route exhibited for the benefit of his family. over Hindoostan, he walked to Delhi, to Mr. Stewart was gifted with uncommon Persepolis, and other parts of Persia, colloquial powers, and his genius for portraversing the greater part of the Indian trait painting was of the highest order. peninsula, and visiting Abyssinia and Nu- STHENIC DISEASES. (See Brown, John.) bia. Entering the Carnatic, he obtain- STHENO; one of the Gorgons. (q. v.) ed the favor of the nabob, who made him STICHOMANCY (from orixos, a line, verse, bis private secretary ; and to this circum- and yavrsia, prophecy); a kind of divinastance he, in his latter days, owed his sup- tion, in use even among the Romans. port, the British house of commons voting Verses from the Sibylline Books (q. v.) were him £15,000 in liquidation of his de- written on small slips of paper, which mands upon the nabob. Quitting the ser- were shaken in a vessel, and one of them vice of this prince, he set out to walk to was drawn out, in order to discover some Seringapatam, where Tippoo Saib compel- intimation of future events. Something led him to enter his army, with a commis- similar has often been practised by Chrission as captain of sepoys. After serving tians, putting a pin at hazard between the some time in this capacity, sir James Sib- leaves of a closed Bible. The verse bald, the commissioner for settling the which was pointed out served as an oraterms of peace between the presidency cle. Even at the present time, this is not and the sultan, procured his liberation. unfrequently done by the superstitious; and Stewart then started to walk to Europe, some sects even resort to it for guidance crossing the desert of Arabia, and arriv- on important occasions. (See Bibliomancy.) ing at length safely at Marseilles. Thence Stick, Gold; an officer of superior he proceeded, in the same manner, rank in the English life-guards, so called, through France and Spain, to his native who is in immediate attendance upon the country; and, having walked through king's person. When his majesty gives England, Scotland and Ireland, he cross- either of his regiments of life-guards to ed the Atlantic, and perambulated the U. an officer, he presents him with a gold States of America. The last ten years stick. The colonels of the two regiments of his life were passed in London, where wait alternately month and month. The he died in 1822.

one on duty is then called gold stick in STEWART, Robert, marquis of Lon- waiting ; and all orders relating to the lifedonderry. (See Londonderry.)

guards are transmitted through him. DurSTEWART, Gilbert, an eminent portrait ing that month he commands the brigade, painter, was born at Newport, Rhode Island, receives all reports, and communicates them in 1757, gave early manifestations of to the king.--Silver stick : the field officer his fondness for the pencil, and was sent of the life-guards whenon duty is so called. to London, where he was placed under Stigma (Greek); with the Greeks and the care of Benjamin West. In the execu- Romans, a mark impressed with a hot iron tion of portraits, the pupil soon surpassed on the foreheads of slaves who had run the master. In 1784, he was established as away or committed theft. The Greeks one of the first portrait painters of London, used a o, signifying Geuntos (fugiendus) and had, in the exhibition of that year, sey- or peuttikos (runaway), and the Romans eral full lengths of distinguished individ- an F, signifying fur or fugitivus. A black uals. He lived elegantly and gayly ; but coloring substance was put in the wound. it is believed that, notwithstanding his Such slaves were called stigmatici, inscripgreat success, he was obliged, by pecuniary ti, literati, oriyuarial, oriywves. The Samidistresses, to remove to Dublin. In 1790, ans, who freed many slaves, and admitted he returned to his native country, from them to office, were called, in derision, which he never again dep ed. He re- hol vypappator, literati. This name, howsided successively in New York, Phila- ever, may have had another origin, as delphia and its neighborhood, Washing- many believe. Prisoners of war were ton, and last in Boston, continuing to also branded, as the slave-traders now paint with unabated power, although for brand the negroes with

the marks of their years racked by the gout. Soon after his several owners. (See Slavery.) Recruits return to America, he painted the best also were burned in the hand, generally portrait of Washington. The head he with the name of the general. This was

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