Imatges de pÓgina
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through the body of Christians. If it were necessary to submit to a spiritual rule, many of them would choose the Episcopal as soon, and some sooner than any other; but they maintain that all ecclesiastical authority is unsupported by the New Testament, and rests only on human policy, ambition or mistake. Disconnect the authority of the Church from that of the State, and they would regard it with more apprehensive vigilance, and dissent from it with yet stronger disapprobation. They are better pleased that its powers, if such

as

can reach temporal condition, should emanate from the chief magistrate, and be subject to temporal controul, than that they should be established on the assertion of divine right, and exercised independently of civil regulation. It is probably on some such ground as this that several of them are of opinion that the veto upon the constitution of a Catholic episcopacy should not be conceded by the civil authority in any country, that wishes remain free. If any portion of Christian professors, say they, will be subject to an absolute ecclesiastical rule, or if they believe that the Christian religion binds them in this subjection, they are entitled to their opinions; no man can wrest them from them, and the attempt would be injustice and violence. At the same time, they who think with the Euglish Dissenters that all spiritual authority is usurped, and they who think with the laity and many of the clergy of the Church of England, that Christianity does not sanction, and sound policy will not allow the exercise of any authority, (and ecclesiastical least of all) independent of civil jurisdiction, are also entitled to their opinions, and should not be called upon to surrender them to the assertors of a spiritual authority, subject to no civil controul. The principle of such a claim is bad, and the experience of mankind has not taught us that the practice can be safe. Spiritual authorities might not indeed shoot up into active tyrannies, unless fostered in their infancy by political men; but powerful laymen have generally been found, who thought it might be worth their while to foster them; and it would be an experiment full of hazard to civil and religious liberty to set them above civil

inspection, (placing at the same time their vassals of the laity on the same political level with other men,) now that antiquity has made those authorities venerable, and the suspension of power has not made the possession of it less an object of desire. If any principle is incompatible with good government, and, when put into action, fatal to the civil rights of mankind, it is the divine right of a hierarchy: and if it can ever be right to guard a civil constitution, by disqua lification to legislate, annexed to opinions, that doctrine deserves to stand first upon the list. He whose faith enslaves him to a hierarch, irrespon→ sible on earth, is ill-fitted to assist in the legislative assembly of a free state. Such a faith is essentially intolerant, and he urges toleration to suicide, who requires her to arm intolerance against her own life. JOHN MORELL.

SIR,

THE following instances of the ex

istence Unitarian sentiments came within my notice during a late tour in Norway.

A Captain S

master of a mer

chant vessel, a man both of family and education, he being connected with people of the first consequence, happened to be a fellow lodger with myself in the same room, at an inn at Christiania. We were much together during a period of three weeks, and living in the same room, it naturally occurred (as he spoke English remarkably well) that we often communicated our ideas upon various subjects to one another. Amongst others was also religion, and in the course of a conversation on this head, I took occasion to inform him that I did not myself belong to the Established Church of my country, for that I could not believe many things which were asserted to be true by its advocates. I instanced the doctrine of the Trinity in Unity, the Godhead of our Saviour, original sin, and I think some other points which I do not now recollect. I also declared my belief that Christ was simply a hu man being, extraordinarily gifted for wise purposes. Captain S who had hitherto studiously avoided religious topics, and once before checked me when I accidentally touched upon them, was greatly surprised to find

my sentiments accord so entirely with his own, but remarked, that he generally endeavoured to avoid talking upon these points in his country, as those who were of a contrary opinion would never suffer themselves to be convinced against their will, and disputing on religion was often worse than useless..

head is singularly worded to avoid
the reproach of bigotry and intole-
rance; it declares,
"That all pa-
rents who profess the established
religion shall educate their chil-
dren in the same, no other mode
of public worship being permitted."
It may not perhaps be amiss to add
here that Jews are not allowed to
reside or settle in Norway. This
harsh regulation opens a door for the
commission of perjury; as it is well
known that two opulent families at
Christiania are merely professing
Christians, in order to avoid being
troubled.
T.

A second instance of the existence of Unitarianism occurred to me likewise during my stay at Christiania. A Mr. C, a merchant of the first eminence and a man of consequence in a political point of view, took a good deal of notice of me, by constantly inviting me to his house and other civilities of the like nature. He had been several years in England, where his uncle was formerly established; and it very occurred, that as we saw one another often, subjects of various kinds would be started in conversation. I one day took occasion to remark, that the attendance at Church in Norway was mostly confined to high days, such as Christmas, Easter, Pentecost, St. John's, &c. on which occasions only is there much of a congregation to be seen. Spudays are for the most part neglected, particularly by the higher classes who but seldom visit a place of worship except on the days above stated. Mr. C-owned the remark was just; his opinion was, that this neglect partly arose from the miserable jargon that was usually delivered from the pulpit. I then told him that in England the practice of attending upon divine worship was extremely prevalent. We afterwards got upon the subject of the great variety of existing sects in my country, the leading tenets of some of which I explained to him. Amongst others I touched upon Unitarianism, without hinting that I was at all connected with this description of Christians, till after he had acknowledged to me, that their ideas were exactly those he had formed for some years. He further added, that it was well known that many of the clergy were of the same opinions as himself, but that the restraint of the law prevented them from openly professing their sentiments, as it is a fundamental part of the constitution just established, that no other but the Lutheran religion shall be openly professed and inculcated. The identical law upon this

SIR,

T seri
HE notion of translating the
scripture word for word was not
peculiar to John Canne, whose Bible
is described, x. 548. I have before
me a small pamphlet thus entitled :

"Essay towards a literal English Version of the New Testament in the Epistle of the Apostle Paul directed to the Ephesians; by John Callender, Esquire, Glasgow. London; reprinted for Alexander Grant," who thus begins his Preface:

"Mr. John Callender was a gentleman of undeniable character, and according to all accounts that ever I could learn of him he understood the originals well. 'Tis much to be regretted that he in his life-time, had not translated the whole of the New Testament from the original Greek, in the same manner as he has done the Epistle of the Apostle Paul to the Ephesians. With what literal ancient simplicity does this little translation appear, compared with the English idiom. Mr. Callender's words are as follows: Those who love to search the scriptures, and to read them divested of every human gloss, will not, perhaps, be displeased to see a version so entirely literal, as to abandon the English idiom altogether; that the genius of the Greek language may be every where preserved, and even the unlearned reader made to feel the energy of the divine original.' The above words are very expressive to a common understanding.'

That your readers may judge whether with his editor they can regret that Mr. Callender's labours in literal translation were so limited, I will transcribe a few passages, beginning

with the first sixteen verses of the epistle.

"Paul, an Apostle of Jesus Christ, by the will of God to the saints, being in Ephesus, and faithful in Christ Jesus: Grace to you, and peace, from God the Father of us, and of the Lord Jesus Christ. Blessed the God and Father of the Lord of us, Jesus Christ, who is blessing us by every blessing spiritual, in the places above the heavens, in Christ; Like as he out-chose us iu him, before the found. ing of the world, for us to be holy and blameless before him in love: Having selected us into sonship by Jesus Christ unto himself, according to the good pleasure of the will of himself, to the praise of the glory of the grace of himself, by which he graced us in the beloved. In whom we have redemption by the blood of him, the remission of sins, according

to the richness of the grace of him.

Of which he was abundant to us in all wisdom, and prudence, having revealed to us the mystery of the will of himself, according to the good pleasure of himself, which he before purposed in himself. For the dispensation of the fulness of the times, to bring under one head all things in the Christ, those both in the heavens, and those upon the earth in him. In whom also we are made heirs, selected according to the fore-purpose of Him who to all things giveth energy, according to the council of the will of himself; that we might be to the praise of the glory of him, who first hoped in the Christ. In whom also ye having heard the word of the truth, the gospel of the salvation of you in which also having believed ye were sealed by the spirit of promise, the holy who is the earnest of the inheritance of us, in the redemption of the possession bought, to the praise of the glory of him. Wherefore also I, hearing the faith, among you, in the Lord Jesus, and the love to all the saints, do not cease giving thanks for you, mention of you making in the prayers of me.”

Ch. iv. 25, &c. "Wherefore laying aside lies, speak truth, every one with the neighbour of him; because we are of each other members. Be angry and do not sin; the sun let not set upon the wrath of you; neither give place to the accuser. The stealer no more let steal; but rather let

him labour, working the right with hands, that he may have to impart to him that needeth." In verse 32, I find "in Christ," instead of the systematic rendering of the common version.

Ch, vi. 1, &c. "Children obey the voice of the parents of you in the Lord. For this is just. Honour the father of thee, and the mother; which is command the first in a promise; that well to thee may be and thou be long-lived upon the earth.”

There is no date to Mr. Grant's pamphlet. By its appearance, it may have been printed nearly one hundred years. Mr. Callender was probably a contemporary of John Canne, who seems to have been satisfied with a still shorter experiment on translation "word for word."

BIBLICUS.

SIR,

in

Oct. 24, 1815.
Repository for

Rune last (X. 382, 385, &c.)
the Report of the Protestant Society
for the Protection of Religious Liber-
ty, I observe that two cases have
been decided in favour of persons
claiming exemption from paying turn-
pike tolls on the ground of their going
to places of divine worship.

This induces me to state to you the following case, and to beg some one of your numerous correspondents will point out how I am to procure redress. Doubtless there are many persons who are in nearly similar circumstances with myself; consequently I shall not only be obliged to you, but the dissenting interest at large will feel a like obligation for a clue to the removal of the grievance. I assure you, Mr. Editor, that it is not any pecuniary advantages which I am seeking after, no-my motive is purely to support my privilege as a Dissenter in particular, and the privileges of the Dissenters in general.

In the Report above alluded to, no mention is made of the names of the parties whose case was decided at the Suffolk assizes, nor on what act of parliament the Judge's exposition and decision was founded; and the second case is equally destitute of that kind of information which is necessary for me to lay before a magistrate for the purpose of procuring redress.

The Case I live in a village about three miles from a post-town in the West of England, and am a Unita

rian. (That is, one who acknowledges the one only true God, and Jesus Christ as his messenger and servant.) In general a chaise is ordered on Sundays to take myself and family to a place of divine worship in this town, and to take us back after the afternoon service. One shilling is demanded as toll at the turnpike gate, and of course paid. This has been the practice for

many years.

J. P.

Bridport, Dec. 19, 1815.

receiving the two circular let

Protestant Dissenting Ministers of the three Denominatins in London, on the merciless persecution which has for some months raged against the Protestants in the South of France, I took an early opportunity of laying their distressing case before my people, persuaded that this would be sufficient to excite their tender sympathy and prompt their ready relief. If you think the conclusion of my sermon on this occasion, in the least degree calculated to aid this benevolent cause, and at the same time, to check any unreasonable prejudice, jealousy and dislike towards the Catholics in the united kingdom, which the atrocities of those who bear their name in a neighbouring country, tend to produce, it is at your service for insertion in your liberal Repository. I mention the latter circumstance, because I perceive danger of it arising from the sympathetic feelings which are generally excited in favour of the persecuted, and indignation against the fanatical persecutors. Let the maxim, however, of the heathen moralist be observed, fiat justitia. Let not the innocent suffer for the guilty. As we are professing Christians, it becomes us to act towards others, at all times, on the comprehensive rule of our common master, "Whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them." As a friend to the just rights of all classes of the community, I would suggest, that if the Catholics in this country, were as a body to express their abhorrence of this sanguinary persecution of the Protestants in France, and contribute to the relief of the sufferers, it would have a powerful tendency to restrain the outrages of those persons, who

are deluded by blind bigotry and in furiate religious zeal, and redound to the credit of their own humane feelings, liberality and Christian spirit. THOMAS HOWE.

The preacher having read some of the interesting and affecting details of the sufferings of our persecuted brethren in the South of France, thus proceeded: "I am persuaded that there is not one among you come to years of understanding, whose tender feelings are not greatly excited by the details which have been now read, of a persecution originating in the

SIR,

On most

·

fanaticism, and conducted with peculiar savage cruelty; a persecution carried on in despite of the Edicts of the King on the throne; supported by armed bands, raised and organized without his authority, and under a constitutional charter which guarantees to all the people the freedom of religious sentiment and public worship. I cannot doubt of your readiness, my friends, to contribute to the alleviation of distress, which cannot be contemplated without a mixture of horror and the tenderest emotions. 'Blessed,' said our divine Master, are they which are persecuted for righteousness' sake, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven." And surely a blessing from the God of mercy may be expected to descend on him, who espouses the cause of the persecuted; who does his utmost to alleviate their sufferings; who if he cannot restore to them their parents, their children, their brothers or sisters that have been inhumanly butchered, contributes to supply the destitute survivors with bread to eat, with raiment to clothe them, with habitations in which to reside, with Christian temples wherein to worship the God of love and grace, and with ministers to preach to them the words of consolation, hope and eternal life. As nothing can be more becoming a disciple of the tender-hearted Jesus, than thus to relieve his persecuted brethren, so such acts of piety and compassion tend to afford the purest satisfaction to his own mind, and we may be assured will be peculiarly acceptable to that gracious being who is declared to be the refuge. of the oppressed,' and ' merciful to those who shew mercy." "Before I conclude, that candour

to the richness of the grace of him. Resume Tast " X. 1382, 385, &c.)

with the first sixteen verses of the him labour, working the right with epistle.

hands, that he may have to impart to “ Paul, an Apostle of Jesus Christ, him that needeth.” In verse 32, I find by the will of God to the saints, be- in Christ," instead of the systematic ing in Ephesus, and faithful in Christ rendering of the common version. Jesus : Grace to you, and peace, from C. vi. 1, &c. “ Children obey God the Father of us, and of the the voice of the parents of you in the Lord Jesus Christ. Blessed the God Lord. For this is just. Honour the and Father of the Lord of us, Jesus father of thee, and the mother; which Christ, who is blessing us by every is command the first in a promise ; blessing spiritual, in the places above that well to thee may be and thou the bcavens, in Christ ; Like as he be long.lived upon the earth." out-chose us iu him, before the found. There is no date to Mr. Grant's ing of the world, for us to be holy pamphlet. By its appearance, it may and blameless before him in love : have been printed nearly one hundred Having selected us into sonship by years. Mr. Calleuder was probably Jesus Christ unto himself, according a contemporary of John Canne, who to the good pleasure of the will of seems to have been satisfied with a still himself, to the praise of the glory of shorter experiment on translation the grace of himself, by which he “ word for word." graced us in the beloved. In whom

BIBLICUS. we have redemption by the blood of

SIR,

Oct. 24, 1815.

EADING in your Repository Of which he was abundant to us in all wisdom, and prudence, having re. the Report of the Protestant Society vealed to us the mystery of the will for the Protection of Religious Liberof himself, according to the good plea- ty, I observe that two cases have sure of himself, which he before pur- been decided in favour of persons posed in himself. For the dispensa- claiming exemption from paying turution of the fulness of the times, to pike tolls on the ground of their going bring under one head all things in to places of divine worship. the Christ, those both in the heavens, This induces me to state to you and those upon the earth in him. In the following case, and to beg some whom also we are made heirs, se- one of your numerous correspondents lected according to the fore-purpose will point out how I am to procure of Him who to all things giveth ener- redress. Doubtless there are many gy, according to the council of the persons who are in nearly similar cirwill of himself ; that we might be to cumstances with myself; consequentthe praise of the glory of him, who ly I shall not only be obliged to you, first hoped in the Christ. In whom but the dissenting interest at large also ye having heard the word of the will feel a like obligation for a clue to truth, the gospel of the salvation of the removal of the grievance. I asyou : in which also having believed sure you, Mr. Editor, that it is not ye were sealed by the spirit of pro- any pecuniary advantages which I mise, the holy: who is the earnest of am seeking after, no :—my motive is the inheritance of us, in the redemp- purely to support my privilege as a tion of the possession bought, to the Dissenter in particular, and the pripraise of the glory of him. Where vileges of the Dissenters in general. fore also I, hearing the faith, among In the Report above alluded to, no you, in the Lord Jesus, and the love mention is made of the names of the to all the saints, do not cease giving parties whose case was decided at the thanks for you, mention of you mak. Suffolk assizes, nor on what act of ing in the prayers of me.”

parliament the Judge's exposition and Ch. iv. 25, &c. “ Wherefore lay- decision was founded ; and the second ing aside lies, speak truth, every one case is equally destitute of that kind with the neighbour of him; because of information which is necessary for we are of each other members. Be me to lay before a magistrate for the angry and do not sin : the sun let not purpose of procuring redress. set upon the wrath of you: neither The Case I live in a village about give place to the accuser. The steal- three miles from a post-town in the er no more let steal; but rather let West of England, and am 'a Unita

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