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* In the ruins of castles how.. we call Saxon, it is not difficult to ever, other countries may compare trace some features of Roman ori. with ours.
But in the remains of gin. Among the ruins of Brink, abbeys no country certainly can. burn abbey, between Rothbury,
“ Where popery prevails, the and Warkworth, in Northumbers abbey is still intire and inhabited; land, we discover in some paris and of course less adapted to land- even Roman elegance. fcape. .
" This ipecies of architecture is * But it is the mode of archi. supposed to have continued till the tecture, which gives such excel time of the Crusades; when a new lence to these ruins. The Gothic style of ornament at least, fantastic style, in which they are generally in the highest degree, began to apcomposed, is, I apprehend, unri. pear. It forms a kind of compo. valled among foreign nations; and fite with the Saxon ; and hath been may be called a peculiar feature in called by some antiquarians the SaEnglish landscape.
racenic : though others disallow “ Many of our ruins have been the term. Many ruins of this kind built in what is often called the are ftill exiling Saxon style. This is a coarse, " The English architect how. heavy mode of architecture; and ever began, by degrees, to trike seldoin afford- a beautiful ruin. In out a new mode of architecture for general, the Saxon prevails most in himself; without searching the the northern counties; and the continent for models. This is cal. Gothic in the southern : though led the Gothic; but for what reaeach division of the kingdom af- fon, it is hard to say : for the fords some instances of both: and Goths, who were never in England, in many we find them mixed. had been even forgotten, when it
1. What we call Saxon architec- was invented; which was about ture seems to have been the awk. the reign of Henry Ii. It is beward imitation of Greek, and Ro- fides found no where, I believe, man models. What buildings of but in England; except in fuch Roman origin were left in England, parts of France, as were in poffeffion were probably destroyed by the of the English. ruthless Saxon in his early ravages. " In this beautiful species of arAfterwards, when Alfred the Great, chitecture the antiquarian points having established government, and out three periods. religion, turned his view to arts, • When it first appeared, the we are told he was obliged to send round Saxon arch began to change to the continent for architeets. In into the pointed one; and the short, what species of architecture the clumsy pillar began to cluster; but buildings of this prince were com- ftill the Saxon heaviness in part pie. posed, we know not: but probably vailed. Salisbury cathedral, which in a purer style, than what we now
was finimed about the year 1250, call Saxon; as Alfred lived nearer is generally considered as a very Roman times; and perhaps pol- pure speciinen of the Gothic, in seffed in his own country fome of it's tirit, and ruder forin. those beautiful models, which might “ By degrees improrements in have escaped the rage of his an- architeure were introduced. The ceilors. Even now, amidst all that east-window being inlarged, was hcaviness, and barbarifin, which trailed over with beautiful tcrawl
work; while the clustered-pillar " and I will follow it with a see began to increase in height, and 66 cond.” ele ance; and to arch, and ramify " This style is generally conalong the roof. In short, an intire fidered as the perfection of Gothie new mode of architecture, purely architecture. I own, it rather apBritish, introdued. The pears to me the decline of the art. grandeur of the Roman - the hea. The ornaments so affectedis intro. viness of the Saxon - and rhe gro. duced, and patched on; as the tesque ornament of the Saracenic, rose and portcullis in King's colwere all equally relinquithed. An lege chapel, have not, is my eye, airy lightness pervaded the whole; the beauiy of the middle style ;' in and ornaments of a new invention which every ornament arises natook place. The cathedral of York, turally from the several members and part of Canterbury, among of the building; and makes a part many others, are beautiful exam- of the pile itself. Nor has the fiat ples of this period of Gothic archi- roof, with all it's ornaments, in tecture,
my opinion, the fimplicity and “ About the time of the later beauty of the ribbed, and pointed Henries, the lat period began to obtain ; in the architecture of " Abbeys formerly abounded which the flat, stone roof, and a so much in England, that a delie variety of different ornaments were cious valley could scarce be found, the chief characteristics. Of this in which one of them was not itainriched flyle King's college chapel tioned. The very fites of many of in Cambridge, and Henry VII.'s at these ancient edifíces are now obliWestininiter, are two of the moit terated by the plough ; yet fill fo elegant examples. The flat, stone many elegant ruins of this kind are roof is generally, even at this day, left, that they may be called, not considered, as a wonderful effort of only one of the peculiar features of art. It is said, that Sir Chrifto. English landscape; but may be pher Wren himfelt could not con- ranked also among it's most pictus ceive it. He would say, “Tell resque beauties." * me where to place the first stone;
Dr. HERSCHEL's ACCOUNT of the DISCOVERY of TWO SA.
TELLITES revolving round the GEORGIAN PLANET. (From the Seventy-seventh Volume of the Philosophical Transactions,] HE great distance of the led to the Georgian planet; and,
, 1 present situation in a part of the ceived near its disk, and within a zodiac which is scattered over with few of its diameters, some very a multitude of small fars, has ren- faint stars whose places I noted dered it uncommonly difficult to down with great care. determine whether, like Jupiter “ The next day, when the plaand Satur, ir be attended by fatel. net returned to the meridian, I lite. In pursuit of this inquiry, looked with a moft fcrutinizing eye having frequently directed large te- for my small stars, and perceived lescopes to this remote planet, and that two of them were missing. Had finding myself continually disap- I been less acquainted with optical pointed, I ascribed my failure to deceptions, I should immediately the want of sufficient light in the have announced the existence of instruments I used; and, for a one or more satellites to our new while, gave over the attempt. planet : but it was neceffary, that
" In the beginning of last month, i fhould have no doubts. The however, I was often surprised least hazinels, otherwise impercepwhen I reviewed nebulæ that had tible, may often obscure small stars; been seen in former sweeps, to find and I judged, therefore, that nohow much brighter they appeared, thing less than a series of observaand with how much greater facility tions ought to satisfy me, in a cale I saw them. The cause of it could of this importance. To this end I be no other than the quantity of noticed all the fmall stars that were light that was gained by laying near the planet the 14th, 19th, alide the small speculum, and in- 18th, and 24th of January, and troducing the front view ; an ac. the 4th and sth of February; and count of which has been inserted, though, at the end of this time, I by way of note, to the catalogue had no longer any doubt of the exof nebulæ contained in the Philo- ittence of at lealt onc fatellite, I fuphical Transactions, vol. lxxvi. thought it right to defer this comP. 499.
munication till I could have an op" It would not have been par: portunity of seeing it actually in donable to neglect such an advan- motion. Accordingly I began to tage, when there was a particular pursue this fatellite on Feb, the 7th, object in view, where an accession about fix o'clock in the evening, of ligbt was of the utmost conseand kept it in view till three in the quence; and I wondered why it morning on Feb. the 8th; at which had not struck me fooner. The time, on account of the situation 1.th of January, therefore, in the of my house, which intercepts a course of my general review of the view of part of the ecliptic, I was heavens, I falceted a sweep which obliged to give over the chace : and
during those nine hours I saw this tion to the first satellite, and had satellite faithfully attend its prima. an opportunity to see it for about ry planet, and at the same time three hours and a quarter ; during kcep on, in its own courie, by which time, as far as one might describing a considerable arch of judge, it preserved its course. The its proper orbit.
interval which the clovdy weather " While I was chiefly attending hat afforded was, however rather to the motion of this satellite, I did too short for seeing its motion sufnot forget to follow another small ficiently, so that I deterred a final tlar, which I was pretty well as- judgment tiil the 10th; and, in sured was also a farellite, especially order to put my theory of these as I had, on the night of the 14th two satellites to a trial, I made a of January, observed two smallfketch on paper, to point out befars which were wanting the 17th, fore-hand their fituation with 1€. and again uniffed other two the 24th spect t) the planet, and its parallel which had been noticed the rith; of declination. but, whether owing 'o my great “ The long expected evening attention to the former satellite, or came on, and, notwithstanding the to the closeness of this later, which molt unfavourable appearance of was nearly hidden in the rays of dark weather, it cleared up at last. the planet, I could not be well as. And the heavens now displayed the sured of its motion. Indeed, to. original of my drawing, by thew. wards morning, when a change of ing, in the situation I had deli. place, in fo considerable an inter- neated them, the Georgian planet val as pine hours, would have been attended by two fatellites. molt conspicuous, the moon inter- 6 I confess that this scene ap. fered with the faint light of this peared to me with additional beaufatellite, fo that I could no longer ty, as the little secondary planets perceive it.
seemed to give a dignity to the " The first moment that offered primary one, which raises it into for continuing these observations a more conspicuous fituation among was on Friday the 9th, when I faw the great bodies of our solar sytem, my first discovered fatellite nearly “have not seen them long enough in the place where I expected to to assign their periodical times with find it. I perceived also, that the great accuracy; but fuppołe that next supposed fatellite was not in the first performs a fynodical revothe situation where I had leit it on lution in about eight days and the 7th, and could now diftinguish three-quarters, and the second in very plainly that it had advanced in nearly thirteen days and an half. irs orbit, tince that day, in the " Their orbits make a confiderfame direction with the other fatel. able angle with the ecliptic ; but lire, but at a quicker rate. Hence to allign the real quantity of this it is evident, that it mores in a inclination, with many other parmore contracted orbit; and I Mall ticulars, will require a great deal of therefore call it in future the tirit attention, and much contrivance : fatellite, though last discovered, or for, as eitimations by the eye canrather lait afcertained ; since I do not but beextremely fallacious, I do nor doubt but that I law them both, not expect to give a good account for the tirit time, on the same day, of their orrits till I can bring fome which was January the lith, 1789. of my micrometers to bear upon " I now directed all my atten- thein; which, thele lait pighis, I
have in vain attempted, their light of my delicate micrometers visible. being so feeble as not to suffer the I have, nevertheless, several releait illumination, and that of the fources in view, and do not despair planet not being strong enough to of fucceeding pretty well in the render the finall filk-worm's threads end."
Dr. HERSCHEL'S ACCOUNT OF THREE VOLCANOS in the
(From the same Work.]
time, duction to the account I have to
“ I perceive three volcanos iu give of some appearances upon the
diferent places of the dark part of moon, which I perceived the 15th
the new moon.
Two of them are and 20th of this month. The phænomena of nature, especially otherwie in a state of going to
either already nearly extinct, or those that fall under the inspection break out: which perhaps may be of the astronomer, are to be viewed, decided next lunation. The third not only with the usual attention to
shews an actual eruption of tire, or facts as they occur, but with the luminous matter. Í ineafured the eve of reason and experience. In diítance of the crater froin the norhis we are however not allowed thern limb of the moon, and found to depart from plain appearances ;
it 3' 57"',. though their origin and fignifica- brighter than the nucleus of the
Its light is much tion should be indicated by the most
comet which M. Méchain discovercharactering features. Thus, ed at Paris the roth of this month. when we fee, on the furface of the moon, a great number of elevations,' from half a mile to a mile April 29, 1787, 10 h. z' fidereal
time. and an half in height, we are strictly intitled to call them mountains;
: The volcano burns with great. but, when we attend to their par
er violence than laf nighr. I beticular shape, in which many of lieve its diameter cannot be less them relemble the craters of our
than 3", by coinparing it with that volcanos, and thence argue, that of the Georgian planct; as Jupiter they owe their origin to the same was near at hand, I turned ihe tecause which has modelled many of lescope to his third satellite, and chese, we may be faid to tie by estimated the diameter of the burnanalogy, or with the eye of reafon. ing part of the volcano to be equal Now, in this latter cafe, though ir to at least twice that of the fatellite. may be convenient, in speaking of Hence we may compute that the phenomena, to use expressions that thining or burning matter muit be can only be justified by reasoning above three miles in diameter. It upon the facts themselves, it will is of an irregular round figure, and certainly be the safest way not very sharply defined on the edges. to neglect a full description of The other two volcanos are much them, that it may appear to others farther towards the center of the how far we have been authorized moon, and resernble large, pretty to use the mental eye. This being faint nebulæ, that are gradually premiled, I may fafely proceed to much brighter in the middle; but give my observations:
no well defined luininous spot can