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Military Force.-The militia, in 1813, consisted of infantry, 6465; artillery, 81; dragoons, 116; riflemen, 32.
Administrative Organization.-This state is di vided into three counties, and subdivided into districts called hundreds, twenty-four in number. The government of the borough of Wilmington is vested in two burgesses and a council of thirteen members.
Paupers are well lodged, clothed and fed, at the public expence. In the county of Newcastle, which, in 1810, contained 24,449 inhabitants, the average number of paupers for seven years, ending in 1815, was eighty-five, or nearly three and a half persons to each thousand inhabitants. The annual maintenance of each was fifty dollars a-year.
Religious Professions.-All clergymen in the exercise of pastoral and clerical functions are incapable of being elected to the legislature, or of holding any civil office in the state. No preference is given by law to any denomination or mode of worship; no religious test is required as a qualification for office; and no power is given to the magistrate, with regard to the exercise of religion. In 1814 the number of churches of each religious denomination was, Presbyterian, 24; Episcopal, 14; Friends, 8; Baptists, 7; Swe
The pound of beef,
dish, 1; Methodists, several. In Wilmington there are one church of white, and two of coloured Methodists; two Presbyterians; two Baptists; one Quakers ; one Episcopalians. According to the report of the general convention of Baptists, held at Philadelphia in May 1817, the number of churches of this denomination in Delaware was then 8, and of members 570.
Education.-A considerable fund is appropriated by the state for the support of schools. There is an academy at Wilmington and another at Newark. In the year 1814 there were 650 children at school in the town of Wilmington and village of Brandywine, the population of which was 4716; viz. in five schools for girls, 168; four for boys, 131; eleven for both sexes, 317; one for children of colour, 34. Total 650. The expence of tuition varies from 10 to 32 dollars per annum. That of the boarding-schools for girls is 156 dollars per annum for each. The Library Company at Wilmington are proprietors of more than 1000 volumes.
Agriculture.-Wheat is the staple production. Indian corn, barley, rye, flax, buckwheat, potatoes, are produced in great abundance. It is believed that the climate would not be unfavourable to the culture of cotton, hemp, and silk, at least as far north as Newcastle county. It is ascertained, that in 1814 twentyone farmers in the vicinity of Wilmington owned 4300 sheep, viz. Merinos, 744; mixed breeds, 2317; common, 1239-4300.
The value of lands and houses, as ascertained by the direct tax, was, in 1799: Lands, 4,053,248 dollars; houses, 2,180,165,--total, 6,233,413.
In 1814 the value of lands, houses, and slaves, was 14,361,469; increase of the value of lands and houses, (excluding the slaves, estimated at 300 dollars each,) 7,000,000.
Manufactures.-In May 1814 there were, within twenty miles of Wilmington, thirty manufacturing establishments, of which the cost has been estimated at 150,000 dollars. The year following the number of water-works within nine miles of Wilmington amounted to ninety-nine. Their value, independent of capital, has been estimated at 500,000 dollars.
There is a considerable manufacture of iron on the Brandywine creek. The powder-mills belonging to Messrs Dupont, on the same stream, manufacture from 15,000 to 16,000 pounds weight of powder weekly, of which the net profit is valued at a frank a pound. The capital of this establishment, in 1814, amounted to 210,000 dollars. Wire is also manufactured here, as well as wool, cotton, and card machinery.
In 1810, gunpowder, 250,000 pounds, value, 125,000 dollars.
The mills on Brandywine creek, and Redclay and Whiteclay creeks, manufacture half a million of bushels of flour annually, employing upwards of 600 workmen. In the immediate vicinity of Wilmington there are fourteen mills for grinding corn, each with two pair of stones, These mills give employment to nine sloops, from forty to sixty tons burthen.
Products of Vegetable Substances.
Two rope walks,
42 wheat mills,
476 barrels, value,
To these add 30,000 barrels of corn meal; 150,000 lbs. of pearl barley from 2 mills, value 10,000 dollars; besides lumber from the Cypress Swamp in Sussex county.
Products of Animal Substances.
Total amount of manufactures in 1810,
In February 1817 an association was formed under the name of "The Society of the State of Delaware for the Promotion of American Manufactures."
Commerce.-The chief articles of export are flour, iron, paper, and lumber, which are sent to the neighbouring states, and the West Indies. The exports, in 1791, were valued at 199,840 dollars; in 1805 at 358,383, of which 280,556 was of foreign produce; in 1811 they amounted only to 88,623 dollars, of which 11,678 consisted of foreign articles. The tonnage of the state for 1810 was 8192. Banks.-The banking establishments at Wilming
Price of commercial articles of manufacture in 1814.-The yard of superfine cloth, from 7 to 9 dollars; the pound of wool, from 1 to 2; the yard of manufactured cloth from the clear wool, from 2 to 3 dollars; the pound of cannister gunpowder, 1 dollar; of barrel powder, 52 cents; the pound of saitpetre, 36 cents; refined, 44; of sulphur, 10; the cord of wood in charcoal, 10. The average wages of boys and girls, in the cotton and woollen manufactures, two dollars per week,
ton, in 1815, were as follows: The bank of Delaware, 110,000 dollars capital. The Wilmington and Brandywine bank, 120,000 dollars. A branch of the Farmers' Bank of the state of Delaware, capital unknown.
Steam-boats.-Several ply as packets between Newcastle on the Delaware and Philadelphia.
Light-houses.-Cape Henlopen lighthouse. Keeper's salary 400 dollars.
Bridges.-Lewiston bridge extends a quarter of mile from the town to the beach across a creek. Christiana Creek is crossed by a bridge eight miles south-west of Wilmington.
Canal.-A canal is partly cut across this state and a section of Maryland, for the purpose of uniting the Delaware with the Chesapeak bay, a distance of eighteen or twenty miles, passing between Elk river and Christiana creek. It is proposed to open another canal between Levite's creek and Rehoboth's bay.
Inventions claimed by Persons belonging to this State.
Brewster's (Gilbert) machine for spinning wool by water power, which is said to exceed any thing of the kind known in Europe. It produces yarn of a superior quality, from thirty to sixty cuts in the pound, and can be made to produce a hundred.
Hervey's (E.) machine for shearing superfine Merino casimeres, equal to any thing executed by hand shears. Both these machines are in operation on the Brandywine creek.
Books relating to the History of this State.
1. Article Delaware of the American edition of the Encyclopedia, published at Philadelphia.
2. Article in Niles's Weekly Register, to which we have been chiefly indebted for our description.
3. Mr Millen's Description of Delaware, Boston, in 1793.