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The first is a capital picture in Surgeon's-hall, which reprefents Henry the Eighth as giving the charter to the company of furgeons. In this picture the character of the King's bluff haughtiness is well fustained, and all the heads of the company are finely executed. The fecond is a large piece in the hall of Bridewell, reprefenting Edward the Sixth in the act of delivering to the Lord Mayor the charter which converted the palace of Bridewell into an hofpital and a workhouse. It is believed that this piece was not completed by Holbein, as both he and Edward died quickly after the donation. The third and fourth were two large pictures exhibiting the Triumphs of Riches and Poverty. From a fight of thefe pictures, Zucchero formed a very high opinion of the genius of Holbein. There is nothing for which his name has more frequently been mentioned than for the picture of Sir Thomas More's family; though whether that picture now exifts, is extremely doubtful. Holbein's fame was fo thoroughly eftablished, even during his life, that the Italian Mafters deigned to borrow from him. Michael Angelo Caravaggio, in particular, was much indebted to him in two different pictures. So great an admirer was Rubens of his works, that he himself made fome drawings of his Dance of Death, and recommended it to be ftudied by young painters.
The talents of Holbein were not confined to his pictures. He was an architect, a modeller, a carver; and was excellent in defigning ornaments. Of his architecture there is nothing now ftanding but the beautiful porch at the earl of Pembroke's, at Wilton, from which, and from his drawings, it is evident, that he had great natural tafte. A noble monument of his genius, the Gateway at Whitehall, has fome years fince been demolished. It is fuppofed that the beginning of the reformation in building was owing to Holbein. Belides painters, Henry the Eighth had feveral artists of note in his fervice. Pietro Torregiano, an eminent fculptor, was employed by him, and received a thousand pounds for the fuperb tomb of Henry the Seventh. Among many other artifts encouraged by the king, John Muftyan is recorded as his arras-maker, John de Mayne as his feal-graver, and Richard Atfyl as his graver of stones.
Mufic was an art that was in fome degree of cultivation : but neither the fecular nor the facred parts of it were carried to any fuch perfection as to be worthy of notice in this place. Concerning the king, it is faid that he composed a fong and an anthem. His love for the art difplayed itself in the care which he took that his children fhould be well inftructed in mufic.
Among the encouragers of learning, Henry the Eighth has undoubtedly a right to be placed, though his conduct was not uniform in this refpect, and he fhines more as the patron of the arts of defign, than as the promoter of general literature. After the diffolution of the monafteries, fome noble literary projects were formed; and, at first, the king appeared very zealous for their being carried into execution. But fuch were the folly and extravagance with which his newly acquired revenues were diffipated, that the liberal schemes which had been planned, never took effect. Perhaps it may be regarded as fome atonement for this fault, that Henry, towards the clofe of his life, became the founder of Trinity College, in Cambridge.
With regard to the point we are now confidering, Queen Catherine deserves to be recorded with peculiar honour, Befides the encouragement fhe gave to the ftudy of the Scriptures, and the caufe of the Reformation, fhe rendered a fingular piece of fervice to the University of Cambridge, on a very critical occafion. When an act had paffed which threw all colleges, chantries, and free chapels into the king's difpofal, the heads of the Univerfity were under the most alarming apprehenfion for the fate of their important and long established inftitutions. In this exigency they applied to the queen, and intreated her interceffion with the king in their behalf, which the exerted so effectually, that the Colleges were preserved.
Two of the most eminent promoters of learning in this period, were Richard Fox, bishop of Winchester, and Cardinal Wolfey, Fox was the founder of Corpus Chrifti college, at Oxford; in which he inftituted two profeffors for the Greek and Latin languages. This philological . establishment may be regarded as the firft confpicuous inftance of an attempt to depart from the narrow plan of
education which had hitherto been held facred in the uni versities of England. The Latin profeffor was expressly directed to extirpate barbarifm from the new fociety; and it was appointed that his lectures fhould not be confined within the private limits of the college, but lie open to the students of Oxford in general. Bishop Fox enjoined the Greek lecturer to explain the best claffics in that language; and the choice of authors is extremely judicious. The poets, hiftorians, and orators, which were recommended by the founder, were of the purest kind, and fuch as are most esteemed in the prefent improved state of ancient literature. It is remarkable, that this liberal prelate, when he formed his plan of study, did not inItitute a lecturer in philofophy for his college, as had hitherto been almost the conftant practice in literary foundations. Perhaps he fufpected that fuch an endowment would not have coincided with his new courfe of erudition; and would only have ferved to encourage thofe fubtle and trifling diftinctions of the fchoolmen, which had fo long choaked the paths of science, and obstructed the progrefs of useful knowledge. Corpus Chrifti college has been adorned by various learned men, and dignified ecclefiaftics, of eminent reputation. The fame may be afferted concerning Brafe-nofe college, which received its full eftablishment in this reign. Its firft and chief founder was William Smyth, bishop of Lincoln; and the design was carried to perfection by his relation, fir Richard Sutton.
The happy beginnings in favour of a new and a rational system of academical education, which had for fome time appeared, and which had been fo well cherished by bishop Fox, were feconded by the munificent fpirit of Cardinal Wolfey. A public chair, at Oxford, was founded by him. in the year 1519, for rhetoric and humanity; foon after which another was erected for teaching the Greek language. Both thefe appointments were accompanied with ample falaries. But the highest literary glory of cardinal Wolfey is his having been the founder of Chrift-church, the noblest college of the largest and most illuftrious university in the world. It would not be easy to do juftice to this inftitutión. The magnificence of its buildings, and the extent
of its foundations, juftly call for admiration but its great eft fplendour is derived from the deans who have governed it, the bishops who have been educated in it, the canons by whom it has been adorned, and the learned men it has produced. It will never be forgotten that Locke was a tudent of Chrift-church.
Two colleges were established at Cambridge during this reign. The first was St. Mary Magdalen's college, which had its beginning from the liberality of Edward Stafford, duke of Buckingham, and was completed by Thomas baron Audley of Walden, Lord High Chancellor of England. Among the bifhops which have fprung from this feminary, it may justly boast of Edmund Grindal, Brian Walton, and Richard Cumberland. In the catalogue of its other learned men, we find the names of Dr. James Duport, the eminent Grecian; Dr. William Howell, the hiftorian; Samuel Pepys, efq. the famous naval writer, and collector of manufcripts; and Dr. Daniel Waterland, noted for his elaborate vindications of the Trinity, and for fome other publications of greater value.
The other inftitution established at Cambridge in the time of Henry the Eighth, was the noble and extenfive foundation of Trinity college, and which, indeed, is the prime glory of that univerfity. Of this college the king himself had the honour of being the founder; and the magnificence and munificence of its structure and endowments, are worthy of a great prince. In literary reputation it hath always ftood upon high ground. Among its bishops or its mafters, it reckons John Whitgift, John Overall, John Wilkins, John Pearfon, Ifaac Barrow, Edward Fowler, Richard Bentley, Nicholas Clagget, kobert Smith, and Zachary Pearce. Its ftatefmen, its critics, its poets, its philofophers, its divines, it would not be eafy to enumerate; and, to crown the whole, it can boaft of having produced a Bacon and a Newton *.
Burnet, Biographia Britannica, Hume, Millar, Warton, Pinkerton, Walpole, Bentham, Balard, Anthony Wood, Berkenhout, &c. &c.