Imatges de pàgina
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progress of the democracy, but quired to account for so extraordi. they were determined to retain the nary a conduct, the answer they friendship of the new party, and return.d bore no marks of penid.:red not declare openly against tence and submillion. them.

ceedings of the magistrales of HatWe have found, that the pro- tem were similar to these, and the vincial asembly of Guelderland ftates of Guelderland, indisposed was, of all the public bodies in the to the tirdy and dilatory measures republic, the most devoted to the of the provincial assembly of U. prince of Orange. But the feels trecht, came to a vote on the thirings of the rest of the inhabitants ty-firit of August, requesting the did not altogether coincide with stadtholder, to order a body of the principles of the states. So troops to march into garrison in early as the month of June 1784, these towns, and thus to overawe the burghers of Arnheim presented the refractory spirit of the burgha remonstrance, claiming a right of ers. appointing to the office of counsel- One of the motives which lor by the mode of popular election. said to have influences the court of M. de Capellen of Marich, one of the Stadtholder, to whose views the the nobles of the province, who provincial assembly of Guelderland had formerly been chamberlain of was blindly devoted, to adopt fo the h ufhold to the prince of O- untemporiting a conduct, was the range, but was now deeply engaged death on the seventeenth of August in the democratical measures, en- of Frederick the Second, king of deavoured to effect in the ditrict Prussia, whose successor, equally at of Zutphen the abolition of the re- the head of an army of two or three gulation of 1674. In a word, the hundred the wind men, was in the {pirit of reform daily advanced in vigour of his age, and was more its progress, and the states of Guel. nearly related to the stadtholder, as derland thought proper in May being brother to his confort, the 1786 to publish a resolution, which princess of Orange. Be that as it they required the magistrates to will

, the burghers of Elburg and poft up in the market places of all Hattem, encouraged by the prothe principal towns of Guelderland, ceedings of Utrecht and Wyk, confirming the regulation of 1674, cleared their fortifications, erected condemning the drawing up any batteries, and prepared to resist the petitions for the redress of that re- forces that should be sent against gulation, and prohibiting the affo- them. They were assisted by the ciaion of any bodies of armed free corps of the province of Holburghers within their jurisdiction. land, fome of whom marched to

The inhabitants of the towns of their immediate relief, and the rest Elburg and Hattem had been par- proffered their succour in case of ticularly active in the promotion ncceflity. of the intended reform ; and they A general alarm was spread appear to have received the coun- through the whole extent of the tenance of their magiftrates. Upon union by a measure fo forinidable the present occafion two of the as that which was now adopted. counfallors of Elburg exprefly for- It is true that in the preceding year b.d the posting up of the resolution a garrison had been marched into of the statee; and, having been re. the town of Amersfort. But that measure was not equally violent on the third of September, and a in its appearance, since the troops few not were fired on both sides, had been demanded by the town without killing or wounding any council of the place, and their de- oue either of the assailants or the mand enforced by the council c0'11- b tieged. The free corps at length smittee of the provincial ailembly. withdrew themselves, together with That measure ideed had been con- the more enthuliafic partians of demned by moderate men as pre- the democracy, the peple opened cipitate and irregular; but the the gares, a id the foldiers entered present proceeding was said to be in without farther obtacie. In Hatdefiance of all the known principles tem the magistrates entered into ar• of the government of the republic. ticles of capitulation without the It was notorious, that the council consent of the people, and the place of every town was fovereign and fell into the policision of the iniliparamount within itself. Nothing tary. Therefore could be less agreeable to i he news of the capture of these the constitution, than the introduc- two places was not brought to the sion of a garrison without the con- Hague t ll the fixth of September, fent, and even in opposition to the The states immediately dispatc', ed remonftrances of the town councils. a leiter to the prince of Orange, The alarm, that was excited by demanding from him in twentythis measure, wa- greatly increased four hours a declaration of his inby the demand, that almost imme- tentions; and an explanation and diately followed, from the fates of apology were accordingly returned Amersfort for a detachment of within the time prescribed. They troops to reduce to obedience the also issued orders to the troops of city of Utrecht.

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their civision, to hold themielves Upon this occasion the flates of in readiness to march at a moment's Zealand and Groningen exprefly warning. The next day they reprohibited the stadtholver from ceived the addretses of several bomarching any of the troops of their dies of armed burghers, requesting division into the provinces of Guel- permillion to set out immediately derland and Utrecht. The states for the reliet and defence of the of Overy sel and Holland demand- city of Utrecht. The petitions ed from him an explicit declaration were favourably received; the of his intentions, and recommended states took the free corps of the the entire removal of the troops, province under their protection ; which had already been marched and opened their military maga. to different desinations in confe's zine at Woerden for the allilance quence of the present fituation of of Utrecht, which was expected to affairs. The letter of the tiates or be immediately affaulted. " On the Holland was dated on the twenty, eighth they repaired in a body to fifth of Auguit, and they at the the number of fifty, to the affembly fame time forbad the troops of their of the flatis general, in order to division, to march without an ex- account for their conduct, and to press permission from the provincial acquaint them with the critical assembly. But these proceedings situation of affairs. The next day were insufficient to change the de- they issued orders to the troops, to term nation of the prince of Orange. march with all possible expedition his.ticops arrived tefore Elburg to the frontier of the province ;

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they voted an augmentation of adopting the principles of the it. twelve fous per week to their pay; port, and further directing that the and they took into their service the appellation of captain generalfhould corps of the rhingravei of Salm, be withdrawn out of the titles of which it had been in contemplation the fladtholder in the citablished to suppress among the other mili- liturgy. This resolution was ape tary reductions. The troops ap- proved by fixteen voices, out of the pear to have yielded instant obedi- nincicen of which the states of Hoience to the provincial assembly ; land are composed, and it was fplthey poured in from all quarters, lowed by the protes of the equerand under the command of general trian order, and of the prince of van keyffel formed a cordon along Orange. In the former of these it the province of Utrecht from Na- was observed, that the ottice of arden to Schoonhoven, while two captain general had been conferred considerable detachments were sta- by the unanimous vote of the protioned at the town of Haerlein in vince, and that therefore it could one extremity, and of Heusden in not be withdrawn by the mere vote the other.

of a majority; and it was added, On the fixteenth of September a that soine heinous crimes and milreport was presented to the states demeanours ought to be proved upot Holland by a committee of that on the stadtholder, before they body, the tendency of which was could adopt to penal a measure. to thew, that, as by the orders al. By the prince it was afferted, that ready issued to the troops the cap: he was not even accused of infringtain general was really fufpended ing the constitution of Holland; from the exercise of his functions, that that province had no right to it was proper, that that fufpenfion animadvert upon the delinquencies, should be made in a folemn man- of which he might be supposed to ner, and that particularly he should have been guilty in the territories be deprived of the right of nomi- of the other provinces; and that nating to any military appointment what he had done at the requisition from that of ensign and upwards. of the states of Guelderland, was This report was favourably receiv. merely that to which he was obed by the states; and on the twen- obliged by his oath of office. ty-second a resolution was passed,

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Mediation of Prusha and France. Revolution in the City of Amfierdan.

Flu&luation of the States of Holland. Hoftilities in the Province of Utrecht. Tumults.' Proparations for War.

HE misunderstanding, be possible that it could be terminated

tween the republic and the in any other way than by the prince of Orange was now so far sword. The great question, that matured, that it scarcely seemed remained, was, whether the deci.

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fion, if this mode of decision were if he were new to the conduct of a adopted, was to fpring from the great nation, had however outmere efforts of the parties among lived the romantic pallions of carly themselves, or whether any foreign youth, and was reported to be powers were to interfere, so as to chiefly distinguished by the reasonhaften, or to give magnitude and ableness and lubriety of his underdignity to the catallrophe. The standing. He could scarcely ex. king of Great Britain was known pect, that the court of France, the to be favourably disposed towards first political power in Europe, his cousin, the ltadtholder ; but our would quietly depart from that incountry was scarcely ready to en- terference with the politics of Holgage in military contention, and laud, upon which for centuries The the averlion of the ministers for war had placed so high a value. He was 1trongly presumed. The court might make his account in a vioof France was in long habits of lent itruggle on that lide, and, if connection with the oligarchical fuch were the event, the conquest party in the goveroment of Hol of the republic would be no holiland, and the count de Vergennes, day expedition. her minister for foreign affairs, and Frederic William the Second, upthe marquis de Verac, his creature on his accession to the throne, ap. and the present ambassador at the pe:urs to have been influenced preHague from the court of Vertailles, cisely by the sentiments we have had cultivated the connection with defcribed. One circuntince there much alliduity. But France was was in favour of a pacific fettleemerged out of war as lately as ment of differences, and of that one ourselves, and the seeds of a revo. circumstance he was determined to lution of government in that coun- make the utmost use.

The exo try were then fermenting, which treme symptoms of contention had have fince displayed thenielves in broken out in the autumn, and it more unequivocal symptoms. The was natural, in a controverty , king of Prussia of all the parties in which, whether it were terminated queltion was the best prepared for upon a larger or a finaller scale, a military decision. His army was promised an cbftinate war, that infinitely the most numerous, and hostilities should be fufpended till the discipline of that arıny was ex- the ensuing spring. Here theu emplary: His country had long was a period, in which to make an been disengaged from any serious experiment upon the success of war, and the marches and counter treaty and mediation. The king marches, such as had taken place accordingly loft no time. Imme. in 1778 in the affair of Bavaria, diately upon his accession to the were scarcely any additional bur- throne ho dispatched the count de

the public treasury. The Goertz, a person of weight and king was in the cominenceinent of political reputation, to reinforce by his reign, and might naturally be his personal appearance the remonfupposed desirous of distinguishing strances of M. de Thulemeyer, the himself by foine vigorous action, stated Pruffian envoy. This mithat might establish his character, niiter carried with him a memorial, and attach veneration to his name dated on the second of September, during the remainder of his admi- and addressed to the states general; pistration. But the king of Prussia, and he had his firit audience of

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that affembly on the seventeenth had yet one expedient in reserve. day of that month.

The attachment of his court to the The prospect with which this prince of Orange was too notoriminifter opened his instructions, ous. But the fame objection, was not particularly flattering. The which was felt againit the interferStates of Holland had upon differ- ence of Prussia, would not probably ent occafions declared loudly a- operate against the court of Vergainit any foreign interferencc. In failles. Frederic William therethe preceding July an antwer had fore directed his ambassador at that been prepared on the part of the court to learn, whether they would stares general to the memorials of be willing to join a commissioner Prutsia and Great Britain, inviting of their appointment with his mitheir mediation ; and, this answer nifter, the count de Goertz, to enbeing approved by fix of the pro. deavour by their joint interference vinces, there appears to have been to bring the parties to reasonable a design to carry it through fur- terms. The sentiments of the reptitioutly, withnat communica. French adminifiration were fimilar tion with the deputies of Holland. to those of the king of Prussia. The provincial affembly was high. Like him, they desired to see the ly iniamed by lo unauthorised a party they favoured in the repubproceeding, and they came to a lic extricated from their fituation resolution, rather to strike out their with advantage ; and, like hiin, numes froin the union of Utrecht, they were unwilling to try the forand finally to defert the confede- tune of war, till every other experacy of the fiates general, than to riment had failed. They had yet suffer such a measure to receive the another motive to conciliation, lanction of the republic. The me- which the king of Pruilia could not morial, traulinitted by the count have. The party in opposition to de Goertz, was taken ad refren- the prince of Orange had now an dum by the deputies in the states unquestionable superiority; and, if general, and the itates of Holland a pacific settlement took place, the now expressed the same averfion to inevitable consequence must be, all steps towards a mediation, as that the government of the United they had done during the life of Provinces would be less in the Frederic the Second. Accordingly hands of one man, than it had been the Prullian coinmillioner was able at the commencement of the difto make no progress in the object, fentions. Accordingly they nofor which he had been employed. minated without delay M. Gerard The Itates of Holland were the de Rayneval as their minister, who only party, with which he could had already negociated with credit negociace. All discussion with any the treaty with the Thirteen United other afsembly would have been in. States of America, and the treaty effectual and useleis; and, if this of commerce with Mr. Eden, the affeinbly were once brought over, commissioner of Great Britain. He the peace and uleiinate settlement set out upon his embassy in the of the republic would inevitably middle of November. follow.

The court of the prince of O. But the king of Prussia was not range, encouraged by the progress {o easily to be deterred from the of their sentiments in the province settlement he had projected. He of Guelderland, and influenced by

the

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