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Internal Government.-The annual election for civil officers is on the second Tuesday of October. Inspectors, previously elected by the people, appoint persons who act as judges of the election, and the latter furnish a sealed statement of the election to the sheriff, who, within the space of thirty days, transmits it to the governor, by whom the names of the new members are immediately published. In Philadelphia, the aldermen, fifteen in number, are elected by the freeholders, every seven years; the common-council men, thirty in number, every third year. The mayor is elected annually by the aldermen, out of their own body; the recorder, every seven years, by the mayor and aldermen, from among the citizens; the mayor, recorder, eight aldermen, and sixteen common-council men, form a quorum.
Religion. The principles of religious freedom were first established by the illustrious Penn. “If abridged of the freedom of their consciences, as to their religious profession and worship, no people can be happy; and, therefore, I do grant and declare, that no person inhabiting this province or territories, who shall acknowledge one Almighty God, the Creator, Ruler, and Upholder of the world, and live quietly under the civil government, shall in any case be molested, or prejudiced in his person, or estate, because of his conscientious persuasion or practice." Before the revolution Roman Catholics and Jews were excluded from a share in the government. The latter had no vote till the adoption of the new constitution, which placed every denomination on the same footing as to public
offices and employments. About the year 1802 the congregations of the different denominations were as follows: Presbyterians, 36; German Calvinists, 84; German Lutherans, 84; Quakers, 54; Episcopalians, 26; Baptists, 15; Roman Catholics, 11; Scotch Presbyters, 8; Moravians, 8; Free Quakers, 1; Univer salists, 1; Covenanters, 1; Jewish Synagogues, 2; besides several Methodists. According to the report of the general convention of Baptists, held at Philadelphia, in May 1817, the number of their churches was then 60, that of members 4517.
Benevolent and Humane Societies.-In the city of Philadelphia there are eight public charitable institutions, and two private; three female societies for general charity; eight free schools; fifteen mutual benefit societies; associations for the relief of foreigners; and eleven mutual benefit societies, for foreigners and their descendants. St Andrew's society, German incorporated society, St George's society, Hibernian society, French benevolent society, the Cincinnati society, composed of officers of the army of the revolution, for granting relief to the distressed members, their widows, and orphans. The mutual benefit societies arc,-the Shipmasters' society, the Franklin society, the Caledonian society, the Union society, the Friendly society, the Provident society, and some others. Harmony Society, established in Butler county, on the right bank of the Connoquenessing creek, is composed of German emigrants, who, under George Rapp, their chief, in 1803 and 1801, fled from the intolerance of the Lutheran church to the western
world. They consisted at first of 160 families, who purchased 5700 acres of land, and formed theinselves into a society, upon the plan of the apostolic church, as set forth in the Acts of the Apostles. Religion is the chief bond of union among them, and their leading principle is a community of goods, founding on the text, (Acts iv. 32.) "And the multitude of them who believed were of one heart and of one soul; neither said any of them that ought of the things which he possessed was his own; but they had all things common." From a small beginning their annual quantity of agricultural produce, consisting of wheat, rye, oats, barley, and potatoes, exceeds 40,000 bushels, besides 5000 pounds of flax and hemp, 100 gallons of sweet oil, distilled from the white with the propoppy, duce of twelve acres of vineyard. They are industrious, cleanly, devout, and exemplary in their moral conduct. A considerable number of persons have joined the society since it was instituted, and a few have quitted it. They have about 3000 acres of ground cleared, a large stock of cattle, and about 1000 sheep, part of which are Merino or Spanish. The cloth made of this wool is of a good quality. There are about 100 mechanics and 700 labourers among them, all of whom are fed and clothed from the public stores. All the women wear the same dress, a linsey-woollen jacket, or petticoat, and a close black cap tied under the chin, with a woollen or cotton tassel on the crown.
* A branch of this colony has removed to the banks of the Wabash, below Vincennes, where they cultivate the vine, and make cloth of the Merino wool.
By the 7th article of the constitution of Pennsylvania, the legislature is bound to establish schools throughout the state, and to provide for the education of poor children gratuitously; and seminaries are to be established, for the promotion of the arts and sciences. Accordingly, the university of Philadelphia, Dickenson college, at Carlisle, and numerous academies and schools, have been established or encouraged by the legislature; and it has been resolved to endow an academy in each county, at the seat of justice. The university of Pennsylvania was instituted by some of the citizens of Philadelphia, among whom was Dr Franklin, who drew up the original plan, and the proposals for its execution. The college of Pennsylvania, which consisted of the academy and charitable schools, was incorporated in 1753; and, after several additions, it was erected, in 1769, into an university, named, "The University of the State of Pennsylvania," and placed under the direction of a new board of trustees. Some farther changes were afterwards made; and, by an act of the legislature in 1791, the salary of the provost was fixed at 500 dollars, viceprovost 450, professors, each 400, tutors, each 100.
The medical school of this seminary commenced in 1764, and has for many years enjoyed great celebrity. The present professors are: 1. Anatomy. 2. The institutes and practice of physic, and of clinical prac tice. S. Surgery. 4. Materia medica, botany, and natural history. 5. Midwifery. 6. Chemistry. The first lectures on anatomy and surgery, in the United States, were delivered by Dr Shippen, in 1764. The
number of students was then but 10; in 1807 it had increased to 390; and in 1811 to 500. The lectures commence the first Monday in November, and end on the first day of March. An extensive library is attached to the hospital, to which the students have free access, on paying the sum of ten dollars to the establishment. The professorship of languages and philosophy are: 1. Moral philosophy and logic. 2. Mathematics and natural philosophy. 3. Belles lettres. 4. Languages. In the year 1817 a new faculty was established, denominated the faculty of Natural science, consisting of a professorship of Natural philosophy. 2. Of mineralogy and chemistry. 3. Of botany. 4. Of natural history, including geology and zoology. 5. Of comparative anatomy.
College of Carlisle.-This college, which has the name of Dickinson, in honour of its founder, the honourable John Dickinson, of Pennsylvania, was established in 1783. Four years after it contained 80 students, and the present number is about 140. Under the direction of 40 trustees it has received from the state a grant of lands, to the extent of 10,000 acres, and 10,000 dollars in founded certificates. The library already consists of 3000 volumes, and the philosophical apparatus is extensive. There are professors of logic, metaphysics, mathematics, the learned languages, modern languages, and of natural philososophy and chemistry.
Franklin College.-This college was established at Lancaster, and named in honour of Dr Franklin. It was founded in 1787, by an association of Germans,