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of these charges, fir John Bur. vived his acquital only a
Proceedings of the States of Holland. inftitution of a College of Tribunes ar
Utrobi. States withdraw to Amersfort. Capture of Elburg and Hard
tem. Stadtholder is deprived of the Office of Captain General. In the rise of chored internations in fuch
, as colmake it acurable to tenis the republic of Holland, which considerable part of it, that things have fince produced the most me. should remain in their present fitumorable effects. We endeavoured ation, it may not be an unfavourto investigate the spirit and princi- able circumstance, for three inde. ples of conduct of the two old pendent parties or bodies to exitt, parties in the common-wealth, the of which one may serve as a kind party of the states, and the party of mediator or umpire, to prevent of the house of Orange ; and we the mutual encroachments of the called the attention of the reader to other two. But this was not the a new set of men, proceeding upon case with the republic of Holland. different views, and pursuing an There was not a party, there was object, which had hitherto been not an individual in the country, entirely negleed in the progress that wished to see things remain in of the Dutch affairs. This party
the fituation of the year 1785. has been commonly and juftly styled The states had encroached in vari: the democratical party. We found, ous instances upon the
prerogaas may naturally be expected, a tives, and refifted the dispositions certain degree of shock and confu- of the stadtholder, and the party fion refulting from the birth of this of the prince earnefly delired to new party, which was not regarded see those prerogatives reinstated and with a favourable eye, either by confirmed. On the other hand, the prince or the oligarchy. They those who had advanced thus far, had indeed originally owed their were not contented with what they existence to the party of the ftates, had done, but desired to advance who suggested the idea of the insti- farther. They wished to reduce tution of the Dutch volunteers in the prince as nearly as possible to a 1783, as a balance to the regular cypher in the state, and to provide army of the republic, which they that no individual should hence. Tuspected of being partial to the forth be able to relift the measures prince of Orange. But they had and system of policy they should long seen the progress of the volun- think proper to adopt. Still lefs reers with an unapproving eye, and, satisfied than either the states or in the effects which the institution the prince of Orange, was the par. produced, they were perhaps ready ty of the democracy. As they felt, to repent of their concern in giving perhaps more strongly chan either birth to it.
of the others, the supposed recti. 1787
tude tude of their pursuit, they were vered by his ambaflıdor on the more spirited in their conduct and eighteenth of Septembar a memobold in their measures. In this rial to the states of Holland, and situation, and in the crisis that must another to the affembly of the itates neceflarily result, it was indispenf- general. In the firit of these he ible, that there should be some sort obfervei!, that he had hoped to have of coalition or confederacy among feen far different consequences rethe three parties, so as to bring the fult from his former friendly repreforce of the state to act equally in tentations to the republic. How every point in the ultimate extre great then were his furprize and mity. If an union were effered of regret, when he learned, that, intwo entire parties, and if no foreign tead of reinstating the prince of power interfered in the contest, to Orange in any of his prerogatives, those two parties the victory might they had recently deprived him of reasonably be expected to fail. Put the command of the garrison of such an union was not completely the Hague, an appointment indifeffected. The states of the province putably annexed to the dignity of of Holland, as we have seen, en: his rank. The king desired not to tered into concert with the demo. intrude himself into the interior cracy of Utrecht, and thus impli. concerns of a free fate, but he citly with the whole democratical could not be indifferent to the forparty; while the states of the pro. tune and happiness of the prince vince of Utrecht now, as the states stadtholder. He concluded with of the province Guelderland had offering to the states his medition, done before, entered into concert and affuring them, that, if they with the prince of Orange. The would accept of it, he would conimmediate resuit of this combina- duct himself with the stricteit motion was the forcible introduction deration and impartiality. Anoof a garrison by the prince, into ther circumstance, from which the the town of Amerstoit, in the prince appears to have promised month of August 1785; while on himself tome advantage, was the the other hand he lost, at leait pro opposition of five states of the union tempore, the command of the garric to the preliminaries, that had been son of the Hague, and was induced concluded between the republic and to withdraw himself from the place the emperor. Rumours were inof his usual residence, in the follow- dutiriously propagated, that the ing September.
perfons who negociated these preThis period was a sort of crisis liminaries, had acted rather upon in the affairs of the fladtholder, and the private instructions of cerrain it was voluntarily accelerated by distinguished individuals, than upon the prince himself. Accordingly any public authority, and that their his partisans both at home and a conduct would infallibly be made broad, endeavoured to bring tor- the subject of investigation and puward at once all chofe circumliances nifhiment. But the opposition of that might be tavourable to his thefe five provinces did not prove cause, and appeared to expect to lattiny. The preliminaries were secure their victory by the magni. from the first highly acceptable to tude of their effort. The king of the alates of Holland, and, as those Prussia, who has been filent from llates would probably in the end the spring of the year 1784, deli. pay threc fourths of the fum for
the redemption of Maestricht, pected, in an underhand manner which was the popular objection added fuel to the flame. The ruto the treaty, it would have been mult had already continued some absurd in a high degree for the days, before the oligarchy had cxother fix obftinately to oppote. erted itself for its suppretsion. But The lait circumitance, from which of all kinds of inattention and nego the partisans of the stadtholder let, an inattention to the destrucpredicted the happiest confequen- tive proceedings of a lawless popuces, was the conversion of the lace, is least to be admitted in a states of Utrecht, who had for a wise government. The states were long time remained in a flate of therefore right in this instance in indecition, between the choice of not waiting for the effect of exporevils offered for their acceptance by tulations, which had already been the stadtholder and the democracy, fruitless; but suddenly and decibut had now ultima:ely declared tively taking upon themselves the themselves for the former.
remedy of an alarming abuse. They It was probibly with a view to were obliged, having once assumed these cireumstances, and a desire to the command of the garrison, to give them their full effect, that the retain it for a period, sufficient to iladtholder withdrew from his re- ascertain that the tumult was clearly fidence at the Hague, and thus by subfided. But the precipitation of his apparent degradation expected the ftadtholder allowed them no to engage the sympathy and indig. time for the exercise of this prenation of all inen in his favour. caurion. They affumed the como Accordingly, in the limits of the re- mand of the garrison on the eighth ; public, he gained an apparent pre- the prince withdrew from his reliponderance in the provincial affem- dence on the fourteenth of Septemblies of Guelderland, of Utrecht, ber. He abdicated his trust; he of Zealand, and even of Friesland; obviously deferted the pursuit of for which province the princess of his immediate interest. He depriv. Orange set out from the Hague, ed them of all discretion, and obthe day after her confort, and liged them to make that a permawhere she was received with every nent, which might otherwile have demonstration of loyalty and at- been a temporary
The dilatory and deliberate mode But the adverse party made a of proceeding that prevails in the very different use of this proceed- republic of the United Provinces, ing. They appealed to their coun: is well known; and, though the try men, whether or not it was por- present question was of the utmoti fible to have done oiherwise than importance, a serious decision was they had done, in a period of tu- not made upon it, for near two mult and contulion. The ring months after the period in which leaders were avowedly the partisans it originated. The states of Holof the prince of Orange The states land appoivred a committee of their had in vain expected from him in body to enquire into the nature of former instances the suppression of the command of the garrison of the these irregular efforts of his friends. Hague, and this committee pre. But, far from interfering, he had sented their report on the fourth of congived, he had looked on with November. Here they justly obo plealure, he had even, as was fuf- ferved, that the fenates and itates
of the different provinces were the them to remain in indolence and undoubted fovereigns, and that inactivity, and they were neceiti. the stadtholder was their servant ; taied either to retreat or advance. froin which maxim they inferred, They were surrounded with ene. that the powers he exercised were mies. The whole body of the noonly delegated, and that the state bility, the whole b dy of the commight resume them, whenever it mon people inhabiting the open saw sufficient reafon to adopt that countiy through the United Pro. mode of proceeding. Buit, not vinces, were favourable to the contented with this ellabiifhment, Stadtholder. The influence of his they went still farther, and under- office, the appointments, the emotook to prove, fiom a refolution of luments, the contracts that were in the states of Holland, dated on the his gift, neceffarily ensured to him fourth and fifth days of March 1672, a large number of friends. Three that the states had never meant to fourths even of the inhabitants of give the command of the garrison the Hague, were ready at the out of their hands, and that conse- sinallest lignal, to declare their a quently the possession of that com. verfion to the incasures adipted by mand by the Stadtholder had been the present prevailing party. But no better than an usurpation. the leaders of that party acted with
The principles of this report a resolution proportionate to their were implicitly adopted by the pro- danger. They were resolved to vincial assembly, and the next day convince their countrymen, by those they came to a determination, in external symbols which are of all conformity to the words of the re- others best calculated to impress solution of March 1672, that the large bodies of men, that they were command of the garrison fould the true fovereigns, and that they horca'tır vest in the council com- were determined to affert and mainmittee of the states of Holland. tain that character. They directIn the mean time the prince of ed, thare with the commencement Orange prepared a long and labo- of the ensuing year, the arms of vious answer to the report, upon the house of Orange flould be taken which the measure was founded; out of the colours of the troops in and he appears to have been fuffi- the service of Holland, and that the ciently successful in proving, that arms of the province Mhould be sub. the circumstances of the resolution Itituted in their room. They reof 1672 were fuch, as not to au- solved, that the prcfident of the thorise the conclufions the commit- provincial assembly fhould receive tee had drawn from them. He
military honours and the falute of however found, that his affairs the garrison, as the prelident of were su circumstanced as not the lates general already did, and admit of an immediate remedy, and that those honours should be attri. he accordingly establimhed a sort of buted to no other individual. They court for the winter at the catle of came to a determination, under coLoo in the province of Guilder- ver of the military reduction which land.
was now taking place, to disband The oligarchy felt the new fitit- the corps of one hundred Swils ation in which they had placed guards, usually attendant on the themselves, and they acted accordo person of the prince of Orange ; ingly. It was not allowable for and this motion was only qualified
in the sequel hy a provision, that upon this important subject. A the corps, confiiting chiefly of old third attempt in favour of the men, should be suffered gradually prince of Orange had a still less to extinguish itself by the death of favourable catastrophe. From the the members of which it was com- difpofition of the people of the posed. They purchased a magnifi- Hague, the attempt to introduce cent mansion, known by the name there the institution of the free of Prince Maurice's Hotel, and ap- corps, or volunteers, had been unipropriated it as a refidence to the formly unsuccessful; and a numweekly president of the states of ber of perfons now associated under Holland. They built a state coach the denomination of an Orange for his use in public processions, corps, the object of which was and directed, that victuals should evidently, to abet the pretensions be distributed to the poor at his of the stadtholder. But this corps kitchen, as had usually been done was the fource of a new tumult, of at the palace of the prince of O. which a.very successful use was range.
made by the oligarchy. The friends of the prince of O. Among the symbols of love. rw.ge were not idle during these reignty assumed by the ftites of transactions ; but their measures Holland, one was to open a gare at were productive of no advantage to the Hague, calied the Stadtholder's the cause they espoused. The in- Gate, which had yet never been habitants of the Hague, influenced opened but to procesfions, in which by the partiality we have afcribed the prince made his appearance, to them, drew up a petition in the The firit meeting of the provincial month of O&tober, addressed to the assembly, subsequent to their hav. ftates of Holland, and requesting ing retolved upon this measure, them, to interpose their good offices on the sixteenth of March with the stadtholder, to induce 1786, and they passed on that day him to return to the place of his through the gate, with great pomp, usual refidence. But the report of atiended by the garrison, and sure the existence of that petition no rounded by a numerous concourse sooner reached the assembly, than of spectators. The procession now they gave peremptory orders, that palled in tranquillity; but the next no farther proceedings should be day it was interrupted by one Moheld upon the fubject of it. The ranit, a hair dresser, who seized hold king of Prussia addressed a second of the horses of M. de Gyse aar, memorial to the states general, pentionary of Dort, and then called complaining, that he had received aloud to some other persons, who no fatisfactory answer to his letter appeared to be his confederares, to of the month of September, and fupport him. These perfuns how, calling on them to bring the affair ever felt a fudlen terror, and the of the garison to a speedy termina- rioter was easily taken into custody. tion. This memorial hou ever only A itrit inuisition was made into ferred to irritate the states of Hol- the attir; the persons accused upland by inviting, as it did, another on the evidence of Morand fled to assembly, to interfere in what was the tiadtholder at Loo; the Orange their immediate province ; while corps, who appeared ro have been the states general were not yet pre- concerned in the cumult, were bro. pared to take any decisive measures ken; and Morand was convicted,