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penitential psalms, reserving to ourselves the power of moderating, changing or taking away entirely or in part, the aforesaid penalties and penitences.
And so we say, pronounce and by our sentence declare, enact, condemn and reserve, by this and every other better mode of formula, by which of right, we can and ought.
So we, the underwritten cardinals, pronounce, F. Cardinal de Asculo, G. Cardinal Bentivolus, F. Cardinal de Cremona, Fr. Antony Cardinal S. Onuphrii, B. Cardinal Gypsius, F. Cardinal Verospius, M. Cardinal Ginethis.
THE ABJURATION OF GALILEO.
I, Galileo Galilei, son of the late Vincent Galileo, a Florentine, of the age of seventy, appearing personally in judgment, and being on my knees in the presence of you, most eminent and most reverend Lords, Cardinals of the Universal christian Commonwealth, Inquisitors General against heretical depravity, having before my eyes the holy gospels, on which I now lay my hands, swear that I always believed, and pow believe, and, God helping, that I shall for the future always believe whatever the holy catholic and apostolic Roman church holds, preaches, and teaches.
But because this holy office had enjoined me by precept, entirely to relinquish the false dogma, which maintains that the sun is the centre of the world and immoveable, and that the earth is not the centre and moves-nor to hold, defend, and teach by any means, or by writing, the aforesaid false doctrine--and after it had been notified to me, tbat the aforesaid doctrine is repugnant to the holy scriptue, I have written and printed a book in which I treat of the same doctrine already condemned, and adduced reasons with great efficacy in favour of it, not offering any solution of thein ; therefore I have been adjudged and vehemently suspected of heresy, namely, that I maintained and believed, that the sun is the centre of the world, and immoveable, and that the earth is not the centre, and moves.
Therefore, being willing to take out of the minds of your eminences, and of every catholic christian this vehement suspicion, of right conceived against me, I, with sincere heart and faith anfeigned, abjure, execrate, and detest the above said errors and herresies, and generally every other error and sect contrary to the above said holy church ; and I swear that I will never any more hereafter say or assert, by speech or writing, any thing through which the like suspicion may be bad of me—but if I shall know any one heretical, or suspected of heresy, I will denounce him to this
holy office,'or te the inquisitors and ordinary of the place in which I shall be. I moreover swear and promise, that I will fulfil and observe entirely all the penitences which have been imposed upon me, or which shall be imposed by this holy office. But if it shall happen, that I shall go contrary (which God avert) to any of my words, promises, protestations, and oaths, I subject myself to all the penalties and punishment, which by the holy canons and other constitutions, general and particular, have been enacted and promulgated against such delinquents—So help me God, and his holy Gospels on which I now lay my hands.
1, the aforesaid Galileo Galilei, have abjured, sworn, promised, and have bound myself as above, and in the fidelity of those with my own hands, and have subscribed to this present writing of my abjuration, which I have recited word by word. At Rome in the convent of Minerva, this 22d day of June, of the year 1632.
1, Galileo Galilei, have abjured as above with my own band.
Religious liberty is a liberty to choose our own religion, to worship God according to our own consciences, according to the best light we have. Every man living as man, has a right to this, as he is a rational creature. The Creator gave him this right, when he endowed him with understanding ; and every man must judge for himself, because every man must give an account of himself to God. Consequently this is an indefeasible right; it is inseperable from humanity; and God did never give authority to any man, or number of men, to deprive any child of man thereof, under any colour or pretence whatever. What an amazing thing is it then, that the governing power of almost every nation under heaven should take upon them, in all ages, to rob all under their power of this liberty! Yea, should take upon them at this day so to do!
To force rational creatures into their own religion !. Would one think it possible, that the most sensible men in the world should say to their fellow-creatures, • Either be of my religion or I will take away your food, and you, and your wife and children shall starve ? If that will not convince you, I will fetter your hands and feet, and throw you into a dungeon ; and if still you will not see as I see, I will burn you alive. It would not be altogether so astonishing, if this were the manner of American sayages. But what shall we say, if numberless instances of it have occurred in the politest nations of Europe? Have no instances of the kind been seen in Britain ? Have not England and Scotland seen the horrid fires ? Have not the flames burning the flesh of heretics, shone in London as well as in Paris and Lisbon.”
"Unlegs either philosophers bear rule in states, or those who are called kings and potentates learn to philosophize justly and properly, and thus both civil power and philosophy are united in the same person, it appears to me that there can be no cessation of calamities, either to states or to the whole human race.
,"-So said Plato, one of the wisest and best men of antiquity--and so says common