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Review.-Wainewright on the Pursuits of Cambridge. 405 - most vehemently opposed, with the schools, we have been accustomed to statements contained in the work be- console ourselves with the idea that fore us, will perceive here too what a theological studies, at least, were carchange a very few years have made in ried on amongst us in a manner conthe disposition to reform. The work sonant to that unfettered freedom of of Mr. Wainewright, which is dedi- inquiry which we profess, and with as cated to Lord Palmerston, one of the careful a research into the original Representatives of the University, does sources of theological doctrines, as it is not appear with quite so official a cha- possible to institute. Our academical racter as Mr. Coplestone's. He informs institutions have always made it their ús, however, that it has been written primary object to educate ministers, chiefly in compliance with the sug- and their failure inust indeed have been gestions of others, and that it has been complete, if they have not attained even * submitted to the inspection of two this. It will be seen, by the following members of the University, of learning passage from Mr. W.'s book, pp. 66,67, and station, upon whose judgment he how little cause he thinks we have for could place implicit reliance." It may, this self-congratulation : therefore, be considered as demi-official. To those of our readers who know no of the University are designed for the sa
“As so large a proportion of the students thing of the studies which are cultivated cerdotal order, it will naturally be expected at Cambridge, this work, diffuse, ill. that an ample provision has been made for written, and ill-reasoned as it is, may the acquirement of that species of learning, afford some interesting information; which this important profession peculiarly and we are very ready to assent to the demands. Complaints, however, have been panegyrics which he bestows on many sometimes made, that this provision is in parts of its literary pursuits. No man many respects defective, and that it is by who is acquainted with the history of no means commensurate with the wishes of learning and science, of enlightened those, to whom tbe ordination of the clergy
Whateves scriptural criticism and liberal political is assigned by the church. principles, will deny the share which cause for objection may formerly have Cambridge has borne in promoting existed on this point, it has for many years them. May that day never arrive; been almost entirely removed, and an opwhen the prevalence of Calvinistic portunity is now afforded to every intended bigotry among one set of its members, character of a profound theologian, which
ecclesiastic, I do not say of completing the and an affectation of orthodoxy among can never be effected during any academical another, shall make the University de- course of studies, but of acquiring such sirous of blotting from its fasti the a competent knowledge of the various, names of these illustrious friends of the branches of divinity, as will qualify him for human race! We frankly give notice passing a very respectable examination, to our readers, however, that our design previously to his admission into holy orin calling their attention to Mr. Wn's ders. In some colleges one term of every work, is not so much to enter into its year and in others one day in the weck, is general merits, as to animadvert upon appropriated in the lecture-roon to the some very unfounded and unwarrant
Greek Testament; and unless counteracted able reflections which he has taken oc- by particular circumstances, the critical casion to throw out, upon the system remarks of the lecturer, and his judicisus of academical education among the
use of the labours of former scholars and
commentators, must be the means of exDissen ters, and especially those whom he calls the rational and Socinian Dis- citing a desire for biblical information, and
of forming a taste for biblical pursuits, senters. Coming forward as he does And here we cannot but obstrve, the vast in the cause, and alınost in the name superiority of the mode af studying the of the University, it is pot fit that he Sacred Writings, recommended and enshould be allowed to circulate his as forced on these occasions, to the carele* sertions, without such a contradiction as this channel can convey.
case which lately fell under our Under a consciousness of the infe
owp knowledge, a lad, who, from his fáriority in some branches of learning, ther's scruples on the subject of infantwhich from necessary causes must al- baptism, had never undergone this rite, ways characterize Dissenters, who are was informed by the master of one of our debarred by religious scruples, not only public schools that he must either be bag from universities but even from public tized or leave the place. VOL. XI,
and superficial mariner so common in dis- one, to whom justice will never be senting institutions, where a notorious de- done but by some other hand than Jigieny in classical and orirntal biterature, · his own. und a general iguorance of the laws of just In the first criticism, must obviously give rise to a theological student, who is required to
year of his course, the ruisteken interpretation of the original text, have reached the age of sixteen át his and to the consequent formation of erro
admission, and to be able to read neous opinions."*
Honier and Horace, begins, upon his 'Εάν προ
Ós TIS ELTOI TA TE POCOY ' first entrance, the study of the Hebrew εαυτω περί αλλου, και δη ταϊθ έτως language, in which it will generally be šXEL vai prémi oi drebytes oxĖportes, found, that at the end of a session of τίς ποτ' αυτός έςιν ο ταύτα λεγων ; nine months, he has made sufficient Such appears to have been the expecta- progress to have read, with tolerable tion of Nir. W. who has either asserted case, considerable portions of the histhat of which he knew nothing, or that torical books of the Old Testament. which he knew not to be. We fery In the second year he reads the Prereadily allow him the miller half of lections of Lowth, irith'the notes of the alternative, believing that he has Michaelis, grammatically resolving the only spoken here in the plenitude of passages which are quoted in the text; thai dignified ignorance which Church- and in addition to this, some of the men affect, in regard to the internal devotional and prophetic books, comconcerns of the Dissenters. We are paring the Hebrew throughout with far from complaining of this ignorance the Septuagint. In the third year, he which it is their privilege to enjoy and continites to read other parts of the our fate to gutier, but let them at least Hebrew Scriptures in the same critical “neither bless us at all nor curse us at and grammatical manner as before. all,” or if they will stoop to censure us, Syriac and Chaldeě do noi make an let them alsó humble themselves to invariable part of the course, but are learn what" it is they are censuring taught to those, whose ability for learn"They would hardly admit it as an asing languages promises that the knowcuse on our pris, fora misrepresentation ledge of them will be useful. The of an university, that it was raised too reader will observe; that through the "high above us, for us to see it distinctly: three first years, theological studies are
Yet the distance from which we look subordinate to the cultivation of the up to Mr. W. is exactly that froin languages, history, mathematics and which he looks down upon us.
Ho philosophy, while in the two last, should both in justice, and in prudence theology forms the chief, and almost "have informed hinself a little better, the exclusive business. The course of before he rentured to coiinit the ho- the fourth year begins with the critical
nour of his University, and even the examination of the sources whence the - credit of orthodoxy, to such a compá- text of the Old Testament is derived, rison as he has provoked. As a reply including the various ancient versions to the reflections contained in the pa- the history and authority of which and ragraph which we have quoted, we their relation to the Hebrew, are more sallbėg leave to lay before our readers or less minutely investigated, according a statement of the course of Billical to their importance to the commentator. study pursued in an academical insti- When the way is thus prepared, the tution, which till lately was the only Scriptures of the Old Testament are one in which ministers among the separately examined, as the records of Unitarian Dissenters received their the Jewish Revelation; the laws of education. We are persuaded that we
Moses are presented in a systematic shall the more readily obtain this in view, that their wisdom and divine dulgence from them, as it will afford origin may appear more conspicuous, us an opportunity of doing justice to
and all the light is thrown upon them
which can be supplied by oriental * That we may not escape under cover manners and a comparison with other of these general reflections, the charge is systems of ancient jurisprudence. A brought home to us in the next page:
similar course is pursued with regard “ The very scanty portion of critical skill to the other historical, to the devotional, possessed by the disciples of Socinus, in and the prophetic books. It is imposcommon with every class of dissidents.” sible to make use of the original text, P. 69. Note.
where so large a space must be gonne
Reier.IPaincuright on the Pursuits of Camlridge. over; but wherever any thing depends is sometimes read as a lecture tn the upon critical interpretation or various under-graduates, the reasoning of this readings, the original is referred to, and passage is worthy the attention of our is compared with the versions, and with readers. The title of these oriental what commentators hare written for scholars to the einoluments of their its illustration. In this way, seven or oflices, arises from the unpopularity of eight hours in every week are occupied oriental studies; of course they would in the lecture-room, besides what the forfeit this title by doing any thing to private preparation of the student re- render them more easy or more atquires. The fifth year is chiefly de- tractive. The paradise of placemen is voted to the reading of the New Testa- s:rely an appointment which not only ment, with the same scrupulous atten- allows inactivity but makes it a condition to every thing which can elucidate tion. Silent, however, as the operation its meaning, without imposing any of these oriental professorships-is, it is doctrinal interpretation; Init as it is of not the less powertul on that account; the highest importance in the institution not the knowledge only of the oriental of a Christian minister, that he be tho- dialects, but the dinlects themselves, Mr. roughly acouainted with this part of W. assures us, would speedily be lost, the sacred volume, the whole, or nearly did not a gentleman at Oxford and the whole, is read over in the original. another at Cambridge receive salaries
We have purposely confined ourselves for doing nothing to diffuse them. Certo a statement of the means employed tainly nothing can equal the cogency to give the students educated in the in- of our author's reasoning, unless it be stitution in question, a critical knowledge the accuracy of his style. of the Scriptures, since it is to this that The deficiency in classical learning, Ålr. W.'s charge refers. And we now which Mr. W.ailegres as another source request the reader to turn back to the of the heresies of the Socinians, we are passage marked in italics in our quota- not inclined to deny; but we wonder tion from him, and to say, if he ever that a Cambridge man should suppose saw a charge which more violently re- it a necessary consequence, that if we coiled on the head of the accuser, than had more learning we should have more that which Mr. W. has so unadvisedly orthodoxy. If the learning of Porson advanced. The fling at the Dissenters and his orthodoxy * together could be for their deficiency in oriental literature transferred to us, we fear we should be is the more strange, as we meet with still at a lamentable distance from Mr. the following passage at p. 76. “ It is 11.'s standard. In Porson's days it sometimes asked, what useful purpose had not become the fashion of the is promoted by the professorships of great scholars of Cambridge (for there Hebrew and Arabic established in both is a fashion in keeping or laying down Universities, when no lectures are de- a conscience) to affect a political adlivered upon the subject?* To this we herence to the church as by law estareply, that though lectures are occa- blished. On the other hand, there is sionally read on these topics, as is the a species of learning which we should case with the present Arabic professor be sorry to purchase by the renunciation at Cambridge, yet the design of these of common sense, in applying it to the institutions is not regularly to teach the interpretation of the Scriptures. Of elements of the languages in question, this sacrifice we might produce mmwhich is best effected by private tuition, berless examples, but while Bishop. but to afford encouragement to the pursuit of an object which presents but
* “ You may say that his religious creed few attractions, and to the critical es resembled that of Dr. Samuel Clarke. You amination of those oriental dialects, are at liberty to thiuk so. Was Dr. Clarke. which would otherwise perhaps be not a Christian ?"-Kidd's Imperfect Outspeedily neglected, if not utterly lost." line of the Life of Richard Porson, prefixed Besides the curious fact here stated, to his Niscellaneous Tracts and Criticisms, viz. that the present Arabic professor to be informed, go the authority of the
p. XXX. It may be interesting to our readers
same intimate friend, that Porsou, though Though Hebrew is considered as a not the author of " Gregory Bluut's Letrequisite qualification for a fellowship in ters," nor well pleased to have been sus- some colleges, it does not constitute & pected of it, thougl.i the new doctrine of regular and an essential part of collegiate the Greek article, as applied to the support literature. P. 74. Note.
of the dividity of Christ, to be antenable.
Burgess lives and writes (may he longsible, it must still be borne in mind, continue to do both!) he will be him that these things are the means and not self a host to prove, how little a man the end-means to the discharge of the may be the better Scripture critic for active duties of a laborious profession. his learning. Who could have be. A clergyman when he leaves college, lieved that the editor of the Pentalogia may have a living in waiting for him, and the Miscellanea Critica, would pro- where, with a well-arranged cycle of pose, on the authority of Suidas, to other mens' sermons, (many probably render έν μορφή Θεά υπάρχων “pre- purloined from the works of those Disexisting in the nature of God?" “ I senters on whom he looks down) and poach in Suidas for unlicens'd Greek !" Nares and Magee to furnish out a vi
Let not our readers, however, ima- sitation philippicagainst the Unitarians, gine that we mean, without further year after year may find him wholly explanation, to surrender the classical devoted to his literary occupations, and learning of the Dissenters to all the not at all reproaching himself for being sarcasms which Mr. W. and others are absorbed in them. A Dissenting inipleased to bestow upon it. Perhaps, nister who should thus sacrifice his even among ourselves, it has not always professional duties to his taste, would been duly considered what place it is be adınonished by the failing numbers possible to allot to classical studies, in and languishing zeal of his congregathe education of a minister (for of that tion, of the folly of forsaking his proper only are we now speaking), without character to assume another incompaencroaching upon other ihings. A tible with it. The ultimate destination young man, who has devoted himself of those under their care, can never be in the ininistry, goes to the academy to lost sight of by those entrusted with prepare himself for the discharge of a the academical instruction of our youth, practical and a laborious profession; without neglecting their duty and exand all his literary studies have a direct posing themselves to much severer rereference to this object. If among Aections than the sarcasms of universitythese studies there be some, which ap- men. Whatever can be done, to render pear to have but little connexion either that portion of time which can be given with the duties of the preacher or those to classical studies, either at school or of the expounder of Scripture, they find afterwards, more efficacious, to encoua place, because experience has shown, rage the diligence and emulation of the that next to a fervent piety and active young, to secure the attainment of such benevolence (qualities in which we a portion of knowledge in all their shall be surprised if even Mr. W.claim ministers, as may enable them to read a superiority for Churchmen over Dis- and explain the Scriptures, and to prosenters), nothing is more essentiabto the vide for those who have more than ordue influence of a pastor's character dinary talents for such pursuits, the over the minds of his people, and his means of qualifying themselves to be ability to take the lead among them in the teachers of the rising generation, plans of general usefulness, than that the past and present conduct of the he should possess a well-stored and Dissenters give us reason to believe well-cultivated understanding. Were they will not neglect. With less than this object lost sight of, in an age like this they ought not to be contented_at the present, when the intellect of so- more than this we should be sorry to eiety is upon the rise, the consequences see them aim. Indeed when we look must be very prejudicial, not only to the at what Mr. W. states as the common respectability of the ministerial charac- course of classical reading at Cambridge, ter, but to the prosperity of the Dissent- we do not see that it is above all hope ing interest and to the influence of of imitation, even by Dissenters. If a those principles of civil and religious young man enters an academical instiliberty, which have been nurtured in tution, already able to read Homer and the bosom of English nonconformity, Horace, and continues five years there, and which still find among us their pursuing his classical studies during the most steady advocates. But though whole time, is it impossible for hiin, if these considerations to our minds satis. he and his teachers are tolerably dilifactorily prove the propriety of making gent, to read “ the finest Plays of the a course of academical study, and espe. Greek Tragedians, Plato's Dialogues, cially of the study of the ancient lan- the Histories of Herodotus and Thuguages, as ample and complete as por cydides, Cicero's Philosophical Works, Reviei.-Wainewright on the Pursuits of Cambridge. 40g and the two Treatises of Tacitus;" nay complished with infinitely less toil and even to master the difficulties of Aris- consumption of tinie; let him observe totle's Treatise of Poetry, and learn to the success of these visionary atteinpts, call it by its proper name?*
and ask where are now the academics Whatever hamiliation it behoves the of Warrington, Daventry and Hackney, Socinian dissidents to feel, when they and what is the condition of the few compare their own armoar, xarxéia, which have escaped the wreck of their ervea Boia, with the golden panoply companions, and he will be less disdivine, in which have issued forth a posed to indulge in unreasonable dePorson, a Part, a Burney and a Wake clamations against those venerable and field,” (p. 83, Note) it is clear that the magnificent institutions which have attainments of Mr. W. himself are by endured the trial of so many ages, or to no means of that colossal magnitude, be led away by the chimerical dreams beneath which the pigny scholarship of the possibility of exemption from of the Dissenters must peep about to practical error." seek itself a dishonourable grave. A
We were aware that it had been, man who takes upon him to school and still is, an object with the Disothers for their deficiencies in Latin senters, to provide the means of giving and Greek, should be very sure that he education to their youth, without senda himself can write English. But did it ing them to the universities. Were ever befal a literary body before, to be the studies pursued at these places as defended by an advocate, who could well adapted to secure the great objects print such a sentence, nay many such of education, and their discipline as sentences, as the following? « Re- favourable to morals, as Mr. W.alleges specting Dr. Hartley's celebrated theory them to be, still no Dissenter could be of solring the pbenomena of the human adınitted to partake of these privileges, mind by the agency of vibration and at Oxford, without trampling on the association, the former of these doctrines faith of his forefathers, nor at Camis certainly
subject to grcat dificulty of bridge, without joining in a worship, actual proof," &c. (P. 64, Note.) Had the form and invocations of which he such a sentence occurred in the theme must deem unscriptural. But at the of a student in the first half of his first time when the Dissenters formed those session at a dissenting academy, we institutions, in whose decline Mr. W. hardly think he could have escaped a triumphs, Oxford was still covered rebuke for prefixing a "respecting” to with the thick darkness of the schothat which nothing respected; and he lastic ages, and not one of those reformis would certainly have been informed had been made, which have since that a theory of solving was a com- placed her at least upon a footing of bination of English words, which equality with Cambridge, in intellectual “ non Di, non homines, non concessere and moral discipline. Was it then an columne."
unpardonable presumption in the DisThe short duration of dissenting senters, to have perceived, half a cenacademies is another circumstance on tury earlier, the unfitness of university which Mr. W.dwells, and he contrasts plans to the true objects of education, it with complacency with the antiquity and while they preserved their youth of universities. “'Let any one direct from the evils of relaxed discipline, and his view to the seminaries projected at temptations to dishonest conformity, to various times for the education of those attempt to provide for them a course of who call themselves Rational Dissent study, more likely to qualify them for ers, (to say nothing of similar founda- the duties of real life? That it was tions for the Independents and Me their object to abridge that needless inthodists) in which the defects and cor- finity of toil to which young men would ruptions of the English universities be exposed at an university, we never were professed to be avoided, and the heard, and we require better evidence acquirements † of learning to be ac
of the fact than the assertions of one
who writes so much at random as “ The Poetics of Aristotle," as Mr. W. has it. Did he learn at Cambridge to speak may be accomplished; the acquirements of of his Rhetorics ?
learning are things which may be attained + The blows which Mr. W. aims at the or purchased but not accomplished. Need Dissenters generally fall upon Priscian. Tad free, livsi oi tà siypara saira. See The acquirement of learning is an act which last note, Xen. Hist. Gr. IV. 4. 10,