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gardens, orchards, and open fields, are cultivated apples, pears, peaches, plums, and cherries. The climate is very favourable to fruit. Saffron was formerly cultivated in the southern parts; but, owing to want of care in the culture and manufacture, the drug was inferior to that of Flanders and Cambridgeshire. * The Jersey cider is famed for its superior quality. The peaches are of a fine flavour. In 1815, M. Brouning raised 120 water melons, the average weight of which was nearly fifty pounds. They were sold at the Philadelphia market. In the mountainous parts and salt meadows, near the sea coast, great numbers of cattle are raised. Some of the marshes yield three tons an acre of coarse hay, which is mown twice a-year, in the latter end of May and beginning of September. The meadows on Maurice river are drained by means of ditches and sluice-gates. The return made for the year 1814, shows a rapid increase in the number of sheep. There were, Merinos, 3807; mixed blood, 25,826; common show, 204,729. Total, 234,362. A flock of full-blooded Merinos was shown at Elizabethtown, in June 1815, the fleeces of which weighed nearly 7 pounds each. Two fine Arabian horses were lately imported into this state by M. Coxe, late consul at Tunis. The agriculture of New Jersey is, upon the whole, not equal to that of Massachusetts, but improvements are gradually introduced. By the application of gypsum as a manure, the quantity of hay has been greatly increased. Four tons of herd-grass from
* American Husbandry, Vol. I. p. 138.
an acre is considered as a common crop. The Hessian fly, or wheat insect, (Tipula tritice,) has, in some years, done great injury to the crop.
In a wild and romantic situation, on Bergen Creek, nearly opposite the city of New York, thirty acres of land were purchased, for a gar den and fruitery, by the unfortunate Lewis XVI., who, as proprietor, became a naturalized citizen, by an act of the legislature.
Manufactures.—The farmers generally make their own clothing; but various manufactures on a large scale have been lately introduced, of woollen and cotton articles, leather, glass, and paper. Those of iron and leather are more than equal to the consumption. The manufactures are greatly indebted to an association formed at Newark for their encouragement. Leather is manufactured on a large scale at Newark, Trenton, and Elizabethtown. At the first mentioned place there is an extensive shoe manufactory. But the iron manufactures, which are established in the counties of Morris, Sussex, Burlington, and Gloucester, are the most valuable.
Products of Mineral Substances in 1810.-The Iron Works in the counties of Gloucester, Burlington, Sussex, and Morris, produce annually 1200 tons of bariron, eighty of nail rods, besides a great quantity of hollow ware and castings.
In 1810, Glass, square feet,
Gunpowder, 2 mills, pounds,
There is a copper mine in this state from which copper was procured in large quantities by the Schuyler family, and sent to England before the revolution. L. 100,000 is said to have been offered for the ground which contained the vein. It has been twice leased, but, from some cause unexplained, has not been worked since the revolution. The mine is situated in a stratified hill, six miles in length, and two in breadth, rising with a gentle ascent to the height of ninety-six feet above the level of the sea. On the south-west side three shafts were sunk. The produce near the surface was from twelve to twenty-five per cent.; of the north branch, and of the deepest vein, fifty-five. The vitreous copper ore, of a dark blue colour, gave from seventy-five to ninety per cent. of copper, and from four to seven of silver. When fine copper sold in England for L. 75 sterling per ton, this ore was valued at L. 70.*
Products of Vegetable Substances in 1810,
Flax-seed oil, gallons, 29,600,
Beer, ale, and porter,
Work of mahogany saw-mills,
Of cider a great quantity is made at Newark, of excellent quality. On the 1st of October 1814 there
* Proposals for establishing an association for working mines, and manufacturing metals in the United States. Philadelphia, 1796.
were twenty cotton-mills in the county of Essex, with 32,500 spindles. The produce of yarn per week was estimated at L. 300,000, which, converted into cloth at forty cents a yard, would amount to 1,678,000 dollars a-year. The whole manufactures of New Jersey, in 1810, were valued at 7,057,594 dollars, besides the work of mahogany saw-mills, amounting to 6000 dollars.
Animal Substances.-At Newark the manufacture of shoes is carried on to a great extent. There are Tanneries at Trenton, Newark, and Elizabethtown. Of Woollen manufactories in 1814 there were ten in Essex county, nine in Salem, eleven in Sussex, eight in Burlington, five in Gloucester, four in Somerset, three in Cumberland, six in Morris, two in Middle
Butter and Cheese are made in great quantity for the supply of the markets of New York and Philadelphia.
Commerce.-From the earliest period the principal commerce has been carried on with New York ; but a small quantity of oil, fish, grain, and other provision, was annually shipped for Portugal, Spain, and the Canaries. The paper money, which, in this as in the other colonies, was the only currency, amounted, before the revolution, to L. 60,000 sterling; and as New York and Pennsylvania did not receive each other's bills, payments between them were made in the paper of New Jersey.
The exports consist of live cattle, fruit, iron, butter and cheese, hams, cider, flax-seed, leather, lumber ;
but as the largest proportion of the produce is carried to the markets of New York and Philadelphia, the annual value is not well ascertained. From those markets again the greatest part of the imports are drawn. The foreign commerce is very inconsiderable, though there is an excellent harbour at Perth Amboy into which vessels safely enter with one tide. The exports, which, in 1799, amounted to 9722 dollars, in 1810 increased to 430,267 dollars. The shipping, belonging principally to Amboy, amounted in 1811 to 43,000 tons.
Bridges.-Hackinsac bridge, across the river of the same name, constructed of wood, is 1000 feet in length. Pasaick bridge, across the Pasaick river, is 900 feet in length. The bridge across the Rariton river at New Brunswick, completed in 1795, is 1000 feet long, and sufficiently wide for two carriages abreast, besides a foot-way. It is supported by ten stone pillars. The bridge over the Delaware river at Trenton is 1008 feet in length, and 36 in breadth. It consists of five wooden arches of 194 feet span, supported by stone piers. The platform, or carriage-way, is suspended from these arches, and being covered, affords shelter to the passengers.
Roads. That from Trenton to Elizabethtown, through New Brunswick, forty-three miles in length, cost 2500 dollars per mile. Another turnpike road
• So called from the Earl of Perth, (James Drummond,) one of the proprietors of this place, and Amboy, from the Indian word ambo, which signifies a point.