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Tortoise-shell, ivory, and horn,
miscellaneous goods, the quantity was valued at 71,612
Agriculture.-The whole state is divided into farms of from 50 to 500 acres, holden in fee-simple by the cultivators thereof, who, without being rich, live in the most comfortable manner. The painted dwellings and farm houses, surrounded with woods and orchards, give a very animated appearance to the country. The principal agricultural productions are Indian corn, rye, oats, barley, buck-wheat, wheat in some parts, flax and hemp. The uplands, well manured, give from 40 to 50 bushels of Indian corn per acre. Rye is raised in considerable quantity; and tobacco thrives well.
Produce. The greatest produce of the township of Newhaven is as follows: Wheat, 40 bushels per acre; rye, 28; barley, 45; maize, 80; oats, 60; flax, 620 lbs.; grass, 4 tons. *
Culinary Plants.-Potatoes, pumpkins, turnips, peas, onions, beans, &c. t Weatherfield is famous for its produce of onions.
* Dwight's Statistical Account of Newhaven, cited by Dr Morse. + Dr Douglas informs us, that, on the first arrival of Europeans, the Indian corn was the only cerealia cultivated; and the French or kidney beans the only kind of pulse.
Fruit. The orchards produce fine apples, peaches,
The silk worm has been reared in one or two places, but little silk has been produced, owing to the high price of labour, and the low rate at which this article is imported from France and Italy.
Grasses.-Red and white top grasses, black grsss, and white clover. The vallies and artificial meadows produce two tons of hay per acre. The wild daisy does not thrive.
Horses, neat Cattle and Sheep, are raised in great numbers. The horses are generally slender; with a long switch tail and mane, have a good head and neck, but fall off in the hinder parts, being, in the language of the jockey, "goose-rumped, and cat-ham'd." The Merino breed of sheep was first introduced into this state by Colonel Humphreys.
The price of land varies, as in other states, according to its quality and situation. The quality is indicated by the growth of trees. The best lands produce chestnuts and walnuts; those of a secondary quality, beech and white oak; the next, fir, pitch, and pine; and the worst are covered with shrubs, whortle, huckleberry, &c. In 1749, during a dry state of weather, in the months of June and July, the herbage was destroyed by a small grasshopper. Wheat is attacked by the Hessian fly, and is liable to be blasted near the barberry bush.
Value of Lands and Houses, as established by the Assessors of the Direct Tax.
In 1799, lands,
Increase in 15 years,
Commerce.-The exports consist of live-stock, timber, grain, fish, pork, beef, cider, butter, and cheese; also articles of iron and steel manufacture, which are exported to the West India islands, and maritime parts of the Union. To the Carolinas and Georgia are sent salt beef, butter, cheese, hay, potatoes, apples, and cider, in exchange for rice, indigo, or treasure. The exports, in 1805, amounted to 1,443,729 dollars; in 1810, to 768,643. The imports consist of wines, groceries, and European manufactured goods, of the finer kind. The shipping, which, in 1800, amounted to 32,867 tons, was increased in 1811 to more than 45,000 tons. The ports of entry are five in number; New London, Newhaven, Fairfield, Middletown, and Stonington. The two principal harbours are those of New London and Newhaven. The former, which is fortified, admits of large vessels; the latter, situated near the mouth of the Thames, is well adapted for commercial purposes.
In 1814, they amounted to
There are light-houses at New London, Faulkner's island, Lynde point, Five-mile point, and Fairweather island.
* Diminution occasioned by the non-intercourse.
Banks.-Nine in number, of which the capital, in 1812, amounted to 2,500,000 dollars. Another, the Phœnix bank, since incorporated in May 1814, has a capital of a million of dollars, payable by instalments of twelve dollars and a half on a share, at the expira tion of every ninety days.
There are no canals in this state.
Bridges.-Across the Connecticut river, at Hartford, there is a fine wooden bridge, with three arches, supported by stone piers. The expence amounted to 100,000 dollars. At the mouth of the Shetucket river, a branch of the Thames, there is another wooden bridge, 124 feet in length, and a third has been lately thrown across the Housatonic, at Statford.
The state prison in the mountains at Simsbury, about fifteen miles from Hartford, is inclosed with iron pales, about fourteen feet high. The criminals sleep in a dungeon, ninety feet below the surface, which was dug by a company of copper miners, who having exhausted the ore, or finding their labours unprofitable, sold the place to the legislature of the state. *
Roads. The first American turnpike roads were made in this state. In 1808 there were fifty turnpike companies for the establishment of the same number of roads, thirty-nine of which, measuring 770 miles, were then completed. That from Hartford to Newhaven, thirty-four miles, cost 80,000 dollars.
*From Mr Martin Stanley.
Inventions claimed by Citizens of this State.
Chittendom's (of Newhaven) machine for bending and cutting card teeth, invented in 1784, and afterwards greatly improved The machine is put in motion by a mandaril twelve inches in length and one in diameter, by one revolution of which one tooth is made, and 36,000 in an hour. *
Miller and Whitney's (of Newhaven) saw-gin, or machine for separating cotton from its seed. Before this invention it was performed with the hand; and so slow was the operation, that one pound a day, by one person, was the usual produce; and the quantity by this process is more than 1000 pounds daily. The patent right of this machine was purchased by the legislature of the state for the sum of 50,000 dollars.
Bushnel's (David, of Saybrook) various machines for annoying the British vessels during the revolutionary war.
Culver's (of Norwich) machine for the clearing of docks and removing bars in rivers, by means of which the channel of the Thames has been considerably decpened.
Humphrey's (William) machine for spinning wool by water, by means of which twelve spindles will perform as much as a jenny of forty spindles. The right of construction may be purchased at a dollar a spindle.
Works relating to the History of this State.
1. Douglas's Summary, article Connecticut.
2. Morse's Geography, article Connecticut.
3. Trumbull's (Rev. Benj. D. D.) History of this State.
4. Dwight's (Dr) Statistical Account of Newhaven, 1798.
5. Holt's (Charles) Short Account of the Yellow Fever, as it appeared in New London, in August, September, and October, 1798, pp. 24. New London.
* Morse's Geography.