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himself to be constituted head of the As to the first, it would be difficult church. If Christianity cannot flou- to produce the passages, or passage, rish without hierarchy it is no doubt in the New Testament, in which the necessary both to civil and religious authority of the rulers of the Church, liberty, that it be allowed to exercise whether bishops, or councils, or presno authority independently of the will byteries, is defined either expressly of the State; still the association is or by implication. Let the instruc. not without danger. To what cause tions and credentials be fairly made was it owing, that, before the refor- out and established, and the authority mation all Christendom was trodden shall be acknowledged; till then it is under foot by ecclesiastics ? And right to question it. Suppose it, howhow did they contrive to raise them- ever, established; what means have selves above the civil jurisdiction, till the successors to the episcopal authothey were able to set prince and peo- rity of the apostles (for more than that ple at defiance? The priest was first is not pretended out of the Church of placed on the same bench with the Rome) to make their government ef, temporal judge: thence he soon found ficient ? Inspiration has ceased; mimeans to step over the head of his racles are no more; and though perlay-colleague, and the magistrate, who sonal qualities may be respected, yet, planted him at his side, had his own for enforcing obedience in large comfolly to blame for the consequence. munities, the homage which is paid. Thus the fable of the horse and his to them can never supply the place rider was naturally enough exempli- of that submission which is at once fied in his experience ; he meant to enforced by power and won by rank be the ruler, but his more dextrous and splendour. Divested of powers, coadjutor made him the slave. One authority is but a name; it must have step more will take us to the grand them either absolute or dependent. source of the usurpation, intolerance The Catholic Church had them at and corruption, that darken the re- first in dependence on the magistrospect of the Christian church. The trate; but it soon found means to opinion to which I allude is well ex- convert them into a freehold ; and pressed in the following extract from that, into an impious tyranny. To a Consecration Sermon, preached by restore the dependence was the laDr. Graves, in St. Patrick's Cathe- bour of the reformation ; and in Prodral, Dublin, July, 1806. “To sup- testant countries this was at length pose," says he, " that when the apos- happily effected. If church-authority tles were removed from their minis- must exist, the safety of the world retry, all authority to govern and direct quires that it be ingrafted upon a cithe church of Christ was to expire vil stock, which may mitigate its along with them, and that the regu- sourness, and impart to it the flavour lation of that society so extended, so of humanity. The compound of the important, so sacred, was to be aban- churchman and the man of the world doned to the caprice of individuals, is less dangerous, both to the civil the unruliness of multitudes, the mere and religious interests of mankind, casual exertions of transitory feelings, than the mere ecclesiastic; for the and undirected efforts, is as contrary participation of secular distinctions, to the dictates of reason, the analogy and civil powers may introduce prinof nature, and the general economy ciples of liberality into church-governof Providence, as to the direct decla- ment, which are not indigenous in rations of scripture, and the clearest any hierarchy: hence, less spiritual records of ecclesiastical history:" If oppression is to be apprehended from the Church has governors, who de- an Episcopal or Presbyterian church, rive their authority either by succes- incorporated with the State, than sion or ordination from the apostles, from either of them, invested with two things are necessary ; first, that independent powers. The radical the authority shall have been well mistake in all these matters appears defined by the apostles themselves, to be, the assumption of a churchfor the apostolic authority could not authority, which is divine, of a legisurvive the office and the men : 2dly, timate Christian hierarchy, which is That the governors of the church posfounded upon the Christian code. sess together with the authority the Grant that such a right of rule exists, means to make it respectedand obeyed. and it cannot be denied, that there

Dr. Morell on Church-Authority.

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s much good sense and knowledge of where, before the conversion of the
mankind in such remarks as the fol- Emperor Constantine. During that
lowing: they occur in a Consecration period, indeed, the Church was fre-
Sermon, which was preached in the quently exposed to secular persecu-
Chapel of Lambeth, 1807, by the tion, from which, blessed be God,
Rer. Charles Barker, and pablished we, enjoying as we do, a free and
by command of his Grace the Arch- perfect toleration from the state, are
bishop of Canterbury. “They who mercifully exempted. But, as far as
talk of apostolical simplicity and low. can be intended by the comparison
liness, and contend that even now our case is the same with that of our
the same simplicity would best be- forefathers in the Christian faith, in
come the ministers of Christianisty, ages which we are accustomed to con-
forget, or conceal from view, the real sider with peculiar veneration. At
state of the apostolical character. They that time the Church, unconnected
conceal from view the high and un- with the State, subsisted by her own
attainable superiority over other men internal aud inherent powers. Ire-
with which at all times, and in all næus, Cyprian, Cornelius, and indeed
places the apostle was personally all who held the office of a Bishop
gifted ; his inspiration, his power of for the three first centuries, were pos-
working miracles, and the immediate sessed of no other authority, and pro-
and irresistible operation of such en- bably encompassed with no more out-
dowments whether for the formation ward dignity than he who now ad-
of a Christian church, or for its rule dresses you ; and this authority was
and governance when formed. In their preserved by the filial affection of
day and for their purpose these were the clergy, over whom they respec-
no defects ; or if they were (while the tively presided. God forbid that I
choice of such men for such an office should ever have the presumption to
was designedly made to confound the compare my own talents, or my own
pride of human wisdom) they were zeal, to the talents or the zeal of those
amply compensated by the constant burning and shining lights, to which
and demonstrable interposition of God every succeeding age of the Church
himself. With whatever rank and in- has looked back with reverence, in-
fluence the incorporation of religion ferior only to that which is due to the
with the State, and with the order of immediate apostles of our Lord. I
society, has since invested the minis- mention them only because their his-
ters of the gospel, the greatest and tory furnishes an incontrovertible
wealthiest, nay the best and wisest proof that episcopacy can subsist, and
of those ministers possesses no sub- bishops who are deserving of respect
stitution for the decisive and com- be highly respected, though destitute
manding anthority of the humble of the splendid but adventitious pa-
fisherman who could heal the sick and noply of a legal establishment."
raise the dead."

It appears from this passage, that I shall add one more extract, the Bishop derived great pleasure from which is in strong contrast with the contemplating the episcopal commuspirit and doctrine of the last ; but nion over which he presided, as unwhich, while it breathes more of the connected with the state; though he spirit of primitive simplicity, betrays might not, perhaps, think secular a want of that practical knowledge, connexion a sufficient ground of diswhich is not so well acquired within sent from an Episcopal Church. In. the inclosure of a sect: it is taken deed with the Protestant Dissenters from a charge delivered to the cler- of England the incorporation of the gy of the Episcopal Communion of Church with the State is neither the Ediuburgh, 1807, by the Right Re- sole nor the ultimate ground of dis. vereod Daniel Sandford, D.D. their sent. I suppose the greater part of bishop; and consequeutly a Dissen- them consider church-authority unter on that side of the Tweed. der every form as a usurpation : many

" It has often afforded me," says of them are persuaded that it is the he, “ great satisfaction to contem- only enemy from which Christianity plate the resemblance, that the Chris- ever had or ever will have any thing tian society of which we are members to fear ; that it has acted like a poison, bears, in its external condition, to the and not a very slow poison, wasting church of Christ, as it existed every and corrupting, as it has circulated

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through the body of Christians. If inspection, (placing at the same time it were necessary to submit to a spi- their vassals of the laity on the same ritual rule, many of them would political level with other men,) now choose the Episcopal as soon, and that antiquity has made those authosome sooner than any other; but they rities venerable, and the suspension maintain that all ecclesiastical autho- of power has not made the possession rity is unsupported by the New Tes- of it less an object of desire. If any tament, and rests only on human po- principle is incompatible with good licy;' ambition or mistake. Discon- government, and, when put into acnect the authority of the Church from tion, fatal to the civil rights of manthat of the State, and they would re- kind, it is the divine right of a hiegard it with more apprehensive vigi- rarchy: and if it can ever be right to lance, and dissent from it with yet guard a civil constitution, by disquastronger disapprobation. They are lification to legislate, annexed to opinbetter pleased that its powers, if such ions, that doctrine deserves to stand

can reach temporal condition, first upon the list. He whose faith should emanate from the chief magis- enslaves him to a hierarch, irrespontrate, and be subject to temporal con- sible on earth, is ill-fitted to assist in troul, than that they should be estab- the legislative assembly of a free state. lished on the assertion of divine right, Such a faith is essentially intolerant, and exercised independently of civil and he urges toleration to suicide, who regulation. It is probably on requires her to arm intolerance against such ground as this that several of her own life. them are of opinion that the veto up

JOHN MORELL. on the constitution of a Catholic episcopacy should not be conceded by the

Sir, wishes to remain free. If any

istence of Unitarian sentiments of Christian professors, say they, will came within my notice during a late be subject to an absolute ecclesiastic tour in Norway. cal rule, or if they believe that the A Captain S

master of a merChristian religion binds them in this chant vessel, a man both of family subjection, they are entitled to their and education, he being connected opinions; wo man can wrest them with people of the first consequence, from them, and the attempt would happened to be a fellow lodger with be injustice and violence. At the same myself in the same room, at an ion time, they who think with the En- at Christiania. We were much toglish Dissenters that all spiritual au- gether during a period of three weeks, thority is nisurped, and they who and living in the same room, it nathink with the laity and many of the turally occurred (as he spoke English clergy of the Church of England, that l'emarkably well) that we often comChristianity does not sanction, and municated our ideas upon various subsound policy will not allow the exer- jects to one another. Amongst others cise of any authority, (and ecclesiastic was also religion, and the course of cal least of all) independent of civil a conversation on this head, I took jurisdiction, are also entitled to their occasion to inform him that I did not opinions, and should not be called myself belong to the Established upon to surrender them to the asser- Church of my country, for that I tors of a spiritual authority, subject could not believe many things which to no civil controul. The principle were asserted to be true by its advoof such a claim is bad, and the ex- cates. I instanced the doctrine of the perience of mankind has not taught us Trinity in Unity, the Godhead of our that the practice can be safe. Spiri- Saviour, original sin, and I think tual authorities might not indeed shoot some other points which I do not up iuto active tyrannies, unless fos- now recollect. I also declared my tered in their infancy by political belief that Christ was simply a humen ; but powerful laymen have ge- man being, extraordinarily gifted for nerally been found, who thought it wise purposes. Captain Ś who might be worth their while to foster had hitherto studiously avoided relithem; and it would be an experi- gious topics, and once before checked ment full of hazard to civil and reli- me when I accidentally touched upon gious liberty to set them above civil them, was greatly surprised to find

" That all pa

THE

Callender's Translation of the Epistle to the Ephesians. 13 my sentiments accord so entirely with head is singularly worded to avoid his own, but remarked, that he ge- the reproach of bigotry and in tolenerally endeavoured to avoid talking rance; it declares, upon these points in his country, as rents who profess the established those who were of a contrary opinion religion shall educate their chil. would never suffer themselves to be dren in the same, no other mode convinced against their will, and dis.. of public worship being permitted." puting on religion was often worse It may not perhaps be amiss to add than useless.

bere that Jews are not allowed to A second instance of the existence reside or settle in Norway. This of Unitarianism occurred to me like- harsh regulation opens a door for the wise during my stay at Christiania. commission of perjury; as it is well A Mr. C, a merchant of the first known that two opulent families at eminence and a man of consequence Christiania are merely professing in a political point of view, took a Christians, in order to avoid being good deal of notice of me, by con- troubled. stantly inviting me to his house and

T. other civilities of the like nature. He had been several years in England, SIR, where his uncle was formerly estab- THE notion of translating the lished ; and it very naturally occur- scripture word for word was not red, that as we saw one another often, peculiar to John Canne, whose Bible subjects of various kinds would be is described, x. 548. I have before started in conversation. I one day me a small pamphlet thus entitled : took occasion to remark, that the at- “ Essay towards a literal English tendance at Church in Norway was Version of the New Testament in the mostly confined to high days, such Epistle of the Apostle Paul directed as Christmas, Easter, Pentecost, St. to the Ephesians; by John Callender, John's, &c. on which occasions only Esquire, Glasgow. London; reis there much of a congregation to be printed for Alexander Grant," who seen. Spodays are for the most part thus begins his Preface : neglected, particularly by the higher “ Mr. John Callender was a genclasses who but seldom visit a place tleman of undeniable character, and of worship except on the days above according to all accounts that ever I stated. Mr. C-owned the remark could learn of him he understood the was just; his opinion was, that this originals well. 'Tis much to be reneglect partly arose from the misera- gretted that he in his life-time, had ble jargon that was usually delivered not translated the whole of the New from the pulpit. I then told him that Testament from the original Greek, in England the practice of attending, in the same manner as he has done upon divine worship was extremely the Epistle of the Apostle Paul to the prevalent. We afterwards got upon Ephesians. With what literal ancient the subject of the great variety of simplicity does this little translation existing sects in my country, the appear, compared with the English leading tenets of some of which I ex- idiom. Mr. Callender's words are as plamed to bim. Amongst others I follows: • Those who love to search touched upoo Unitarianism, without the scriptures, and to read them di. hinting that I was at all connected vested of every human gloss, will not, with this description of Christians, perhaps, be displeased to see a ver till after he had acknowledged to me, sion so entirely literal, as to abandon that their ideas were exactly those be the English idiom altogether; that bad formed for some years. He fur- the genius of the Greek language may ther added, that it was well known be every where preserved, and even that many of the clergy were of the the unlearned reader made to feel the same opinions as himself, but that the energy of the divine original.' The restraint of the law prevented them above words are very expressive to a from openly professing their senti. common understanding.' ments, as it is a fundamental part of That your readers may judge whe. the constitution just established, that ther with his editor they can regret no other but the Lutheran religion that Mr. Callender's labours in literal shall be openly professed and incul. translation were so limited, I will cated. The identical law upon this transcribe a few passages, beginning

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wishes to remain free. If any'portion Tiffollowing instances of the ex

through the body of Christians. If inspection, (placing at the same time it were necessary to submit to a spi. their vassals of the Jaity on the same ritual rule, many of them would political level with other men,) now choose the Episcopal as soon, and that antiquity has made those authosome sooner than any other; but they rities venerable, and the suspension maintain that all ecclesiastical autho- of power has not made the possession rity is unsupported by the New Tes- of it less an object of desire. If any tament, and rests only on human po- principle is incompatible with good licy, ambition or mistake. Discon- government, and, when put into acnect the authority of the Church from tion, fatal to the civil rights of manthat of the State, and they would re- kind, it is the divine right of a hie. gard it with more apprehensive vigi- rarchy: and if it can ever be right to Jance, and dissent from it with yet guard a civil constitution, by disquastronger disapprobation. They are lification to legislate, annexed to opinbetter pleased that its powers, if such ions, that doctrine deserves to stand

can reach temporal condition, first upon the list. He whose faith should emanate from the chief magis. enslaves him to a hierarch, irrespontrate, and be subject to temporal con- sible on earth, is ill-fitted to assist in troul, than that they should be estab- the legislative assembly of a free state. lished on the assertion of divine right, Such a faith is essentially intolerant, and exercised independently of civil and he urges toleration to suicide, who regulation. It is probably on some requires her to arm intolerance against such ground as this that several of her own life. them are of opinion that the veto up

JOHN MORELL. on the constitution of a Catholic episcopacy should not be conceded by the

Sir, in , that

istence of Christian professors, say they, will came within my notice during a late be subject to an absolute ecclesiasti- tour in Norway. cal rule, or if they believe that the A Captain S- master of a merChristian religion binds them in this cbant vessel, a man both of family subjection, they are entitled to their and education, he being connected opinions ; no man can wrest them with people of the first consequence, from them, and the attempt would happened to be a fellow lodger with be injustice and violence. At the same myself in the same room, at an inn time, they who think with the En. at Christiania. We were much toglish Dissenters that all spiritual au- gether during a period of three weeks, thority is nisurped, and they who and living in the same room, it nathink with the laity and many of the turally occurred (as he spoke English clergy of the Church of England, that remarkably well) that we often comChristianity does not sanction, and municated our ideas upon various subsound policy will not allow the exer- jects to one another. Amongst others cise of any authority, (and ecclesiastic was also religion, and in the course of cal least of all) independent of civil a conversation on this head, I took jurisdiction, are also entitled to their occasion to inform him that I did not opinions, and should not be called myself belong to the Established upon to surrender them to the asser- Church of my country, for that I tors of a spiritual authority, subject could not believe many things which to no civil controul. The principle were asserted to be true by its advoof such a claim is bad, and the ex- cates. I instanced the doctrine of the perience of mankind has not taught us Trinity in Unity, the Godhead of our that the practice can be safe. Spiri. Saviour, original sin, and I think tual authorities might not indeed shoot some other points which I do not up into active tyrannies, unless fos- now recollect. I also declared my tered in their infancy by political belief that Christ was simply a humen ; but powerful laymen have ge- man being, extraordinarily gifted for nerally been found, who thought it wise purposes. Captain S. who might be worth their while to foster had hitherto studiously avoided relithem; and it would be an experi- gious topics, and once before checked ment full of hazard to civil and reli- me when I accidentally touched upon gious liberty to set them above civil them, was greatly surprised to find

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