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Mr. Howe, on the Persecution of the Protestants of France rian. (That is, one who acknowledges are deluded by blind bigotry and in the one only true God, and Jesus Christ furiate religious zeal, and redound to as his messenger and servant.) In ge- the credit of their own humane feel. neral a chaise is ordered on Sundays ings, liberality and Christian spirit. to take myself and family to a place

THOMAS HOWE. of divine worship in this town, and to take us back after the afternoon The preacher having read some of service. One shilling is demanded as the interesting and affecting details toll at the turnpike gate, and of course of the sufferings of our persecuted paid. This has been the practice for brethren in the South of France, thus many years.

proceeded: “ I am persuaded that J. P. there is not one among you come to

years of understanding, whose tender Bridport, Dec. 19, 1815. feelings are not greatly excited by Sir,

the details which have been now read, ON the

ters from the Committee of the most shocking religious bigotry and Protestant Dissenting Ministers of the fanaticism, and conducted with pethree Denominatins in London, on culiar savage cruelty ; a persecution the merciless persecution which has carried ou in despite of the Edicts of for some months raged against the the King on the throne; supported Protestants in the South of France, I by armed bands, raised and organized took an early opportunity of laying without his authority, and under a their distressing case before my peo. constitutional charter which guaranple, persuaded that this would be tees to all the people the freedom of sufficient to excite their tender sym. religious sentiment and public worpathy and prompt their ready relief

. ship. I cannot doubt of your readiIf you think the conclusion of my ness, my friends, to contribute to the sermon on this occasion, in the least alleviation of distress, which cannot degree calculated to aid this benevo- be contemplated without a mixture lent cause, and at the same time, to of horror and the tenderest emotions. check any unreasonable prejudice,

• Blessed,' said our divine Master, jealousy and dislike towards the Ca- are they which are persecuted for tholics in the united kingdom, which righteousness' sake, for theirs is the the atrocities of those who bear their kingdom of heaven." And surely a name in a neighbouring country, tend blessing from the God of mercy may to produce, it is at your service for be expected to descend on him, who insertion in your liberal Repository. espouses the cause of the persecuted; I mention the latter circumstance, be who does his utmost to alleviate their cause I perceive danger of it arising sufferings; who if he cannot restore from the sympathetic feelings which to them their parents, their children, are generally exciter in favour of the their brothers or sisters that have been persecuted, and indignation against inhumanly butchered, contributes to the fanatical persecutors. Let the supply the destitute survivors with maxim, however, of the heathen mo. bread to eat, with raiment to clothe ralist be observed, fiat justitia. Let them, with habitations in which to not the innocent suffer for the guilty. reside, with Christian temples whereAs we are professing Christians, it in to worship the God of love and becomes us to act towards others, at grace, and with ministers to preach all times, on the comprehensive rule to them the words of consolation, hope of our common master, “ Whatsoever and eternal life. As nothing can bo' ye would that men should do to you, more becoming a disciple of the tendo ye even so to them.” As a friend der-hearted Jesus, than thus to relieve to the just rights of all classes of the his persecuted brethren, so such acts community, I would suggest, that if of piety and compassion tend to afthe Catholics in this country, were ford the purest satisfaction to his own as a body to express their abhorrence mind, and we may be assured will of this sanguinary persecution of the be peculiarly acceptable to that graProtestants in France, and contribute cious being who is declared 'to be to the relief of the sufferers, it would the refuge, of the oppressed,' and have a powerful tendency to restrain merciful to those who shew mercy." the outrages of those persons; who “ Before I conclude, that candour

and liberality which I so often recom- able, alleviate the distresses of those mend to others, prompt me to speak who are suffering the direful effects a word in favour of a class of profess- of lamentable ignorance, blind bigoing Christians in this country, whose try and outrageous zeal. Parent of peculiar religious system is as opposite good! regard them with an eye of to my own as the west is to east. I mercy; enable them to hold fast cannot doubt, that the inhuman treat- their integrity ;' to exercise fortitude, ment which the Protestants in the and to manifest towards their perseSouth of France receive from infu- cutors the disposition becoming the riate fanatics, is viewed with abhor- disciples of Christ, praying, “Father rence by the great body of Catholics in forgive them,' and turn their hearts. the united kingdom. Justice there- Pour into their wounded souls the fore requires that they ought not to balm of divine consolations; and may be deprived of any civil or religious their fellow-christians readily afford privileges which would otherwise be them relief, as they themselves would granted to them on account of the wish for the sympathy and aid of intolerant outrages and cruelties of others, were they deprived of their those in another country, who are earthly comforts; of their near relaa called by the same name. Would not tives and beloved friends; of their this be a violation of the first princi- places of worship ; of their habitaple of equity ? Would not this bè tions, and driven destitute into the worse than returning evil for evil, mountains and dens of the earth, by which Christianity forbids, even vi- the rage of persecution and the viositing the iniquities and injuries of lence of cruel men. May such atro. the guilty on the heads of the inno. cious deeds among professing Chriscent? Such conduct would do ho- tians, so shocking to humanity, so nour to Britons, to professing Chris- disgraceful to religion, be never more tians and Protestants. By the reli- repeated, but that happy period soon gious and moral instruction indeed of arrive, predicted in the page of inthe poor in general, and by granting spired prophecy, when knowledge, to all classes of the community the truth, liberty, peace and righteousrights to which they are entitled, is pess shall cover the earth as the wain my opinion the best mode of mak, ters overspread the channels of the ing good subjects, kindly disposed sea.' neighbours, and useful members of society, and of diffusing among all

Nottingham, Nov. 17, 1815. of them a spirit of mutual concord Sir, and Christian love.

N the recommendation of your last and acted on by the governors of the of Mr. Gilchrist's Sermon, delivered nations of Europe, the British and at Southampton, curious to read what Foreign Bible Societies, and the Bri- was described as “ an acute, able and tish and Foreign Schools, and similar eloquent" composition, and willing to institutions been generally established determine the extent of my claims to and supported in christendom thirty that comprehension of mind of which years ago, the sanguinary wars which your reviewer speaks. With disaphave since devastated the Continent; pointment, however, I find that I can the shocking scenes exhibited in Ire neither admire nor be amused. Perhaps land, and the present fanatical per. it will cousole some of my weak bresecution of the Protestants in France, threu in the Unitarian church to know would according to human probabi- that they have a companion in infirmlity have been prevented. Let us ity; and perhaps some of my fellowthen, as we regard the divine glory, christians who are without the pale of the interest of Christianity, and the Unitarian orthodoxy, may be pleased peace and happiness of our fellow- to hear that there is one of their opcreatures, do our part towards re- ponents at least who does not deem moving the cause of the evils we de- it necessary, or eveo right to lay plore, by contributing to enlighten aside the spirit of Christian moderathe minds of men with useful know- tion when he approaches them, or to ledge, and lead them into the paths address them in other language than of Christian truth, liberality and vir- that of Christian courtesy. I am, I tue. Let us also, as far as we are confess, one of those « intellectual

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Animadversions on Mr. Gilchrist's Sermon. petit-maitres" who shrink with dis- composition,-a spirit which I do not gust from madness or “ any thing hesitate to say, (even at the risk of like madness" in religious controver- being “trampled in the dust for a sy; so ignorant indeed as never to dwarfish tyrant") is unbecoming a have heard what Christian madness is; Christian minister. Such fiery disso confined in my reading as never to courses seem to me likely to answer have met with any mention of it in no one good end, neither of pleasure the writings of Shakespear, Bacon, nor improvement, conciliation nor Taylor, or Barrow, to say nothing of conviction. They may feed the vathe New Testament, which, how- nity and illiberality of the red hot ever, I do recollect, says something convert who is already too much disof Christian meekness; and lastly, so posed to merge his Christianity, I mean-spirited as to rejoice that I live mean his charity, in his Unitarianin an age, “finical and dwarfish," ism-but they will grieve the serious though it be, in which candour and and Catholic Unitarian whose comcourtesy are not universally deemed prehension of miod is not narrowed inconsistent with bonesty and zeal; by party spirit, and they will excite in which the odium theologicum is the determined hostility and aversion beginning to subside, in which the of the adversary when it ought to be philosopher is no longer known by the object first to conciliate, and his tub, por the Christian controver- then to convict. Though speaking sialist by bis coarseness. But to come honourable things of God,” says Bishto the point, whatever may be thought op Taylor, an author in Mr. G.'s adof the argument of Mr. G.'s sermon miration of whom I warmly agree, (which though clear and simple does " be an employment that does honour not l confess strike me as peculiarly to our tongues and voices; yet we ingenious or novel), of the manner must tune and compose even those and spirit of it I think there can be notes so, as may best profit our neighbut one opinion amongst sober and bour.” It should not be forgotten serious Christians,—an opinion deci. that the same spirit of uncharitablededly unfavourable. Where, I would ness, which we condemn in the anathask the author, is the wisdom or the ema of the Calvinist, may exist in decency of those affected exclamations po less lively vigour in the contempof disgust and repugoance to his sub- tuous sneer of the Unitarian. Coarse ject, with which his discourse is so language and opprobious terms are a

copiously interlarded, such as these: disgrace to any cause, and no real ' " I feel at every step as if condemned friend of Unitarianism will, I hope,

to a degrading task. I feel as if be ashamed or afraid to avow that brought upon the stage to fight with “ his ears are shocked by them.” In wild beasts or to contend with mad. conclusion, Mr. Editor, I shall make men.”—“I am weary of such solemn · an extract from Mr. Gilchrist's sertrifting.”_" It is a most irksome task mon, which might have served, I to handle subjects to which one can think, both for a favourable specimen, neither apply argument nor ridicule," and for a review, and the candour of &c. Such exclamations if affected which ought perhaps to mitigate the are disgusting, and is serious, are severity of censure. “ If any illiberal ridiculous. He who undertakes a remark, if any unseemly expression task voluntarily (and a man need not escape from us, place it to the account print against his will, even though he of human imperfection--place it to should be asked) has no right to tor- the account of the individual addressment you with complaints of its irk- ing you ; on him be all the blame : someness. He who voluntarily de- let it not be charged to his opinions, sends from his elevation, whether nor to other men who profess them. real or fancied, has no right to com- A good cause may come into the plain of being degraded. "If Mr. Gil- hands of .... injudicious advochrist really deemed his subject of se- cates : and if one man should give ofrious importance he should have fence by his manner of treating a subtreated it with serious earnestness, if ject, you ought not on that account he did not deem it important, he was

to be offended with the subject itnot obliged to treat it at all.' An in- self, nor with a whole class of Christolerant and contemptuous spirit seems tians." What a pity that the excelto me to pervade almost the whole lent feeling displayed in this, and the

VOL. II.

D

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eloquent passage immediately preced- and since, the priest has turned tin ing, did not prevail with the author her and joined heart and hand in pro to commit this abortion of his genius moting the Protestant faith and in to the flames! I remain, a sincere structing the poor. To meet in any friend to Unitarianism, not so much house or cabin would draw the atten. for its own sake, as for the sake of tion of the priests and perhaps exthat Christianity of which I deem it communication on the person who the purest form.

permitted it would follow; this is the A. A.

reason of his drawing the boys off to

a distance in a manner before stated; SIR,

-the name of this great man is Tha. THE following circumstance I dy

J. W. sure: A few weeks ago my brother- P.S. I add an anecdote of the sinin-law, Mr. - of Dublin, was with gular but praiseworthy integrity of a me : he is an anxious promoter of the Quaker tradesman :-a clerk at the education of the poor ; and it appears general post office told me the other the Catholic Priests oppose generally, day, that one of the above society calevery thing in their power, what is led every quarter to repay those letdone by the Protestants associated for ters that by mistake were underthat purpose, and too generally suc- rated. ceed; though, as it will appear, the people are not adverse to it and con

Natural Theology. No. XII. nive at its introduction. A person in humble life, but of strong mind, and

of the Brain and Nerves.

THE brain is a soft pulpy mass of work, travels through the country in a whitish grey colour, which disguisey taking with him the Bible, occupies all that cavity which is formtranslated into the language of the ed by the bones of the skull, and is lower classes, and has succeeded in surrounded by two membranes, the forming what he calls Hedge Schools, outermost called the dura mater, the where sometimes twenty boys will secoud is denominated pia mater. The attend, and generally great progress former lines the ivside of the skull and has been made in the cultivation of prevents its eminences from giving intheir minds. He gives prizes to those jury to the delicate structure of the who learn by heart most of the parts brain ; it serves also to prevent conof the scriptures that he points out.cussious of the organ: it separates He subjects himself to every privation the whole mass into portions, which and on his last visit to the society in by its partitions it supports and proDublin, his dress being so dirty and tects from pressure. This membrane tattered, it was recommended that he is strong and of a tendinous nature, should have a new suit : “ No," said like the other membranes of the body, he, “ that will never do, if I go back which are only intended to perform with a good coat, my scholars and subservient offices for the living parts; friends will say, You have been to it is insensible, and may be torn withDublin and yot bribed by the great, out giving any pain. It adheres closeand we will have no more to do with ly to the inside of the skull by a great you." His plaus are carried ou un- numher of filaments and small vessels known to the priests, and no public which enter the bone every where. notice is ever taken of it by the so- The pia mater is a soft, thin, transciety, feeling that publicity would parent substance, full of vessels, condefeat the object. He has won num. nected with the former by the veins bers over from the Catholic faith and which pass between them, and lies sets about the task of conversion in in contact with the surface of the a manner never suspected at first, by brain, not only covering this organ, his opponeuts; sleeps in their wretch but insinuating itself into all its winded cabins and partakes of their coars- ings and fissures for the conveyance est fare. It appears he had from time of vessels, and of nourishment, to sup to time various controversies with a ply the waste of this active machine. priest; and at last not ouly succceded Between these two membranes there in detaching him from his opinions, is spread a third, which is extremely but also in leading him into his views; delicate, resembling a cob-web; but

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Natural Theology. No. XII.-Of the Brain and Nerves, 19 does not dip into the convolutions of amoug the internal organs of the the brain.

trunk, to be distributed chiefly to the There are three great divisions of exterior parts of the body and to the the brain. 1. The cerebrum is the up- limbs. Though the nerves run out permost and by much the largest pore in pairs, from their origin, they soon tion: it is separated into two hemis- separate to go to different parts of pheres, each of which is divided into the body, by splitting in innumerable three parts, called lobes. 2. The cere- ramifications. bellum which lies at the under, and To describe these perves, and point back part of the skull, and is divided out their several ramifications would into two portions by the descending take us much beyond the bounds asfold of the dura mater. 3. The third sigued to these papers, but a single division is called the medulla oblonya- instance will illustrate the nature and ta : it lies at the base of the skull, uses of the whole, and this shall be and is a continuation of the substances taken from the fifth pair of nerves, of the other two divisions. The spi- which is branched to the ball, the nal marrow proceeds without inter- muscles, and glands of the eye ;--to ruption from this third division of the the ear-to the jaws, the gums and brain; it passes out of the head by teeth :-to the muscles of the lips :the great opening of the skull, and to the tonsils, the palate, the tongue, running down the canal of the back- and other parts of the mouth :-to bone, where it is safely lodged, giving the præcordia also, or parts situated off nerves till it reaches the pelvis, about the heart and stomach, by comwhere it splits into numerous thread- ing in contact with one of its nerves, like nerves, resembling a horse's tail : and finally to the muscles of the face, the spinal marrow, like the brain, particularly the cheeks. Hence there consists of the same sort of substance, is a great consent and sympathy beand is protected by a continuation of tween the parts, so that certain things the membranes belonging to that or- seen or smelt excite the appetite, gan.

affect the glands and parts of the The nerves arise from the brain mouth, and in some instances excite and spinal marrow : they come out what is known by the phrase of wain pairs and are distributed over the. ter in the mouth : some things seen whole body. 1. To bestow an acute' or beard affect the cheeks with mosensation in the instruments of sense. dest blushes ;-on the contrary, if a 2. To give the utmost facility of mo- thing pleases or tickles the fancy, it tion to the instruments of motion : and affects the præcordia, and the muscles 3. To confer in all otber parts a nice of the mouth and face with laughter : perception of whatever gives pain. others causing sadness and melancholy is If any person,” says Galen, “shall exert themselves upon the præcordia, attend to dissections and consider at- and shew themselves by causing the tentively how nature has not distri- glands of the eyes to emit tears, which buted the nerves in equal measure to by a most wise provision of nature are all the different parts of the body, intended not only to brighten the corbut to some more abundantly, and to nea, and to express grief, but to alothers more sparingly, he will find leviate sorrow : Fletus ærumnas lehimself compelled to acknowledge vat," and the muscles of the face put that nature is eminently wise, just, on the gloomy aspect of crying. Hence skilful and provident in her arrange- also the passions of anger, of hatred, ment of the animal economy. There of malice and envy, of love, of joy are forty pairs of nerves: of these pine and hope are all produced, and expair arise from the base of the brain hibited by the countenance, so that, within the skull; a tenth from the in fact, it is by means of this combrain, as it passes through the great munication of ihe nerves, that whathole of the skull into the spine, and ever affects the mind is demonstrated the remaining thirty take their rise spontaneously by a consentaneous disfrom the spinal marrow. Those aris- position of the præcordia within, and ing from the brain are chiefly dis- a suitable configuration of the muscles tributed to the organs situated in the and other parts of the face without. head, and to those contained in the It is, says "Pliny, an admirable conchest and belly, while those that pro- trivance of the great God of nature, ceed from the spinal marrow go partly that the face should be given to man,

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