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Logos, cuts and divides all things, even all things sensible; yea, atoms, and things indivisible. He represents him as very quick-lighted", and as capable of seeing all things that are worthy to be seen. And he sometimes speaks of him as the Mediator between God and men'; as one that makes atonement, and is an advocate with God. He says that he is the true High Priest", who is free from all sin voluntary and involuntary'; which is just such an high priest as the apostle Paul says Jesus Christ is, Heb. vii. 26. But to go on.
The apostle Paul uses this phrase just in the same sense, and ascribes the creation of the world to him, as the evangelift John does, when in Heb. xi. 3. he says : “ Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the “ Word of God.” And also the apostle Peter, in his ad Epift. chap. iii. 5. where he observes, that the scoffers were “ willingly ignorant; that by the « Word of God the heavens were of old, and the earth standing out of the
water and in the water." And adds, in ver. 7. That, “ by the same Word, “ the heavens and the earth, which are now, are kept in store reserved unto “ fire." And in 1 Peter i. 23. the saints are said to be “ born, not of cor“ ruptible seed, but of incorruptible, by the Word of God, which liveth " and abideth for ever ;" which Word is distinguished from the gospel in ver. 25. From all these passages it may be concluded, that this phrase was not peculiar to the evangelist Jobn, but was used, though not with so much frequency, by the other apostles. I proceed,
Tbirdly, To enquire the reason or reasons, why the second Person is called the Word. He may be so called, because As the mencal word, or the conception of the mind, which is sáya indocédera.", is the birth of the mind, begotten
h' "Ουτω και ο θείος ΛόγG- οξυδερκίςαλός έσιν, ως παντα εθοραν ειναι ικανός, και τα θέας άξια καλόψουλα. --- τί γαρ αν είη λαμπρότερον ή τηλαυγίτερον θεία Λόγο. Ιbid. Leg. Alleg. 1. 2. p. 92.
i Το δε αρχα/γέλω και πρεσβυτάτω Λόγω δωρεαν εξαίρετον έδωκεν και τα όλα γεννήσας πατήρ, ένα μεθόριος σας, το γενόμενον διακρίνη το σεποιηκότος. ο δ' αυτός ικέτης μέν έσι τα θνη18 κεραίνονθος αιι σρός το άφθαρλο», πρηστευθής δε τε ηγεμόνος προς το υπήκοον. Ibid. Quis rerum divin.
Hærel p. 509.
* "Οτι.και προς αλήθειαν αρχιερεύς και μη ψευδώνυμος, αμέτοχος αμαρτημάτων, εσίν. Ιbid. De vi&timis, p. 843
1 Λέγομεν γαρ, τον αρχιερέα εκ άνθρωπον, αλλά λόγον θείον έιναι, σάντων εκ εκεσίων μόνον, αλλα και ακεσίων αδικημάτων αμέτοχον. Ιbid. De profugis, p. 466..
m Λόγος ηλός, αλλά εσιώδης, ο γαρ έστι λαλιάς ένα ρθρο φώνημα, αλλ' ενεργείας θεϊκής εσία γεννη7η.. Ignat. Major epift. ad Magnes. p. 147. Ed. Voff. 'EŽ dexñs yap ó Otos, vés aidos úr, lixov áulds is jaulā tèo dogèr aidiws Nogizes wr. Athenag. Legat. pro Christ. p. 10. Edit. Par. "EXw w Olds τον εαυτ8 λόγον ενδιάθλον εν τοις ιδίοις σπλάγχνοις, έγέννησεν αυτών μελών της εαυ18 σοφίας εξερευξάμενες : apò amar. Theophilus Antioch. ad Autolyc. 1. 2. p. 88. Ed. Parifi 'Aan Joha domytītas tò aágos, τον όντα διαπαντός ενδιάθελον εν κάρδια Θιά. Ιderm, p. 100. 'Αυλος και ο λόγος ος ήν εν αυτώ υσίςήσι 2. quali di tñs atmórnlos autë aporandã nóyos. Tatian. Contr. Gentes, p. 145. Ed. Paris.
of it intellectually, and immaterially, without passion or motion; and is the very image and representation of the mind, and of the same nature with it, yet something distinct froin it: so Christ is the begotten of the Father, the brightness of his glory, and the express image of his Person ; of the same nature with him, though a Person distinct from him. And he may also be called the Word, from some action or actions which are predicated of him, or ascribed to him. He spake in the ancient council, when the methods of man's falvation were considered, consulted and agreed on; and declared, that he would be a surety for all the elect. He spoke for every blessing, and every promise in the covenant of grace. He assented to every proposal his Father made ; and agreed to every article in the covenant between them. He spoke all things out of nothing in the first creation: he said, Let it be so, and it was fo; he fpake, and it was done ; he commanded, and it stood fast. He is the Word that was spoken of to all the Old Testament-saints, and prophecied of by all the prophets, which have been fince the world began; this is the fum and substance of all the promises and prophecies of the Old Testament. Moreover, he is the interpreter of his Father's mind, even as our word or speech, which is sóyo ngopopoxds, is the interpreter of our minds ; for which reason he
bc called the Word ". “ No man hath seen God at any time, the only begotten, “ which is in the bofom of the Father; he hath declared him.” Being privy to all his thoughts, purposes, and designs, he was capable of declaring his mind and will to his people; which he has done in all generations. It was heo, the Word of the Lord God, whose voice Adam heard in the garden ; and who said unto him, “ Adam, where art thou ?" And it was the same Word of the Lord who continued his discourse with him, and his wife, and the serpent; and made the first discovery of grace to fallen man. It was the Word who appeared to the patriarchs and prophets in after-ages, and made yet greater discoveries of God's mind and will; but never so fully and clearly as when he was made fiesh, and dwelt among us; for then “God, who at sundry
times, and divers manners, spake in times paft unto the fathers, in these last “ days spoke unto us by his Son."
Besides, * Some in Justin Martyr's time called him the Word, for this reason: 'Eanda xa? Tais mapes rä сalpos oponías qapsi tots as I párroosDialog. cum Tryph. p. 358. Ed. Paris. Theophilus of Antioch, calls him aby apocopoxos, ad Autolych. I. 2. p. 100. Tetov Tòn nóyor iyinnor ago0oρικόν, πρωτότοκον στάσης κτίσεως. Ο κενωθείς αυτός το λόγο, αλλά λόγον γεννήσας, και το λόγο αυτα διαπαντός ομιλών. Clemens of Alexandria denies him to be fo: Ο γαρ τε πατρός των ολων λόγΘ-, Exytos isw ò ago pogixàs. Stromat, 1. 5. p. 547. Ed. Sylburg. Let it be observed, that those writers who have used these phrases, did not design them in the same fense which the Sabellians do, as though the abg@ was a mere attribute, and not a real person.
o See the Targums of Onkclos and Jonathan, in Gen. iii. 8. and of Jerusalem in ver. 9.
Besides, he, as the Word speaks for the elect in the court of heaven, where he appears in the presence of God for them; acts the part of a Mediator on their account; calls for, and demands the blessings of grace for them ; as the fruit of his death; pleads their cause, and answers all charges and accusations exhibited against them. So that upon these considerations, he may be properly called the Word, and Word of God.
'AVING considered the character of the nógos, or Word, I shall now
, proceed, II. To give proof of his proper Deity, which I shall do in the following method:
First, I shall endeavour to prove it from the divine names which are given to
First, I shall endeavour to prove the proper Deity of Christ, from the divine names which are given to him ;
1. Jehovah, which is a name expressive of the divine esence, being well explained by I AM THAT I AM, in Exod. iii. 4. And it is truly deciphered by John, in Rev. i. 4. By “ him which is, and which was, and which " is to come.' This is the name by which God made himself known to Moses, and by him, to the people of Israel; by which he had not made himself known to their Fathers, Abraham, Ifaac, and Jacob; that is, fo fully and largely as he had to them; which name has always been had in great esteem among the Jews; and has been highly revered by them, even to a superstitious abstinence from the pronunciation of it', which arose from a mistaken sense of Lev. xxiv. 16. It is indeed that glorious and fearful name which ought to be feared and reverenced by us; it being proper and peculiar to the divine VOL. III.
Being, p Vide Buxtorf. Lexic. Heb. in Rad. 1997.
Being, and incommunicable to any creature: For “the Most High over all the “ earthq,” is he “ whose name alone is Jehovab." If therefore I prove that Jesus Christ is called Jebovah, or that this name is given to him, I prove him to be the Most High God. Which will be best done by comparing some texts of scripture in the Old with others in the New Testament. And to begin,
With Exod. xvii. 7. “ And he called the name of the place Massal, and “ Meribah, because of the chiding of the children of Israel, and because they “ tempted the Lord, or Jebovab, saying, Is the Lord, or Jebováb, among us « or not?” From hence it plainly appears, that he, whom the Israelites tempted in the wilderness, was Jebovab. And yet nothing is more manifest, than that this was the Lord Jesus Christ; as is evident from 1 Cor. x. 9. “ Neither let us tempt Christ, as some of them also tempted, and were
destroyed of ferpents.” And if so, then Christ is Jebovab, and consequently the Most High God. Again, in Ifa. vi. 1. it is said: “ That in the year that
king Uzziah died,” Isaiah " saw the Lord, Adonai, sitting upon a throne;". whom the Seraphim, in ver. 3. call Jehovah Sebaot; as does Isaiah, in ver. 5. which same glorious divine person, in ver. 8, 9. sent him with a message to the Jews, saying, “ Hear ye indeed, &c." Now these words our Lord Jesus Christ applies to himself, in John xii. 39-41. and obferves, that " these “ things faid Efaias, when he saw his glory, and spake of him.” Moreover, in Isa. xl. 3.
it is said, “ The voice of him that crieth in the wilderness, Prepare ye
way of the Lord, or Jehovab; make strait in the desart, a high“ way for our God.” Which words are, by the evangelist Matthew, chap. iii. 1–3. applied to Jobn the Baptist. Now the Lord, or Jehovah, whose was to prepare, could be no other than Jesus Christ, whose harbinger and forerunner John was ; and whose way he did prepare, and whose paths he did make strait, by preaching the doctrine of repentance, administering the ordinance of baptifm, and declaring that the kingdom of heaven, or of the Messiah, was at hand. Besides, the Messiah is expressly called, in Jer. xxiii. 6. the Lord, or Jehovah, our righteousness, it being his work and business to bring in everlasting righteousness, and well suits with Jesus Christ, who is “ the end of the law for righteousness, to every one that believeth.” Once more, in Zech. xii, 10. ic is promised by Jehovab, that he would " pour upon
the house of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit of
grace and of supplications :” and adds, “ They shall look upon me, that si is, Jehovah, whom they have pierced.” Which words the evangelist John says,were fulfilled, when one of the soldiers, with a spear, pierced the side of
Chrift; 4 Pralm lxxxiii. 18.
Christ; and forthwith there came out blood and water, John xix. 34, 37. The same passage is also referred to in Rev. i. 7. and applied to Jesus Christ. Now in these, and many other places, Jesus Christ is intended by Jebovoh, and if he is Jehovah, then he must be truly and properly God, since this name is incommunicable to any other.
It is objected, that this name, Jehovah, is fonietimes given to created beings; as to angels', Gen. xviii. 13. Exod. iii. 2. and xxiii. 20. to the ark', Numb. x. 35. and xxxii. 20. Deut. xii. 7. Joh. xxiv. 1. 2 Sam. vi. 2. Pfulm xxiv. 8. to Jerusalem, Jer. xxxiii. 16. Ezek. xlviii. 35. to altars, Excd. xvii. 15. Judg. vi. 24. to the mountain where Ifaac was to be sacrificed, Gen. xxii. 14 and to judges and priests, Deut. xix. 17. To which I answer, That as to the proof of angels being called Jebovab, I have shewn already, that in all the passages cited, not a created angel, but an uncreated one, even a divine Person is intended; who is no other than Jesus Christ, the angel of the covenant; and are so many proofs of his being Jebovah, and consequently of his proper divinity. Nor is the ark any where called Jehovah. Numb. x. 35, 36. is a prayer of Moses to the true Jehovah, and not to the ark, to which it could not be made without idolatry. The sense of the words is best understood by comparing them with Psalm cxxxii. 8. In many of the places produced, the ark is not mentioned, nor intended; not in Numb. xxxii. 20. nor in Deut. xii. 7. nor in Joh. xxiv. I. nor is the word Jeboval, there used, but Elohim. And as for 2 Sam. vi. 2. not the ark, but God, whose the ark was, is called by the name of the Lord of Hofts; nor is the ark intended in Psalm xxiv. 8. nor could it be called the King of Glory, or the Lord mighty in battle, without manifest impiety. Nor is the name Jebovab, given to Jerusalem, in Jer. xxxiii. 16, but to the Messiah, as is manifest from Jer. xxiii. 6. for the words may be rendered thus : “ This is the name wherewith he shall be called by
her, The Lord our righteousness.” Nor is this name given to her in Ezek. xlviii. 35. absolutely, but in composition, or with an addition, and is only symbolical of Jehovah's presence being with her. Just as the Lord calls her Hephzibah, and Beulah; because he delighted in her, and was married to her, Isaiah lxii. 4. The same may be said of mount Moriab, and the altars, referred to in the objection, which were called Jehovab-jireh, Nisi, Shalom ; which names do not express the nature or essence of God, but are only symbolical, and designed to call to remembrance the divine help, gracious asistance, and wonderful appearance of Jehovah, for his people. Nor are priests and judges called Jehovah, in Deut. xix. 17. for Jehovah is not to be explained by them;
Crellius de Deo & ejus attributis, c. xi. p. 8o. • Enjedin. Explic. loc. Vet. & Nov. Teft. p. 25. In which he is contradicted by Crellius, ibid. p. 83-85