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“ world.” Also, in the same writings, the creation of all things in general, is ascribed to the Word. Those words in Deut. xxxiii. 27: “ The eternal God is
thy refuge ; and underneath are the everlasting arms;" are by Onkelos paraphrased, “ The eternal God is an habitation ; by whose Word the world was “ made." And in Isu. xlviii. 13. “Mine hand also hath laid the foundation “ of the earth.” Targum, “ Yea, by my Word I have founded the earth.” Just as the apostle Paul says, Heb. xi. 3.
And Peter, 2 Peter iii. 5, 7. And the author of the apocryphal book of Wisdom, chap. ix. 1. With which entirely agree the sentiments of Philo; who not only speaks of the Word as an organ", or instrument, which God used in the creation of all things; but as the archetype ", paradigm, exemplar, and idea, according to which all things were made: Yea, he calls him dúsa pass X00 HOFCIndoxx °the power which made the world; and ascribes the creation of man to him; after whose image he says he was madep: and also, the creation of the heavens and the earth, and all that is in chem ?
Again, When Jobn calls the Word the Light, he makes use of a word which was known among the Jews to be the name of the Messiah, of whom they understand Pfalm xliii. 3. “O send out thy light and thy truth':” and Dan. ii. 22. " And the Light dwelleth with him.” Pbilo speaks of an intelligible Light, which he makes to be the image of the divine Word ;, and thinks it may be properly called werwysia', the universal Light; which is pretty much like what John says of the Word, whom he calls “ the true Light, which
lightech every man that cometh into the world."
Once more, John speaks of the incarnation of the Word ; and fays, That he was made felh, and dwelt among us,” Pbilo calls the Word ", The man of God; who, he says, being the Word of the Eternal, is himself necessarily immortal. And in the fame book ", he calls him the man after God's image.
o Ibid. p. 4.
η Σκια Θιά δε ο ΛόγΘ- αυ18 ετών, ο καθάπερ οργάνων προαχρησάμενΘ., έκοσμοποίει. Ιbid. Leg. Alleg. 1. 2. p. 79. And elsewhere, speaking of the most ancient Word, whom the Governor of the universe uses as a rudder to steer and direct all things, he adds ; Xporausvos opgave Tót προς την ανυπαίτιον των αποτελεμένων σίσασιν. Ιbid. de migratione Abraham, p. 389.
η Δήλον δε ότι και η αρχίτυπος σφραγίς, δν φαμίν είναι κόσμον νοητόν, αυτός αν είη το αρχέτυπου σαραδειγμα, ιδέα των ιδεών, ο Θε8 Λόγος. Ιbid. de mundi opificio, p. 5.
Ρ 'Ακόλεθoν εν της ανθρώπε ψυχης καλα τον αρχέτυπον τα αιτία Λόγον απεικονισθείσης. Ιbid, De plantatione Noc, p. 217. Vide Ib. Leg. Alleg. 1. 2. p. 79. Et de mundi opificio, p. 31. Leg. Alleg. 1. 1. p. 44. Et de temulentia, p. 244.
* R. Sol. Jarchi in loc. Bereshit Rabba, fol. 1.3. Echa Rabbati, fol. 50. 2, · Philo de mundi cpificio, p. 6.
Η “Ένα και τον αυτόν επιγεγραμμένοι πατέρα και θνητόν, αλλ' αθάνατον, άνθρωπον Θιά, ός το αϊδία Abga ü, i usay xas xai a:lés is d'çlazz@. Philo de confus. ling. p. 326.
And it is easy to observe an agreement between Jesus Christ, who is röywoen, tabernacled among us, and the Shekinah of the Jews. The words in Lev. xxvi, 11, 12. are thus paraphrased by Onkelos ; “ I will lend my tabernacle among you, and my Word shall not reject you : And I will cause
my “ Shekinah to dwell among you, &c.” And the author of the apocryphal book of Baruch, speaks of wisdom or understanding, which is the same with the Word, as appearing on earth and conversing with men'. Now these Jewish. writers speak of the Word after this manner, either on the account of his appearances in an human form, under the Old Testament difpenfation, or on the account of his future incarnation, which John could speak of as palt. And whereas Jobn calls the Word the only begotten of the Father, Philo ' says, “ That he is the Father's most ancient Son, his first born; who being begotten
by him, imitated his Father's ways ; and seeing his exemplars, did the same
things he did.” From the whole it is manifeft, that there is a great likeness between what the evangelist John, and these Jewish writers fay of the Word. And whether he borrowed the phrase from them or no, yet it is plain that he expressed the traditional sense of his nation. Philo's works were wrote before his time; as were also some of the Chaldee paraphrases. A Socinian writer ?,
?, in order to shew that John did not take aóyos from the Targuins, endeavours to prove them to be of a latter date than they are thought to be; about which, we need not be much concerned : and also, that by the Word they never intend a reasonable Person, subsisting by himself; which the instances already produced, confute: to which more might be added, was it requisite. But there is no need to say that John borrowed this phrase from the Jewish Targums; but,
3. From the scriptures of the Old Testament. He manifestly refers to the history of the creation; where, no less than eight times, we read that God said, “ Let it be so, and it was so:" which phrase so often repeated, remains no longer a mystery to us; since 'Jobn has told us, " That by the Word all things “ are made;" in perfect agreement with what the Psalmist says, in Psalm xxxiii. 6. “ By the Word of the Lord were the heavens made, and all the “ host of them, by the breath of his mouth.” Many instances may be given, where the Word intends a divine Person. See 2 Sam. vii. 21. compared with
Μετα τ8το επί της γης ώφθη, και εν τούς ανθρώποις συναντηράφη. Baruch iii. 37. 1 Tiτον μεν γαρ πρεσβύτατον υιόν και των όντων ανέτειλε σαλήρ, δν ετέρωθι πρωτόγονον ονόμασε, και ο γεννηθείς μέντοι μιμέμεναν τας τε πατρός οδες, παραδείγματα αρχέτυπα εκείνα βλέπω», ομόρφυ είδη. Philo de confus. ling. p. 329. Which is very much like what the evangelist John says of the Son of God, in John v. 19.
• Bilibra veritatis, &c. Contr. Rittangel. Ed. Freistad. 1700.
1 Chron. xvii. 19. and Hag. ii. 4, 5. Psalm cvii. 20. From whence John might easily take this phrase, and apply it to a divine Person, as he does. And some have thought that our Lord uses it himself in the same sense, John v. 38. So that John might take it immediately from him ; whose words, in many instances, he takes a peculiar delight in making use of. But I haften,
Secondly, To enquire whether any other inspired writer of the New Testament makes use of this phrase, besides the evangelist John. And upon enquiry, it will appear, that the evangelist Luke, the apostles Paul and Peter use it in the same sense. So that though the evangelist John uses it more frequently than they may, yet it is not peculiar to him. The evangelist Luke is thought to use it in chap. i. 2. and by it, to intend Christ the Word "; when he speaks of the disciples as eye-witnesses, and ministers, or servants of the Word; who, in much greater propriety of speech, may be said to be eye-witnesses of Christ, according to 2 Pet. i. 16. and fervants or followers of him, than of the gofpel, or written word. And it seems very agreeable, that Luke, intending to write a history of the life and actions of Christ, should, in his preface to Theophilus, make mention of him under some name, or another, some title, or character; which he does not, if he is not intended by the Word.
The apostle Paul uses the phrase in this sense, Aats xx. 32. where, taking his farewel of the elders of the church at Ephesus, he commends them to God, and to the Word of his grace : where, by the Word of his grace, I understand not the gospel, or written word, but Jesus Christ, who is full of grace and truth. My reasons for it are these :
1. Because the faints never commend themselves, or others, either in life or in death, to any but a divine Person. The word here used, signifies a committing a person, or thing, to the care, charge, and protection of another. Now none but a divine Person is capable of taking the care and charge of the saints, and of making the same good : neither will the saints trust any other, nor do they. In life they commit their souls to God as to a faithful Creator; and reft entirely satisfied herein, as the apostle Paul did; who could say: " I know “ whom I have believed ;" whom I have trusted with my immortal foul; into whose hands I have committed the salvation of it: “ And I am persuaded, so that he is able to keep that which I have committed to him, against that
day.” Now certainly to whom he committed himself, he also committed others; having had experience of Christ's care, faithfulness, and ability, he could, and undoubtedly did, commend the saints unto him, with the utmost pleasure and satisfaction. And as in life, so likewise in death they commend
themselves a Gomarus in Luke i. 2. and in John i. 1. and in Heb. iv. 12. and Arrowsmith in John i. 1. ollapodílouses fignificat in genere, patrocinio, curæ, ac lutelæ alterius aliquid commendare, Beza.
themselves to none but a divine perfon, in imitation of Christ; who, in his last moments said : “ Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit.”
2. To put the written word upon a level with the divine Being, does not appear very agreeable. A commendation of the saints equally to the written word, as to God himself, seems to me to be a lessening of the glory of the divine Being, and an ascribing too much to the written word; but suits well with Christ, the essential Word, “who being in the form of God, thought it “no robbery to be equal with God.”. To commend the saints equally to Christ, as to God the Father, is no diminution of the Father's glory ; nor is it giving Christ more than his due, or than what he is able to perform; but a commendation of them to the gospel seems to be so.
3. The saints are never said to be committed or commended to the gospel; but that to them. The written word is committed to the care and keeping of the saints ; but not the saints to the care and keeping of that. They are in the hands, and are made the care and charge of Christ. We frequently read of God's committing the written word unto the saints, and especially to the ministers of it; and of their committing it unto others; as in 2 Cor. v. 19. 1. Tim. i. 11-18. and vi. 20. and 2 Tim. i. 14, and ii. 2. but never of the saints being committed to the written word.
4. What is here ascribed unto the Word, is more applicable to Christ than to the written word. Though the gospel is an instrument in the hands of the Spirit, in building up faints in their most holy faith ; yet Christ is the great master builder'; it is he that builds the temple, and must bear the glory. Though the gospel may be as a map, which shews us where our inheritance lies, and which is the way unto it; yet it is Christ who gives it us, and puts us into the poffeffion of it: it is in, by, or through him, that we obtain the inheritance. For these reasons, I apprehend, that not the gospel or written word, but Christ, the essential Word, is intended : nor am I alone in the sense of this text
Again, The apostle Paul is thought to use the phrase in this sense", Heb. iv. 12. “ For the Word of God is quick and powerful, and sharper than any 16. two-edged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, s and of the joints, and marrow; and is a discerner of the thoughts and “ intents of the heart.” This is not so applicable to the written word as to : Christ, who is säv • 'Aóyos iš Osõ, the living Word of God, or the Word of God, which liveth, as the words may be rendered. He is that Word that was made Aesh, suffered, and died; but is now alive and lives for evermore ; , and may
truly « Vide Arrowsmith in John i. J. and Gomarus in id. and in Lücke i, 2, and in Heb. iv. 12. d Arrowsmith, ibid. Gomarus in id. and in Heb. iv. 12. and Dr Owen in Heb. iv. 12. .
truly be said to be ivegan's, powerful, or efficacious. For so he is in his sufferings and death, being mighty to save; as also in his mediation and intercession at the Father's right hand; and will ere long appear to be sharper than any two-edged sword, at his coming to judge the world at the last day. Then he will pierce, to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints, and marrow, and will shew himself to be xpitoxos, a critical discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart; for he will then “ bring to light the hidden things of “ darkness, and make manifest the counsels of the heart;" and will let “ all " the churches,” yea, all the world, angels and men, know that he it is " which searcheth the reins and hearts ;” all which cannot be so well applied to the written word. Besides, the following verse makes the sense still more plain, which is closely connected with this, by the copulative xai: " And “ there is not any creature which is not manifest in his fight; but all things “ are naked and opened unto the eyes of him with whom we have to do :" where the apostle manifestly speaks of a Person, and not of a thing; and of such an one as is omniscient; and to whom we must give an account at the day of judgment. The words agès tèv ngã o dógos, in the last clause, may be rendered, “ To whom we must give an account.” Now to whom must we give an account? not to the written word, but to a divine Person, as the apostle says: “So then every one of us shall give an account of himself to " God.” Ministers are accountable for preaching the word, and people for hearing it; but the account will be given not to the written word, but to Christ, the living Word. Moreover, in ver. 14. this Word is said to be an high priest, who is passed into the heavens for us; which can be no other than Christ, who having assumed our nature, and offered himself a sacrifice for us, as an high priest, is passed into the heavens; where he ever lives to make intercession for us : which the apostle uses as an argument with believers, to hold fast their profession, and to come with boldness to the throne of grace. I cannot but observe, that many things which the apostle here says of the Word, are said of the Logos, by Pbilo the Jew ; who, as he makes the cherubim in Gen. iii. 24. symbols of God's two powers, his goodness and power'; so likewise the flaming sword a symbol of his Logos, or Word; which he makes to be very swift and fervent. Elsewhere he says, That God, by his
Logos, e Rom. 14. 12. f 'Αρχής μεν εν και αγαθότηθος των δυνάμεων τα χερεθίμ ειναι σύμβολα Λόγε δε την φλογίνην ομφαίαν. οξυκινητότατον γαρ και θερμόν Λόγος, βο. Ρhilo de cherubim, p. 112.
ε ο τομεϊ των συμπάνων αυ1 Λόγω, ος εις την όξυλάτης αχονηθείς ακμής, διαιρών υδέποτε λήγει τα αισθηλα πάντα επειδαν μέχρι των ατόμων, και λιγομένων αμερών διεξέλθη. Πάλιν από τέτων, τα Λόγο θεορούλα τις αμυθήτες και απεριγράφες μοίρας άρχιζαι διαιρεϊ έτος ο τομείς. Ιbid. Quis rerum divin. Hærel. p. 499.