Imatges de pÓgina


Burgess lives and writes (may he long sible, it must still be borne in mind, continue to do both!) he will be hime that these things are the means and not self a host to prove, how little a man the end—means to the discharge of the may be the better Scripture critic for active duties of a laborious profession. his learning. Who could have be- A clergyman when he leaves college, lieved that the editor of the Pentalogia may have a living in waiting for him, and the Miscellanea Critica, would pro- where, with a well-arranged cycle of pose, on the authority of Suidas, to other mens' sermons, (many probably render év uopojed uteserwy "pre- purloined from the works of those Disexisting in the nature of God?” « I senters on whom he looks down) and poach in Suidas for unlicens'd Greek !" Nares and Magee to furnish out a vie !

Let not our readers, however, ima- sitation philippicagainst the Unitarians, gine that we mean, without further year after year may find hiin wholly explanation, to surrender the classical devoted to his literary occupations, and learning of the Dissenters to all the not at all reproaching himself for being sarcasms which Mr. W. and others are absorbed in them. A Dissenting mipleased to bestow upon it. Perhaps, nister who should thus sacrifice his even among ourselves, it has not always professional duties to his taste, would been duly considered what place it is be adınonished by the failing numbers possible to allot to classical studies, in and languishing zeal of his congregathe education of a minister (sor of that tion, of the folly of forsaking his proper only are we now speaking), without character to assume another incompaencroaching upon other things. A tible with it. The ultimate destination young man, who has devoted himself of those under their care, can never be in the ministry, goes to the academy to lost sight of by those entrusted with prepare himself for the discharge of a the academical instruction of our youth, practical and a laborious profession; without neglecting their duty and exand all his literary studies have a direct posing themselves to much severer rereference to this object. If among flections than the sarcasms of universitythese studies there be some, which ap- men. Whatever can be done, to render pear to have but little connexion either that portion of time which can be given with the duties of the preacher or those to classical studies, either at school or of the expounder of Scripture, they find afterwards, more efficacious, to encoua place, because experience has shown, rage the diligence and emulation of the that next to a fervent pręty and active young, to secure the attainment of such benevolence (qualities in which we a portion of knowledge in all their shall be surprised if even Mr. W.claim ministers, as may enable them to read a superiority for Churchmen over Dis- and explain the Scriptures, and to prosenters), nothing is more essential to the vide for those who have more than ordue influence of a pastor's character dinary talents for such pursuits, the over the minds of his people, and his means of qualifying themselves to be ability to take the lead among them in the teachers of ihe rising generation, plans of general usefulness, than that the past and present conduct of the he should possess a well-stored and Dissenters give us reason to believe well-cultivated understanding. Were they will not neglect. With less than this object lost sight of, in an age like this they ought not to be contented—at the present, when the intellect of so- more than this we should be sorry to eiety is upon the rise, the consequences see them aim. Indeed when we look must be very prejudicial, not only to the at what Mr. W. states as the common respectability of the ministerial charac. course of classical reading at Cambridge, ter, but to the prosperity of the Dissent- we do not see that it is above all hope ing interest and to the influence of of imitation, even by Dissenters. Ifa those principles of civil and religious young man enters an academical instiliberty, which have been nurtured in tution, already able to read Homer and the bosom of English nonconformity, Horace, and continues five years there, and which still find among us their pursuing his classical studies during the most steady advocates. But though whole time, is it impossible for hiin, if these considerations to our minds satis. he and his teachers are tolerably dilifactorily prove the propriety of making gent, to read the finest Plays of the a course of academical study, and espe. Greek Tragedians, Plato's Dialogues, cially of the study of the ancient lan- the Histories of Herodotus and Thuguages, as ample and complete as por cydides, Cicero's Philosophical Works,


Reviei.-Wainewright on the Pursuits of Cambridge. 40g and the two Treatises of Tacitus;" nay complished with infinitely less toil and even to master the difficulties of Aris- consumption of tinie; let him observe totle's Treatise of Poetry, and learn to the success of these visionary atteinpts, call it by its proper name?*

and ask where are now the academics Whatever hamiliation it behoves the of Warrington, Daventry and Hackney, Socinian dissidents to feel, when they and what is the condition of the few compare their own armoar, xarxéia, which have escaped the wreck of their ervea Boia, with the golden panoply companions, and he will be less disdivine, in which have issued forth a posed to indulge in unreasonable dePorson, a Part, a Burney and a Wake clamations against those venerable and field,” (p. 83, Note) it is clear that the magnificent institutions which have attainments of Mr. W. himself are by endured the trial of so many ages, or to no means of that colossal magnitude, be led away by the chimerical dreams beneath which the pigny scholarship of the possibility of exemption from of the Dissenters must peep about to practical error." seek itself a dishonourable grave. A

We were aware that it had been, man who takes upon him to school and still is, an object with the Disothers for their deficiencies in Latin senters, to provide the means of giving and Greek, should be very sure that he education to their youth, without senda himself can write English. But did it ing them to the universities. Were ever befal a literary body before, to be the studies pursued at these places as defended by an advocate, who could well adapted to secure the great objects print such a sentence, nay many such of education, and their discipline as sentences, as the following? « Re- favourable to morals, as Mr. W.alleges specting Dr. Hartley's celebrated theory them to be, still no Dissenter could be of solring the pbenomena of the human adınitted to partake of these privileges, mind by the agency of vibration and at Oxford, without trampling on the association, the former of these doctrines faith of his forefathers, nor at Camis certainly

subject to grcat dificulty of bridge, without joining in a worship, actual proof," &c. (P. 64, Note.) Had the form and invocations of which he such a sentence occurred in the theme must deem unscriptural. But at the of a student in the first half of his first time when the Dissenters formed those session at a dissenting academy, we institutions, in whose decline Mr. W. hardly think he could have escaped a triumphs, Oxford was still covered rebuke for prefixing a "respecting” to with the thick darkness of the schothat which nothing respected; and he lastic ages, and not one of those reformis would certainly have been informed had been made, which have since that a theory of solving was a com- placed her at least upon a footing of bination of English words, which equality with Cambridge, in intellectual non Di, non homines, non concessere and moral discipline. Was it then an columne."

unpardonable presumption in the DisThe short duration of dissenting senters, to have perceived, half a cenacademies is another circumstance on tury earlier, the unfitness of university which Mr. W.dwells, and he contrasts plans to the true objects of education, it with complacency with the antiquity and while they preserved their youth of universities. “'Let any one direct from the evils of relaxed discipline, and his view to the seminaries projected at temptations to dishonest conformity, to various times for the education of those attempt to provide for them a course of who call themselves Rational Dissent study, more likely to qualify them for ers, (to say nothing of similar founda- the duties of real life? That it was tions for the Independents and Me their object to abridge that needless inthodists) in which the defects and cor- finity of toil to which young men would ruptions of the English universities be exposed at an university, we never were professed to be avoided, and the heard, and we require better evidence acquirements † of learning to be ac

of the fact than the assertions of one

who writes so much at random as “ The Poetics of Aristotle," as Mr. W. has it. Did he learn at Cambridge to speak may be accomplished; the acquirements of of his Rhetorics ?

learning are things which may be attained + The blows which Mr. W. aims at the or purchased but not accomplished. Need Dissenters generally fall upon Priscian. Tad free, livsi oi tà siypara saira. See The acquirement of learning is an act which last note, Xen. Hist. Gr. IV. 4. 10,

Mr. W. Dissenters have, we think, been reluctantly compelled to inhale a rather been prone to the opposite fault portion-which has quickened her infrom that with which he charges them, dolent circulation, and sweetened the and have suffered from attempting to acrid humours of her bigotry-a spirit make their institutions too much like which has been cherished chiefly by the universities; and they have been those who have never been either respectable and prosperons, in propor- within her walls, or those of her sister tion as they have known, and adhered University, and which she herself has to their own proper character. In done her utmost to extinguish. magnificence it will readily be conceded To the imagination there is no doubl that they are as much inferior to Cam- something imposing in an institution, bridge, ás Cainbridge is to Oxford, but whose identity is prolonged through so they are adapted to the wants and the many reigns and centuries; and lie who means of those to whom they belong, has walked up the High-street of Oxand are the fruits of their generous ford, without feeling such emotions, and voluntary zeal. “ Parra, sed apta may assure hintself that he was not mihi, sed nulli obnoxia."*

born to le an orator or a poet. The The Dissenters are as ready to ac- judgment, however, pronounces, that knowledge the errors which have changes which destroy the chain of caused the decline of their academical antiquarian associations, may be useful institutions, as Mr. W. to lay them to and even necessary. Founders bequeath their charge. Yet some of the vicissi- their prejudiced and partial view's along tudes to which he alludes had no con- with their estates, and take upon them nexion with this cause. The removal to legislate for future ages, of whose o`the academy from Daventry (for it condition and wants they can have no still exists) was owing to the conscien- conception: institutions which each tious scruples which made its able and successive age forms for itself will be exemplary (would that the time were adapted to the wants of each. In the more remote when we might say its mortality of the individual, Providence venerable!) Theological Tutor resign has taken a method to break the entail his charge. Before we can allow Mr. of error and prejudice; and frequent W. to exult over the errors, which renovations seem necessary to produce caused the decline of Warrington and a similar effect op public institutions. Hackney, we must request him to an. The boasted perpetuity of endowed gwer us this question: Would either of and chartered Bodies is generally only our universities have been at this mo- the immortality of a Siruldbrug-a ment in existence, if they must have perpetuity of decrepitude, an eternity fallen, as soon as the opinion of the of dotage. public pronounced, that their professors Academical establishments among the made sinecures of their offices, that Dissenters have risen and fallen during their discipline was imperfect and re- the last fifty years, but the DISSENTING laxed, and their plans of study anti- PRINCIPLE survives their vicissitudes, quated and barbarous ? We are very and re-appears with undiminished visure that this question cannot be ho- gour. It is the same undying, though nestly answered in the affirmative; and transmigrating spirit, that has successinto what then does their boasted per- irely animated them, which still lives petuity resolve itself, but into a power in those, from which the present geof holding out against public disappro- neration and the next must expect a bation, of slowly admitting the light supply of ministers, to carry on the which has long pervaded every place work of recalling Christians to the unbesides, of being the last strong-hold of divided worship of the One True God; exploded prejudices? It is the natural and if, as is reasonable to hope, some tendency of the independent revenues portion of original imperfection have and exclusive privileges possessed by been left behind, in every mortal veuniversities, to make them all this; and hicle which it has occupied, we have if Oxford is superior to Salamanca, it warraut for expecting that they will is less owing to any difference in her attain to a longer term than their preown constituiion, than to that free and decessórs. We are, however, far from manly national spirit, of which she has saying to them, estote perpetuæ; the,

failure of some past applications of the * Ariosto's, inscription over his own pious wish might seem to have conkouse.

verted it into a phrase of evil omen, and



Review-Wilson's Disenting Churches.

411 we might be praving for what would tion on his tomb, in Bunhill Fields, be rather an injury than a blessing is pleasing from its simplicity: We are rather disposed to take leare of in hopes of a part in the First Resurrecthis subject by congratulating them,

tion. that whatever be their duration they

To the Memory can never survive their usefulness, and Of Mr. JOSEPH JACOB, that as soon as they become negligent

An Apostolic Preacher, of their work, it will be transferred to Who died the 26th of 4 mo. 1722. abler and more faithful hands.

Aged 55.

We learn from the subsequent hisArt. II.-The History and Antiquiticstory of “Turner's Hall," that the of Dissenting Churches, &c.

practice of singing in public worship

was, about this time, introduced (Continued from p. 346.)

amongst the Baptists : but it was an N the history of “Turner's Hall, innovation, and in one particular case sing account of Joseph Jacol, who was objected to the norelty, claiming to brought up a Quaker, but became an themselves the title of the Old Church. Independent minister. He displayed How uniformn is human nature ! his zeal on behalf of civil liberty in the Mr. Wilson is to be considered in a year 1688, by mounting a horse and higher rank than that of a compiler, going to meet the Prince of Orange and therefore his readers may justly in the West of England. He was complain that he has sometimes slahowever no blind admirer of William vishly copied the language of sermons 111. :'he frequently took occasion to and pamphlets from which he drew animadvert in public upon such of the his materials. Who can now endure measures of the government as he such quaintnesses as the following, considered blameable. He did this in which occur pp. 145 and 147, in the a Lecture which he preached at Mr. account of two ordinations : “Mr. Gouge's Meeting-house, near the 'Threa Wallin opened the work of the day, and Cranes, Thames Street: the report of was the mouth of the church upon

the his disloyalty reached the House of occasion:", " they were not in conCommons; and, says Mr. Wilson, nexion with any board. Mr Bocket, “ Mr. Shallet, one of Mr. Gouge's one of the deacons, was deputed by people, being then a member of par- the church to be their mouth." liament, took up the business at a Dewhurst then closed the work of the Church-meeting, complained loudly of day.Mr. Jacob's behaviour, and insisted Intolerance is always the same. upon his being dismissed from his Orthodoxy, creeds, and persecution aro lecture at that place, which was com- natural allies. plied with.”—Mr. Jacob, like many « In the year 1719, the Dissenting other reformers, assumed no little 'Churches in the West of England, were church-authority: he obliged his con- thrown into a flame, in consequence of gregation to stand during the singing, some of their ministers having embraced discarded periwigs, introduced, on the Arianism. This produced a long coutropart of the men, whiskers on the versy, which was carried on with great upper lip, of which he set the exam- bitterness on both sides. At length the ple, and proceeded even' to regulate matter being referred to the London ministhe dress of the women. He forbade ters, they met together in a synod at Salters' the members of his church to attend Hall, to consider of advices to be sent to any other worship than his own, and their brethren in the West, with a view of made it an offence, to be visited with composing the differences. But it so bapexcommunication, for any of them to pened that they could not agree among interinarry with persons not in church- themselves; and, as is generally the case connexion. These singularities were and still further widened the breach. It

with large bodies, they split into parties urged to an extreme: had Mr. Jacob being proposed in this assembly, that, in been a little more temperate, his sect order to support their orthodox bretlxen in might have lasted (the spirit of the the West, the ministers present should sect still lives in many different com- make a declaration of their own sentiments munions that we could name) and his with regard to the Trinity, by subscribing name might have been preserved the first article of the Church of England, amongst the heresiarchs. The inscrip- and the answers to the fifth and sixth

" Mr.

questions in the Assenibly's Catechism, yet the late Bishop Portens, in his life the matter was violently opposed, as an of the Archbishop, his patron, asserted infringement of Christian liberty, and they that “hę never was in communion divided into two parties of subscribers and with the Dissenters !"-The Primate non-subscribers," I. 162, 163.

is convicted of having been a PresbyteThe decision of the synod was rian minister, in « A Collection of worthy of nonconformists. On divi- Letters and Essays in favour of Public ding, it appeared that there were for Liberty," published in 1974, in 3 vols. subscribing articles of faith 53, against duodecimo; but he appears to have it 57! This ever-memorable majority purified and prepared himself for the stamped an honour upon the cause of church of England by a course of scepDissent, and have redeemed ecclesiasti- ticism and medical study and practice cal assemblies from disgrace. Coldly as (midwifery?) " The Archbishop had Mr. Wilson writes of the triumphant a dissenting education, was designed party in this part of his work, he uses,

for the pulpit among that people; but in another place, II. 6-8, the land had not so inuch freedom from doubt. guage of warm approbation which be- ings, as to allow him to engage in the comes the friend of liberty.

service of a public instructor in the Amongst the voters at Salter's IIall Christian religion; and therefore turned were Thomas Reynolds, pastor of the his thoughts to the study of physic! Weigh-house, and James Read, bis Bishop Talbot's arguments reconciled assista:t: Reynolds was in favour of him to the faith of the civil churchsubscription, "Read in opposition to it. establishment, in April, 1721, and he The vote given by Read caused his became more and more confirmed in orthodoxy to be suspected, and he was that faith as he made his advances in persecuted with ariful questions, and the church, till he reached the See not giving answers satisfactory to Rey of Canterbury." Collection, &c. III. nolds and his orthodox party in the 34. church, which was the majority, was

One of the most interesting biogra. at length dismissed. Two of the ques- phical sketches in the History, is that tions urged by the inquisitors on this of Samuel Wilton, D.D. pastor of the occasion deserve to be recorded as a church, formerly Presbyterian, now model for such as inay in future be Independent, at the Weigh-house. desirous of screwing and racking Dr. Wilton distinguished himself as conscience: they were,

an ardent friend and able advocate of

religious liberty. He took an active “1. Whether a person that pays reli

part in the application of the Dissent gious worship to Christ, but at the same time disowns him to be truly and properly from subscription, and published in

ing ministers to parliament for relief .. God, (that is, in the strictest and strongest sense of the word) be chargeable with of an Application, and in 1774,"A

1773 “ An Apology for the Renewal one has forfeited bis claim to Christian Review of some of the Articles of the communion ?" I. 170.

Church of England, to which a Sub

scription is required of Protestant DisIn this connexion, our historian senting Ministers.” The latter publiuses gravely, and without a note of cation is still read and admired and will admiration, the phrase “ Arian he never be out of date whilst the articles resy?". Protestant Dissenters ought continue to be imposed as a test of surely to have learnt by this time the orthodoxy. in the parliamentary folly of language which implies on the church. With other eminent faculpart of the speaker or writer theologi- ties of mind, Dr. Wilton possessed a cal infallibility:

very strong and retentive memory; it The occasional mention of « Mr. was partly from his memory, as well Jollie's church at Sheffield," leads Mr. as that of Dr. Furneaux, that Lord Wilson (p: 177. Note) to name Arch-Mansfield's celebrated speech, estabbishop Secker, who, in early life was "lishing the right of Dissenters to exa member of that church, and who emption from office in corporations, afterwards studied for the Dissenting was published. A good portrait of ministry under the learned Mr. Jones, him ornaments this part of the Hisof Tewkesbury. Secker delivered a tory. probationary Sermon in the meeting- Dr. Wilton's public character is the house au Bolsover, Derbyshire. And more observable on account of the

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