Imatges de pÓgina

: The first is a capital picture in Surgeon's-hall, which represents Henry the Eighth as giving the charter to the company of surgeons. In this picture the character of the King's bluff haughtiness is well sustained, and all the heads of the company are finely executed. The second is a large piece in the hall of Bridewell, representing Edward the Sixth in the act of delivering to the Lord Mayor che, charter which converted the palace of Bridewell into an hospital and a workhouse. It is believed that this piece was not complete ed by Holbein, as both he and Edward died quickly after the donation. The third and fourth were two large pictures exhibiting the Triumphs of Riches and Poverty. From a fight of these pictures, Zucchero formed a very high opinion of the genius of Holbein. There is nothing for which his name has more frequently been mentioned than for the picture of Sir Thomas. More's family; though whether that picture now exists, is extremely doubtful. Holbein's fame was fo thoroughly established, even during his life, that the Italian Masters deigned to borrow from him. Michael Angelo Caravaggio, in particular, was much indebted to him in two different pictures. So great an admirer was Rubens of his works, that he himself made fome drawings of his Dance of Death, and recommended it to be studied by young painters.

The talents of Holbein were not confined to his pictures. He was an architect, a modeller, a carver; and was excellent in designing ornaments. Of his architecture there is nothing now standing but the beautiful porch at the earl of Pembroke's, at Wilcon, from which, and from his drawings, it is evident, that he had greaç natural taste. A noble monument of his genius, the Gateway at Whitehall, has some years since been demolished. It is supposed that the beginning of the reformation in building was owing to Holbein. Besides painters, Henry the Eighth had several artists of note in his service. Pietro Torregiano, an eminent sculptor, was employed by him, and received a thousand pounds for the superb tomb of Henry the Seventh. Among many other artists encouraged by the king, John Mustyan is recorded as his arras-maker, John de Mayne as his seal-graver, and Richard Atfyl as his graver of Itones.


* b

Music was an art that was in some degree of cultivation: but neither the secular nor the sacred parts of it were carried to any such perfection as to be worthy of notice in this place. Concerning the king, it is said that he composed a song and an anthem. His love for the art displayed itself in the care which he took that his children should be well instructed in mufic.

Among the encouragers of learning, Henry the Eighth has undoubtediy a right to be placed, though his conduct was not uniform in this respect, and he shines more as the patron of the arts of design, than as the promoter of general literature. After the dissolution of the monasteries, some noble litesary projects were formed ; and, at first, the king appeared very zealous for their being carried into execution. But such were the folly and extravagance with which his newly acquired revenues were diffipated, that the liberal schemes which had been planned, never took effect. Perhaps it may be regarded as some atonement for this fault, that Henry, towards the close of his life, became the founder of Trinity College, in Cambridge.

With regard to the point we are now considering, Queen Catherine deserves to be recorded with peeuliar honour, · Besides the encouragement she gave to the study of the Scriptures, and the cause of the Reformation, she rendered a singular piece of service to the University of Cambridge, on a very critical occasion. When an act had passed which threw all colleges, chantries, and free chapels into the king's disposal, the heads of the University were under the most alarming apprehension for the fate of their important and long established institutions. In this exigency they applied to the queen, and intreated her intercession with the king in their behalf, which she exerted so effectually, that the Colleges were preserved.

Two of the most eminent promoters of learning in this period, were Richard Fox, bishop of Winchester, and Care dinal Wolsey, Fox was the founder of Corpus Christi college, at Oxford; in which he instituted two professors for the Greek and Latin languages. This philological establishment may be regarded as the first conspicuous instance of an attempt to depart from the narrow plan of


education which had hitherto been held sacred in the uni, versities of England. The Latin professor was expressly directed to extirpate barbarism from the new society; and it was appointed that his lectures should not be confined within the private limits of the college, but lie open to the students of Oxford in general. Bishop Fox enjoined the Greek lecturer to explain the best classics in that language ; and the choice of authors is extremely judicious. The poets, historians, and orators, which were recommended by the founder, were of the purest kind, and such as are most esteemed in the present improved state of ancient literature. It is remarkable, that this liberal prelate, when he formed his plan of study, did not insticute a lecturer in philosophy for his college, as had hitherto been almost the constant practice in literary foundations. Perhaps he suspected that such an endowment would not have coincided with his new course of erudition; and would only have served to encourage those subtle and trifling distinctions of the schoolmen, which had so long choaked the paths of science, and obitructed the progress of useful knowledge. Corpus Chrifti college has been adorned by various learned men, and dignified ecclefiaftics, of eminent reputation. The same may be asserted concerning Brase-nose college, which received its full establishment in this reign. Its first and chief founder was William Smyth, bishop of Lincoln; and the design was carried to perfection by his relation, fir Richard Sutton.

The happy beginnings in favour of a new and a rational system of academical education, which had for some time appeared, and which had been so well cherished by bishop Fox, were seconded by the munificent spirit of Cardinal Wolsey. A public chair, at Oxford, was founded by him in the year 1519, for rhetoric and humanity; soon after which another was erected' for teaching the Greek language. Both these appointments were accampanied with ample salaries. But the highest literary glory of cardinal Wolsey is his having been the founder of Christ-church, the noblest college of the largest and most illustrious university in the world. It would not be easy to do justice to this institution. · The magnificence of its buildings, and the extent

of of its foundations, justly call for adıniration: but its great eit splendour is derived from the deans who have governed it, the bilhops who have been educated in it, the canons by whom it has been adorned, and the learned men it has produced. It will never be forgotten that Locke was a Itudent of Christ-church.

Two colleges were citablished at Cambridge during this reign. The first was St. Mary Magdalen's college, which had its beginning from the liberality of Edward Stafford, duke of Buckingham, and was completed by Thomas bason Audley of Walden, Lord High Chancellor of England. Among the bishops which have sprụng from this seminary, it may justly boast of Edmund Grindal, Brian Walton, and Richard Cumberland. In the catalogue of its other learned men, we find the names of Dr. James Duport, the eminent Grecian; Dr. William Howell, the historian; Samuel Pepys, esq. the famous naval writer, and collector of manuscripts; and Dr. Daniel Waterland, noted for his elaborate vindications of the Trinity, and for some other publications of greater value.

The other inftitution established at Cambridge in the time of Henry che Eighth, was the noble and extenfive foundation of Trinity college, and which, indeed, is the prime glory of that university. Of this college the king himself had the honour of being the founder; and the magnificence and munificence of its structure and endowments, are worthy of a great prince. In literary reputation it hath always lood upon high ground. Among its bishops or its mafters, iç reckons John Whitgift, John Overall, John Wilkins, John Pearson, Isaac Barrow, Edward Fowler, Richard Bentley, Nicholas Clagget, kobert Smith, and Zachary Pearce. Its statesmen, its critics, its poets, its philofophers, its divines, it would not be eafy to enumerate; and, to crown the whole, it can boast of having produced a Bacon and a Newton *.

Burnet, Biographia Britannica, Hume, Millar, Warton, Pinkerton, Walpole, Bentham, Balard, Anthony Wood, Berkenhout, &c. &c.



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