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lost its natural hue, and assumed a fied state, for making verdigrise. light yellow. At first the colour. I attempted to ascertain this point; ing matter swam on the surface; but an accident put an end to my but afterwards the whole fluid be. experiment, before it was comcame uniformly transparent. its pleted. acidity was diminished, and a flight As I have given specimens of degree of sweetness was perceptible this acid to several of my chemical in it, The piece of lead, when friends, I flatter myself that some taken out, weighed only feventeen valuable discoveries will be made grains and a half; and the surface of its application to pharmacy, and of it was covered with a black pig- to the arts. ment which stained the fingers. May 14, 1783
Another picce of lead, exactly fimilar in form and weight, was im- Since this paper was written, mersed, during the same period of I have been favoured with a letter time, in two ounces of white-wine from Mr. Charles Taylor, an emi. vinegar, with the loss only of half a nent callico printer, and a compegrain.
tent judge of the subject, who exFrom the result of these expe- preffes himfelt in the following riments I think we may conclude, terms: “ The acid of tar, I am that the acid of tar would be pre- confident, might be rendered of great ferable to vinegar, both in the pre- consequence in various manufacparation of faccharuin faturni, and tures, particularly in the callicoacet. lithargyrites ; perhaps if it printing business, in which a very could be freed, by farther distilla- great consumption is made of solution, from the pitchy matter which tions of iron in the vegetable acid, it contains, the manufacture of ce- as well as of folutions of lead in the sufs or white lead might be greatly fame acid. I think the solution of benefited by it. For the pigment, lead in the acid of tar, though the communicated to the piece of lead, liquor may not be perfectly clear, suspended in the acid of rar, proba. would be an excellent substitute bly arose from the superabundant for the faccharum faturni, used ia phlogiston of the menftruum. A that branch of business ; more pare similar prænomenon occurs in the ticularly as the expence of the cry. operation for making lunar caustic. ftallization would be avoided.” The crystals of lilver, when fused, The acid liquor which is procured assume a black colour, which Mr. from pit coal, when distilled for Macquer ascribes to the inflam- tar, is at present thrown away, as I mable principle of the nitrous acid, have been informed by a person that aitaches itself fuperficially 10 who is much engaged in this bufie the filver. Perhaps the acid of ness.” See bishop Watson's Chetap might be employed, in a puri- mical Efsays, vol. II. page 353.
HISTORY of the VIRGINIAN MOUNTAINS.
[From JEFFERSON's Notes on the State of Virginia.]
T is worthy notice, that our and so range the falls of our great
mountains are not folitary and rivers. But the courses of the great scattered confusedly over the face rivers are at rightangles with these. of the country; but that they com- James and Parowinac penetrate mence at about 150 miles from the through all the ridges of mountains sea-coast, are disposed in ridges one eastward of the Alleghaney; that is behind another, running nearly pa. broken by no watercourse. It is in rallel with the sea-coalt, though ra- fact the spine of the country be. ther approaching it as they advance (ween the Atlantic on one side, and north-eastwardly. To the south- the Militsippi and St. Laurence on west, as the trait of country between the other. The pallage of the Pa. the fea-coait and the Miilissippi be- towmuc through the Blue ridge is comes narrower, the mountains con- perhaps one of the most stupendous verge into a single ridge, which, as scenes in nature. You stand on a it approaches the Gulph of Mexico, very high point of land. On your fublides into plain country, and right comes up the Shenandoah, gives rise to some of the waters of having ranged along the foot of the that gulph, and particularly to a mountain an hundred mils to seek river called the Apalachicola, pro- a vent. On your left approaches bably from the Apalachies, an In- the Patowmac, in quest of a pare dian nation formerly residing on it. fage also. In the moment of their Hence the mountains giving rise to junction they rush together against that river, and seen from its various the mountain, rend ii asunder, and parts, were called the Apalachian pass off to the sea. The first glance mountains, being in fact the end of this scene hurries our fenfes into or termination only of the great the opinion, that this carth has been ridges railing through the conti- created in time, that the mountains nent. Europcan geographers how. were formed first
, that the rivers ever extended the name northward- began to Ajw afterwards, thar in ly as far as the mountains extend this place particularly they have ed; some giving it, after their fe. been dammed up by the blue ridge paration into different ridges, to the of mountains, and have formed an Blue ridge, others the North moun. ocean which filled the whole val. tain, others to the Alleghaney, o. ley; that continuing to rise they thers to the Laurel ridge, as may have at lengih broken over at this be seen in their different maps. But fppt, and have torn the mountain the fact I believe is, that none of down from its summit to its base. these ridges were ever known by The piles of rock on each hand, that name to the inhabitants, either but pirticularly on the Shenandoah, native or emigrant, but as they saw the evident marks of tacir disrup. them fo. called in European maps. ture and avulsion from their beds In the fame direction generally are by the most powerful agents of nache veins of lime-stone, coal and o- ture, corroborate the impression. . ther minerals bitherto discovered ; But the distant finishing which na.
ture has given to the pi&ture is of a not yet been estimated with ang des very different character. It is a gree of exactness. The Allegba. true contrast to the fore-ground.ncy being the great ridge which die It is as placid and delightful, as vides the waters of the Atlantic that is wild and tremendous. For from those of the Mississipi, its sum. the mountain being cloven asunder, mit is doubtless more elevated above de presents to your eye, through the ocean than that of any other the cleft, a small catch of smooth mountain. But its relative height, blue horizon, at an infinite distance compared with the base on which in the plain country, inviting you, it stands, is not so great as that of as it were, from the riot and cu- some others, the country rifing bemult roaring around, to pass through hind the successive ridges like the the breach, and participate of the steps of stairs. The mountains of calm below. Here she eye ulti- the Blue ridge, and of these the mately composes itself; and that Peaks of Ourer, are thought to be way too the road happens actually of a greater height, measured from to lead, You cross the Parowmaç their base, than any others in our above the junction, pass along its country, and perhaps in North Afide ihrough the base of the moun- merica, From daia, which may tain for three miles, its terrible found a tolerable conjecture, we precipices hanging in fragments o. fuppose the highest peak to be about yer you, and within about twenty 4000 feet perpendicular, which is iniles reach Frederic town and the not a fifth part of the height of the fine country round that. This mountains of South America, nor scene is worth a voyage across the one third of the height which would Atlantic. Yet here, as in the be necessary in our latitude to pre. neighbourhood of the natural bridge, serve ice in the open air unmelted are people who have paffed their through the year. The ridge of lives wiihin half a dozen miles, and mountains next beyond the Blue have never been to survey these ridge, called by us the North mourmonumenis of a war between rivers tain, is of the greatest exçent ; for and mountains, which must have which reason they were named by maken the earth itself to its centre. the Indians the Endless mountains, The height of our mountains has
ANTIQUITI E S.
Of the SETTLEMENT of the PHOCEANS at MARSEILLES.
[From Governor PowNALL's Notices and Descriptions of Antiquities
of the Provincia Romana of Gaul.]
ASSILIA, properly so command throughout the Mare made by a body of Phoceans mi. Leonis, from the ensign of their grating from the lonian coast, from flag, which dominated there : which a civilized and polished people. enlign, as inay be seen in the leThis country, where they settled, ries of their coins, was the lion. abounded with grain, hérbs, and In process of time, various colonies fruits, productive of food, health proceeded from them, as those of and even luxuriant enjoyment, Antibes, Hieres, Toulon, Emporia, proportioned to the state of civili. and the Ephesion of the Pyra. zation in which the natives livedr nees. These colonists brought with them “ They were great navigators, the meliorated grain and fruits and made by long voyages many which cultured lands, of a fruitful investigations of diftant countries. foil and genial clime, had brought The voyages of Pythæus and Eus forward, wheat, the vine, the olive, menes are altonishing examples of the fig; I might add to these, the this. They were fiited out at the quince, the plum, the pear, the public expence, and passing the apple, the apricot, the peach, the Straights, the ne plus ultra of the pistachio, the almond, the cherry, ancients, pursued their rout and the grenadine, the laurel. Many discoveries ; the one to the north, other fruits, as the orange and ci- as far as Thuls; the other along tron, as well as flowers, all exotics, the African coasts fouth, as far as brought at various periods, might the river Senegal. These were be here noted, were 1 writing the voyages, in thole days, and in the natural history of the country. I imperiect state of their navigation, mark only those which land on equal in enterprise at least to the record, and are found on the mo. voyages of Cook. numents of the first and early “ The academy at Marseilles, Greek inhabitants. They brought deriving a worthy pride from this with them the commerce of the spirit of enterprise in their ances. East, and combined it with that of tors, animated with a liberality and Gaul. They settled posts and fac- nobleness of fentiment, which notories in the several ports of the thing but an inward consciousness Mediterranean sea from the mari. of. kindred merit could giveg, have time Alps to the Pyranese. With this year, in a manner that does their hipping they held a naval them great honour, proposed as a
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subject for a prize, the euloge of of a spirit of wisdom and prue the British navigator Cook. ' dence.
" The Phoceans brought with “ Their government was dritto. them the religion and constitution cratic ; being governed by a counof government observed in their cil of fix hundred as chict magis. mother country. They brought trate. They were rigid maintain. not the depraved and luxurious, ers of severity in manners, and but the corrected and severe man- strict discipline in public conduct, ners of a people forced to emigrate On the one hand, they perm:tted from home by mnisfortunes and no scenical rhimes on their itage, distress. Domestic @conomy was which tend only to inflame the in. a habit which they guarded by flammable paflions, and to corrupt fumptuary laws. They retained the morals by the exhibition of this to their latest times, as is men- bad examples : on the other hand, tioned by Tacitus. They brought they suffered not to enter their with them not only the religious gates, any fanatic or hypocritic re. worship, but a confecrated image ligionist,' impostors, who use their and priestess of Diana of Ephe- mysteries to the deriving of a mainsus, and built the Ephefion, as tenance in idleness, feeding on the they did also a temple to Delphic folies of the people. Apollo, in their Acropolis. Their “ The sword of justice, wbich, church was a member of the me. was supposed, they brought tropolitan church at Ephesus; and with them at their firit settlement, their chief priestess a fuffragan of hung, though eaten through with the pontiff of Ephesus, and one of ruit, and unequal to its oifice, in these actually succeeded to that their public hall, as a symbol that sacred dignity. They brought strict and severe execution of jul. with them an opinión common tice was, as the original, so the to their ancestors; that such continued spirit of their judicature. was the perfect purity and infinite “ They used the service of slaves, juilice of the Deity (their gods) and had a peculiar, and, as it seems that divine justice must be deltroy: to me, unless it was regulated in ed, it the death and bloud of the some way which I do not underfinner did not expiate and make stand, an arbitrary law respecting atonement for it; that however, their manumiflion. If the lave their priests could so compromise manumitted, and become a liberthe matter, that some one man, tus, could be charged with ingrafor the whole might become a re- titude to his patron ; this pa; presentative finner, making, by his tron, kis former master, could facrifice, atonement and expiation rescind the manumission, and fu. for the whole people ; and on this perfede the liberty, and this even principle they used human facri- the third cime after a third manu. fices, chooing some wretch, on million but if, after this, the whole head they heaped every ex- matter again, a fourth time, ma. ecration, and whom, as a scape- nuinitted his ilave, he could not man, they facrificed, in events of claim bencfit of this law. The law public calamity; this fallacious imputed the error to the fault or principle, and this horrid praalice the folly of the master, not to the excepted, their fystem of police was flave.