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ocean to the southward of George town, divides into two branches, the Congaree and Wateree, at the distance of 120 miles from its mouth. Boats of seventy tons navigate to Camden on the former branch, and to Granby on the latter, where the falls and rapids com
In the upper country, the Congaree, which, in some places, is more than a quarter of a mile wide, has the name of Broad river. The Wateree, which takes the name of Catawba in the upper country, is in several places 300 or 400 yards in width, while the Santee, the common channel of both, and which also receives the Saluda, does not measure more than 200 or 300 yards generally, and in the rocky soil is contracted to eighty or ninety. On the Catawba falls, or cataracts, which extends two miles and a half, forming a descent of ninety feet, the “ Gulf," or channel, is but sixty-five yards wide, while ahove this passage it is 180, and below 318 yards. The Pedee river, which traverses the northern parts of the state in its course to the ocean, is navigable to Greenville for boats of seventy tons, and for those of less size to Chatham, where the channel is impeded by rocks and shallows. Edisto river, which rises in the middle country, is boatable to a considerable distance from the ocean. The Combahee and Ashepoo, which run into St Helena Sound, are navigable for schooners, to the distance of thirty miles from their outlets. Ashley river, which empties itself into Charleston harbour, on the southern side of the city, is there 2100 yards wide, and is navigable several miles for sea vessels. Cooper river, which empties itself into the same harbour, on the east
ern side, where its width is 1400 yards, is navigable for schooners and sloops to the distance of fifty miles. Broad, Coosaw, and Port Royal, which are rather bays, or arms of the sea, than rivers, have deep water, and are capable of containing a considerable navy. The bar, or entrance, of the first is nearly a mile in breadth, and carries twenty. three feet at low water. Charleston harbour is excellent; there is a sand bar at its entrance, on which, at low tide, there is but ten or twelve feet water. The depth of sea water, to the distance of several miles from the coast, is from two to five fathoms. The tide in the Santee and Savannah rivers flows to the distance of fifteen miles, and in those where the stream is less impetuous, it ascends more than double this distance, in a direct line from the ocean. The neap-tides rise to the height of six or eight feet ; the spring-tides from eight to ten.
Inundations. In the year 1701, and in January 1796, the sudden melting of the ice and snows of the Apalachian mountains, accompanied with heavy rain, swelled the Santee river to more than thirty feet above its usual level. The waters of almost all the rivers of the upper country uniting at the confluence of the Wateree and Congaree, forced their passage across the low country, destroyed bridges, houses, cattle, and provisions, to a considerable amount, and overflowed the rice plantations near the ocean, during a week, till it escaped by the different bays which communicate with the eastern branch of Cooper river.
Islands.--Along the sea coasts are numerous islands, some of which rise towards the sea, in conical sandhills, from sixteen to twenty feet high, while, towards the mainland, they are level and marshy. Some of them are of large dimensions, and the soil extremely fertile, producing white, red, and live oak, pine, gum, hickery, elm, laurel, bay, dogwood, sassafras, with jesmines, and other beautiful shrubs, Others, less fertile, produce the pine, bay-tree, live oak, cedar, palmetto cabbage, palmetto royal, silk grass, myrtle, wild olive, cassena, the toothach-tree, prickly pear, &c. Bull's, Davies's, and Sullivan's Islands, form the north part of the harbour. Edisto island, situated about forty miles south-west of Charleston, is twelve miles long, and from one to five miles in breadth, containing 28,811 acres, three-fourths of which are cleared. Port Royal island. Pinkney island, nine miles in circumference, is situated in latitude 32° 12'.
Minerals.- Ironore, of an excellent quality, abounds in the upper country, particularly in the districts of Pendleton, Greenville, York, and Spartanburgh. The average produce is one-fourth of its weight of metal. Magnetic iron ore, called Magnet Stones, are found in the upper parts of Newberry district, near the Enoree river. Copper ore.-Rich specimens have been discovered near the iron works in York district. Lead ore, found in the Cherokee mountains, not far beyon the boundary line, produces two-thirds of its weight of good metal. This ore is also said to exist in the Catawba lands, and in the district of Pendleton. Gold.A small bit of it is said to have been found on Paris mountain, in Greenville district. Quartz, or millstone rock, is found in different parts. Slate, near the
head waters of Lynch's creek. Grey-stone, or freestone, on the Catawba river, near the confluence of Beaver creek, and near Reowee river. Limestone is found in King's mountains, in York district ; also at the Eutaws, near Orangeburgh, and Ricketty creek. Soapstone, in York district, and other parts. Ochres, red and yellow, in the iron ore bed in York district.
Mineral Springs.- Pacolet spring, in the upper country, on the eastern side of Pacolet river, is supposed to hold sulphur and iron in solution. These waters have never yet been analyzed. They are found useful in the cure of rheumatic, cutaneous, and other complaints. 2. Two other similar springs are situated, the one in the Catawba lands, near the road leading from Landsford to Hill and Haynen iron works ; the other on the banks of the Waxaw creek. 3. Another mineral sulphureous spring issues from the eastern side of Paris mountain. It is resorted to for the cure of rheumatism, ring-worms, and cutaneous disorders. 4. Of the same description is the spring which issues from a whitish clay, or chalky hill, near Rice creek, in Richland district; and also another between the forks of Lynch creek. Both are resorted to in autumn, by persons afflicted with the above diseases, who find relief from drinking and bathing in their waters. 5. In Barnwell district, near the foot of an elevated ridge, and along the edge of the Little Saltcatcha swamp, there are several springs, not yet analyzed, which are celebrated for the cure of “ sores, lameness, and pains in the body.” The inhabitants of Springton use their waters for domestic purposes. 6. The Eutaw springs, from which issues the creek of the same name, have a purgative effect for some time on those who are not in the habit of drinking them, owing, probably, to their subterraneous passage of 100 paces through porous limestone, and masses of oyster shells. These waters were of great use to the soldiers wound. ed in the engagement which took place there in the year 1781, between the English and American armies.
Forest Trees.-In Orangeburgh district, on the north-east side of North Edisto river, seventy-nine miles from Charleston, a great proportion of the wood is pine. In the vicinity of waters are the magnolia, beech, willow, ash, elm, oak, birch, walnut, hickery. In swamps, the cypress, sweet bay, maple, tupelo, and cypresses of immense size. In St Stephen's district, fifty miles to the north-west of Charleston, the number of pine trees to the acre is from 100 to 150; they live about 200 years. In Pendleton district, the rich clayey soil, mixed with a black mould of the highlands, pro. duces oak, hickery, and pine. The low grounds, with a black mould, and small portion of clay, or of mould and grey sand, produce walnut, poplar, elm, white oak, ash, beech, birch, elder, chestnut. In the same district, near the south-western extremity of the state, snake-root and pink-root abound. The latter, of which from twenty to thirty pounds may be gathered in a day by one person, is exported. Gentian root and ginseng are also common. The plant called Earthgall is employed to cure persons bitten by serpents, or other venomous creatures. One or two table-spoon