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instructed “ not to suffer the use of a printing-press, on any occasion whatever;" and Sir William Berkeley thanked heaven, “ that there was not a printing-press in any of the southern provinces.” The increase of the colony was retarded by mal-administration, by civil commotions, and Indian hostilities. In 1677 the trade of the colony was monopolized by adventurers from New England, who, to avoid the payment of duties created by the revenue laws, trafficked with the colonists at their doors, and introduced the use of ardent spirits. The arrest of Gillam, one of these traders, created a revolt, the president and six members of the council were imprisoned, and the insurgents exercised authority during the space of two years.

The neighbouring Indians had been much weakened by a pestilential fever, and different engagements with more remote tribes, so that they had ceased to be an object of fear; but finding that encroachments were made on lands reserved in acts of cession, they formed the plan of a general massacre of the whites, 130 of whom fell by the tomahawk in one night. The number of fencible men at this epoch did not exceed 2000; the Indian warriors of Corees and Tuscaroras amounted to 1200; and, elated with this sanguinary success, they continued their hostility until the arrival of troops from South Carolina, under the command of Colonel Craven, by whom they were subdued, and obliged to sue for peace. In 1717, the Tuscaroras, finding their numbers greatly reduced, abandoned the country, and joined the confederacy of the five nations; other tribes continued for some time

to harass the frontiers ; and the proprietors, discouraged, sold the country to the crown in 1729, for the sum of 17,500 pounds sterling, after which it was erected into a separate province. The colony soon afterwards received an increase of population, by the arrival of Moravians, who settled between the rivers Yadkin and Dan, and of Irish and Scotch Presbyterians, who established themselves in the north-western parts; but its progress was again retarded, by an insurrection in 176.5 of royalists, or tories, under the name of regulators, who, demanding “ justice for poor Carolina," bound themselves by oath to resist with arms the proposed stamp on paper and vellum, and new duties on imported articles. Defeated by governor Tryon, with the loss of 800 men, they sued" for pardon. The unpopular laws were afterwards repealed, various improvements were introduced, and the province, fertile in resources, continued to prosper, until the commencement of the revolutionary war, of which it was for some time the theatre. Brunswick, on Cape Fear river, the first settled town in the province, was destroyed during the war, and has never been rebuilt. The Carolina militia were beaten at Moore's creek bridge, in 1776, but they were victorious at the Briar creek, in 1779, at Waxhaws, in 1780, and at the court-house at Guilford, in 1781.

Civil or Administrative Division of the State of

North Carolina, with the Population of each County and Chief Town in 1810, the year of the late Enumeration.

Counties.

Chief Towns.
Wadesborough

Anson,
Ash,
Beaufort,
Bertie,
Bladen,
Brunswick,
Buncombe,
Burke,
Cabarrus,
Camden,
Carteret,
Caswell,
Chatham,
Chowan,
Columbus,
Craven,
Cumberland,
Carrituck,
Duplin,
Edgecomb,
Franklin,
Gates,
Granville,
Green,
Guilford,
Halifax,
Haywood,
Hertford,
Hyde,
Iredell,

Population.
8,831
3694
7,203
11,218
5,671
4,778
9,277
11,007
6,158
5,347
4,823
11,757
12,977
5,275

3,022 12,676 9,382 6,985 7,863 12,423 10,166

5,965 15,576

4,867
11,420
15,620
2,780
6,052
6,029
10,972

Washington, 600
Windsor.
Elizabethtown,
Brunswick.
Ashville.
Morgantown.
Concord.
Jonesburg.
Beauford.
Leasburg.
Pittsborough.
Edenton, 1,500
Whitesville.
Newbern, 2,467
Fayetteville, 1,800
Indian Town,
Sarecto.
Tarborough,

600
Louisburg
C. H.
Williamsborough.
C. H.
Martinsville, 300
Halifax.

Wynton.
Germantown.
Statesville,

1,689

Counties. Johnson, Jones, Lenoir, Lincoln, Martin, Meckenburg, Moore, Montgomery, Nash, New Hanover, Northampton, Onslow, Orange, Pasquotank, Person, Pitt, Perquimons, Randolph, Richmond, Robeson, Rockiogham, Rowan, Rutherford, Sampson, Stokes, Surry, Tyrrel, Wake, Warren, Washington, Wayne, Wilkes,

Chief Towns. Smithfield. Trenton. Kington. Lincolnton. Williamston. Charlotte. Alfordstown. Henderson. C. H. Wilmington, C. H. Swansborough. Hillsborough. Nixonton. Roxboro. Greenville. Hartford. C. H. Rockingham. Lumberton, Dambury. Salisbury, Rutherfordton. C, H. Upper Sara. Salem, Elizabethtown. Raleigh, Warrenton, Plymouth. Waynesborough. Wilkes, C. H.

208

500

700

1,000

700

62

Population.

6,867 4,968 5,572 16,359

5,987 14,272 6,367 8,430 7,268 11,465 13,082

6,669 20,135 7,674 6,612 9,169 6,052 10,112 6,695 7,528 10,316 21,543 13,202

6,620 11,645 10,366

3,364 17,086 11,001 3,454 8,687 9,08+

555,500

Constitution. The plan of government was formed in 1776 (18th December) by a provincial congress as

sembled at Halifax. The Senate is composed of representatives, one for each county, annually chosen by ballot. The House of Commons consists of two representatives for each county, and one for each of six towns, chosen in the same manner. A member of the Senate must have resided a year immediately preceding the election in the county in which he is chosen, and must possess 300 acres of land in fee. A member of the House of Commons must have resided a year in the county in which he is chosen, where he must also be proprietor of 100 acres of land in fee, or for the term of his own life. The electors of the senators must be freemen of twenty-one years of age, who have resided in the state twelve months preceding the election, and possess a freehold within the county of fifty acres of land. The electors of the members of the House of Commons must also be freemen, twenty-one years of age, who have paid public taxes, and been inhabitants of the state twelve months immediately preceding the election.

The representatives of the towns are chosen by freeholders who have paid public taxes, and been inhabitants therein during twelve months. The executive power is vested in a governor and council of state, chosen by ballot by the assembly. The governor is elected for one year, and is ineligible to office for more than three of six successive years.

He must be thirty years of age, a resident of the state for more than five years, and a freeholder of lands and tenements above the value of L. 1000. He is authorized to draw for, and to apply such monies as are vot:d by the general assembly for the contingencies of the government, for which he is

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