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situation; the ash prefers low fertile places; the red cedar a meagre arid soil; the sumach little eminences in the forest; the small bears' oak the summit of hills.

Shrubs.-The most common are the broad-leaved kalmia, (latifolia,) which grows on the highest sides of mountains to their very summit; the azalea, which abounds in dry places in the forest; the Rhus radicans, which climbs to the tops of trees; the wild grape vine, of different kinds, which cover the hedges and grassy vallies. Near Lake Erie there is a thick growth of the sertica whitlows, from five to six feet high; the myrtle, broom, common ivy, and blackberry, abound in all moist places.

Animals.-The elk was formerly numerous in the western parts, as shown by the name of Elk lands and Elk lake; but now this animal is rarely seen, and never except in the north-western parts. Deer are still common in the uncultivated districts, as also the brown bear, the wolf, wild cat, fox, racoon, opossum; the grey, striped, and flying squirrel; rabbit, hare, and minx. The musk rat is common in marshy places; the beaver and otter are nearly extinct; the cougouar is rarely seen.

Of Birds the most useful are the wild turkey, Meleagris gallipavo, which inhabits the hilly and mountainous parts; the ruffed grous, Tetrao umbellus; the Pennsylvanian pheasant, Tetrao cupido, different from the common pheasant of England; the Maryland partridge, Tetrao Virginianus; the wild or passenger pigeon, Columba migratoria, and the Carolina pigeon,

*

or turtle dove. Dr Barton remarks, that all these are seen throughout the whole year. In the river Susquehannah, near Havre de Grace, the Canvas black duck, which is highly esteemed by epicures, is numerous in winter.

In

Fishes.-The eastern creeks abound with a white fish called salmon, with trout, shad, and herring, carp, eels, rock-fish; the western waters with cat-fish, yellow perch, trout, rock-fish, and pike. The trout of the ponds and smaller streams is very delicious. July 1816, an eel was caught in the river Delaware, four feet in length, eight inches in circumference, and weighing five pounds and a half. The shad are taken in the Schuylkill by nets fifty or sixty yards long, and about six feet wide, which are sunk at the one side by pieces of lead, while the other side is floated by pieces of cork. One end is fastened to a stake, and the other is carried round with a sweep, so as to form a circular inclosure, within which the fish are secured. Sometimes several hundreds are taken at a draft, weighing five pounds each. +

Insects. An insect, supposed to be a species of locust, but now known as a grasshopper, was first observed and described by the rector of the Swedish church in Philadelphia, the Reverend Andrew Sandall, in May 1715. He says, that the Indians roasted and ate them, and that they were devoured by swine and fowls. They died in the month of June.

They

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Fragments of the Natural History of Pennsylvania. 1799. + Sutcliffe's Travels,

p. 271.

See fourth volume of the Medical Repository of New York, p. 71.

have visited the country at the interval of seventeen or eighteen years. The caterpillar sometimes appears in great numbers, and devours the leaves of trees. The grass or meadow worm is another destructive insect which sometimes visits this country. Another insect, injurious to the pea, has multiplied in this state, whence it has proceeded northerly to places where formerly it was unknown. Grasshoppers and fleas are indigenous. The last devour the hares and squirrels. The bug is also an inhabitant, but was imported, and is not found among the Indians. Of blistering flies, three or four species have been discovered. The musquito is sometimes troublesome in low vallies, but never in the elevated parts. The beetle, known by the name of tumble-bug, (Scarabeus pilularis Americanus,) is in many parts destructive to the Indian corn.

Population.

In 1685, the number of inhabitants was 7000

1749,

1755,

1774,

1790,

1800,

1810,

220,000

280,000

350,000

434,373

602,549

810,091

Slaves* Free included. Blacks.

3737 6587

1706 14,564

795 22.492

which gives this state the third rank in the state of population. The three last enumerations were made according to law; the two first by estimate. The influence of the Quakers at that period prevented the

The first slaves were imported in 1620 by the Hollanders; and the Indians believed that they were mannitous, evil spirits of devils.

establishment of a poll-tax, or an incorporated militia, by means of which the number of inhabitants would have been more exactly ascertained.

According to the census of 1810,

There were under sixteen,
Between sixteen and forty-five,
Above forty-five,

Males.

Females.

201,070 192,712

148,396

146,786

52,100

45,740

Diseases.-The most general diseases are rheumatism and pleurisy. The first very common in the interior parts, where, at the age of eighteen or twenty, it becomes chronic, and refuses to yield to any remedy except change of climate, which generally restores the patient to health. The goitre is said to prevail in a slight degree in the neighbourhood of Pittsburg. In the Bald Eagle valley, in Mifflin county, situated about 200 miles north north-west of Philadelphia, a fever, accompanied with black vomiting, proved fatal to many of the inhabitants during the season of autumn and part of the winter of 1799. The weather was unusually dry, and the disease was supposed to be generated by the miasms of the numerous ponds of this low valley. In the autumns of 1793 and 1797, the city of Philadelphia was visited by yellow fever; at the former period between 3000 and 4000, and at the last more than 1200 persons fell victims. The bill of mortality in this city, in 1808 and 1809, as ascertained by the board of health, was as follows: In 1808, adults 1046, children 1229; in 1809, adults 1023, children 981. The greatest number of deaths was in July and August. Though the sudden changes at Philadelphia be unfavourable to longevity, yet several persons have

lived to the age of 100 years. In 1792 and 1793 two persons died, the one 105, the other 108 years and 9 months. In 1782 died Edward Drinker, aged 103

years.

Civil or Administrative Division of the State of Pennsylvania, with the Population of each County and Chief Town in 1810, the year of the last Enumera

tion.

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