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where a system of reformation might the infirmities of the human frame, be adopted, and an experiment made exempring oflendmg individuals in how far punishment might become souve cases from the punishment of conducive to its noblest and most death, and sabjecting them to milder legitimate use-1!1e reformation and punishment; and therefore in the benefit of the oftender.*. But this case of clerzyable fełonies, we now regulorion, thongh applauded by profess to measure the degree of Black soone, and other humane wri. prunishment by the real enormity, of ters, I afier Having been continued the offence, and rol as the ignorance by sercral subsequent acis, ę, was and superstition of former times susrecently suffered to aspire.!! It ap- gested, by a blind respect for sacred pears from these sereral modern persons or sacred functions, nor by an regulations, that, as observed by Mr. absurd distinction between subject and Justice Foster, now consider subject originally owing to impudent benefit of clergy, or rather the benefit pretension on one hand, and to mere of the statutes, as a relaxation of the fanaticisin on the other. 9 rigour of the law, à condescension to

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MISCELLANEOUS COMMUNICATIONS.

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Kilwerthu, near Twistock, the object is previously described, of SIR,

July 30, 1816. specified. The Article is only an AD the mostern Bishop of Calcut- iudex ; having indicated the thing in

DO been stated to the ancient Philosophers of a barometer points to the mercury, of Athens, they wonki probably have but the eye ascertains the degree of its inquired" May we know what this elevation: Mr. Tooke, in his “ Dinew doctrinc, whereof thou speakest, versions of Purley," says that the Article is ?" Aristotle regarded the Article as is “a mere substitute for a particular a term of no signification in itself, de term"—to do that which, on the contached from the sentence in which it trary is done by another principle, occurs. asepog d=éomi beri corpos, vamely the eye or the mind. ή λόγου αρχήν, ή τέλος, η διορισμών

“ Sed pulchrum est Digito Monstari, et cràsi, C. 20, De Poetica. In his esti

dicier, Hic est." PERSIUS. mation, the Ariicle served only as indicative of a certain object of sense, or of that both Aristotle and Euclid tre

It is perhaps worthy of observation, intelligence.

quently omit the Article in their seApollonius, the grammarian, re

spective detinitions as to the subject, marks that some indications are ncular, and predicate. θεε δε ενέργεια, and some are mental.-τας μεν την αθανασία: τετο δε εστι ζωή αίδιος. όψεων είναι δειξεις, τας δε τα ν8. Arist. de Cælo, L. 2, C. 3. De Syntaxi, L. 2, C. 3. The primary force of the definite Ar- Athens, to which the Apostle alluded

The inscription on the Altar at ticle consists 'merely in directing the in his speech on Marshill, was without eye, or the attention to an object; and the Article Aywotw tew but Paul the definitive power assigned to it is applies the Article to the name of the gather an eifect of the sight, where the object is present, or of the mind in Deity, which he announced.

Dr. Middleton asserts that the Greek drawing the necessary inference, where

Article is the pronoun relative ‘o,

which, he thinks, has no resemblance 19 Geo. III. c. 74. s. 5 to 27.

to the definitive Article ribe in En+ 4 Bla. Com. 371, 2.

1 Montague's Collection of glish; but though it be granted that's Opinions on the Punishment of Death, was originally a pronoun, it is no inore

See

a pronoun now, than it is a verb or 24 Geo. III. st. 2. c. 56. 28 Geo. adjective. The Monthly Reviewer of 111. c. 24.

34 Geo. III, c. 60. 39 Geo. his book, has justly maintained the suIII. c. 52.

periority of the English over the Greek | 26 March, 1902. 2 Will. J. 448. S. 435.

f Fost. 305, G.

vol. 2.

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Mr. Howe om Moral Improvement.

449 in precision, by the means of the in- the subjects of these Tealms, even the definite-an-in combination with the poorest among them, to the honourable definitive.

rank of kings, without endangering Dr. Carpenter has truly remarked; their allegiance to our rightful sovereigri that Dr. Middleton's exceptions and King George. Should it on the

pelimitations furnish sufficient testimo- rusal meet with your approbation, it is nies that Mr. Sharp's construction of very much at your service for insertionz the controverted passages is not required in your valuable Repository. by the Greek idiom. Dr. M. says Your occasional Correspondent, " that all nours are excluded from the

T. HOWE rale, except those which are significant AMBITION is natural to inan, and of character." When 1:05 is subject the inind destitute of all species of it, to the rule, it signifies nothing inore(if such a supposition may be admitted; than a divine character; to which would be dormant and inactive. Feel every Christian ought to aspire. ing no stimulus for exertion, it would

l'am desirous of expressing a hope remain stationary, and make no imthat your able correspondent, Dr. provement in science, or any other ex: Charles Lloyd, will not allow “ the cellent attainment. It would resemble victory to be silently conceded.” Si- a vessel on the bosom of the ocean, so lence is not always an occasion of becalmed as to make no progress in any triumph. The Trojan Chief, though direction. Motives of ambition of some clad in the armour of Achilles, boasted kind or other are as necessary to put the not of victory, while the Grecian Hero mind în motion, and call forth its lawas silent in his tent.

tent énergies, as the wind at sea to waft Why will not Dr. Lloyd himself, or the sailing ships to their desired portstris worthy friend, Mr. R: Taylor, pro- Whether in any supposed case it be mote the interests of Biblical criticism, crnsierable or laudalle, depends upon the by communicating to your Repository object to which it is directed.' Froin their view of those principles, which early association of ideas, from hearing prove to demonstration that the Deity the pleasures, riches and honours of the of Christ is not to be inferred by any world highly extolled, young persons right application of the Article io are led to estimate them beyond theit passages in the New Testament.- due value. As they advancé in years, * Truth," says Berkeley, " is the crysome or other of these objects present of all, but the game of a few." If they themselves to excite their ambition. interfere to decide this controversy, we

Rank and pre-eminence among their may then say with the bard-, fellow creatures, are the wish of most * This battle fares like to the morning's persons, and the aim of those who are war,

placed in such situations, as to give When dying clouds contend with grow them a chance of obtaining them. To ing light."

be, however, in some of the highest A doctrine that depends, like the Deity conditions of society, is the lot but of of the Logos, on the application of an sew. To sit on the throne and wear Article, in a dead' language, while in the crown of royalty, is the peculiar living languages it varies with the honour of one only of our fellow morthoughts of men, and their natural tals, till incapacity or death makes way idioms, may be pronounced, in the for his successor. This at least is the Latin of Papal Benediction, to be constitution of our own country. It “ In articulo mortis."

may therefore at the first view excite I am, Sir, with great respect, &c. the astonishment of my readers to be

WILLIAM EVANS. told, that the present writer has a plan P.S. Such a contribution as I have to communicate to the public, (which thús solicited would not supersede a indeed did not originate with himself,) separate publication, prepared by Dr, whereby all persons may become kings, Lloyd, on the Greek pre-positive Ar- and exercise regal government. Let ticle. Professor Porson communicated not the zealous royalist be alarmed; he seven of his “ Letters to Travis," to be may be assured that there is no treason inserted in the Gentleman's Magazine. in the proposal : it does not interfere

with the allegiance due to his Majesty. -- SIR, Bridport, July 5, 1816. The plan indeed, if duly executed, THE following communication would make persons of all classes of

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beggars); but instead of inspiring them Poem, composed by a learned and with the spirit of rebellion against our pious Divine, nearly, I believe, a cenlawful Chief Magistrate, it would ren- tury ago. These I shall transcribe , der them more peaccable subjects, with a little alteration. more worthy and useful members of

“ Rex est, qui metuit nibil, society, and unspeakably happier in Rex est, qui cupit nihil, themselves : it would confer a noble

Hoc regnum sibi quisque dat." dignity on them, to which the highest

Sex. peers of the realm, even its illustrious“ What ails the mortals! See their rage princes, have no claim, if they do not For empire, on life's little stage: adopt the same mode :-without this When he's a prince, and well may vie, every man is a slave, however exalted With loudest game in monarchy, may be his external rank. This how. Who sways with sweet and soft control, ever does not come to men by heredi

The wide dominions of his soul ; tary succession, like the crown of the

Who with a free despotic hand, United Kingdom, but is to be attained

Has all his passions at command; by the individual's own exertions. He

Makes appetites and humours wait,

At reason's throne and wisdom's gate ; must acquire a signal and complete

Who nothing fears, save to molest victory over those whom he is destined

The spring of peace within his breast; to rule, before he can reign in safety

Lives unconcern'd at what may be and in peace. Yea he must become

Lock'd up in dark futurity; an absolute monarch, whose will is not

Whose just desires are still confin'd to be controlled, or he himself will be To noble treasures of the mind, led captive, and doomed to the worst Nor hunts for wealtb, nor covets more kind of bondage, by those who ought Than frugal state of earthly store : to be his obedient subjects. When the Who thus with sails and streamers latter has been the case, it has made whirl'd, my heart bleed, to see him degraded Rides master of the lesser world, from his throne, trampled as it were in

Has more of king, and royal robe, the dust, treated with every mark of

Than he that governs half the globe. indignity, and made to submit to the

And now what's strange, believe it you, most servile employments. What

'Tis not more strange, my friend, than

true, shocking scenes of riot and outrage,

There's none but may, howe'er so low, wretchedness and misery, have then

This kingdom on himself bestowsucceeded each other! According to A kingdom that more pleasure sheds, the constitution of our country, the Thau all the pomp of crowned heads." people take part in the government, by A View of Death, a Poem, their representatives chosen by them

By J. REYNOLDS.. selves: this is a right which they may justly claim. In the other kingdom,

Sir, however, to which I refer, none of its

Norwich, July 20, 1816. subjects are qualified to be admitted to

D'

URING the lifetime of Dr. John any share in the government; and Taylor, he was followed about whenever this be done, confusion and the streets of this ty, with cries of disorder immediately ensue. That the “there goes the old heretick!" and sovereign should be the sole ruler ac- very soon after his death appeared a cording to his discretion, and that any pamphlet, called The Arian and Sociindulgence granted to his subjects nian's Monitor, in which he was represhould be sanctioned by his authority, sented as tossing on the waves of Hell, is as necessary for their preservation and suffering the most exquisite torand safety, as for his own dignity and tures, on account of his religious opihappiness.

nions. This work has been, and yet By this time, no doubt, my sagacious is industriously circulated. The last readers perceive in what sense every

edition which I saw was accompanied man may be a king, that the kingdom with an engraving, representing him in is within him, and that his humours and the situation above described. Such jancies, his appetites and passions are his being the methods which Calvinists subjects, whom he is to govern accord- have adopted, in order to prevent the ing to the laws prescribed by that great circulatio, of his opinions, and such and good Being, from whom all authority einanates.

* Instead of I was led to these reflections, by the “ What ails the mortals, that they so perusal of the following lines of a Contend for empire here below ?”

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Mr. E. Taylor on a Calumny on Dr. John Taylor.

451 the kind of warfare they have chosen, the Evangelist as to whom he meant as I was not at all surprised to see the the Supreme God, he repeats it again, following quotation from a work, ver. 2," the same was in the beginning which was reviewed in the Monthly with God,' for God who was with the Repository for June, entitled, Wilson's Supreme God, cannot be the Supreme History and Antiquities of Dissenting God with whom he was. Further, Churches : “We have somewhere met this being, called the Son of God,' or with an observation of Dr. Taylor, of the · Word,' is that being or agent by Norwich, which is much to our pre- whom God made every thing (Ephes. sent purpose. The Doctor, who was a iii. 9, Heb. i. 2) so universally, that all zealous Socinian, and a learned tutor the rest of the creation, without exat Warrington, expressed his surprise ception, was made by hiin, i.e. by that how it happened that most of his pu- power and wisdom which he had repils turned Deists. The fact it seems ceived froin God: so that he himself he admitted, but he never thought of alone was immediately produced by accounting for it from the sceptical the power of God, and all the rest, tendency of Socinian principles.” without exception, were made by his

I thank your Reviewer for this quo- instrumentaliiy. And as it pleased tation. I should most probably else God to employ him as the creator of have never seen the passage, or even the world, so also it is his further pleaheard of the work; and I trust you will sure that he should be our final julge." allow me to occupy a small part of the These were Dr. Taylor's sentiments ; Repository, in exposing the falsehood how far they are consistent with Mr. of some of the assertions which it con- Wilson's assertion that he was a zealous tains. 1st. Dr. Taylor was a zealous Socinian, your readers will easily deterSociniun. Now it is certain that Mr. mine for themselves. Wilson 'is either completely unac- 2d. But Dr. Taylor, notwithstanding quainted with Dr. Taylor's writings, he was a learned tutor and a zealous Soor that he is entirely ignorant of the cinian, " expressed his surprise how it meaning of the term Socinian. If the happened that most of his pupils turned former, how dares he to make any as. Deists." This assertion proves Mr. sertion about Dr. Taylor's creed; if the Wilson to have been as ignorant of the latter, let him study some dictionary events of Dr. Taylor's life, as of his before he sets himself up as the histo- theological opinions. Dr. Taylor went rian of Dissenting Churches. That to Warrington in November, 1757, Dr. Taylor was an Arian is very well and he died in March, 1761. So far, known to all who have read his works. therefore, from his having “ expressed The following passage (which I copy his surprise how it happened that most from his own handwriting) is sufficient of his pupils turned Deists,” he did not evidence to this fact. “The Scriptures live to see any of them even cornpletc tell us that there is such a being as the their course of education; so that, as only begotten Son of God; the first your Reviewer conjectures, this“someborn of every creature, by whom he where" of Mr. Wilson's turns out to be made all things : whereby I understand “no where.". The whole story is a that this being is the first or most ex- gross falsehood, coined by a spirit of cellent production of the divine power. bigotry and malice, and circulated with This being is called the Word,' John the hope of defaming and vilifying the i. 1, the Word of God,' Rev. xix. 3, pious dead. I don't mean to charge probably because God by him spake Mr. Wilson with being its author ; it and declared his will to his creatures, is probably very current among his especially to us. This being, called breihren, and he might think it (as . the Word,' existed in the beginning indeed he intimates) so much to his for at the creation of the world, Gen. purpose, as to insert it in his “

History i. 1,) in a state of great glory, and was of Dissenting Churches." He is prothen with the Supreme God and Fa- bably only a retailer of scandal and ther, John xvii. 5.; and he was God, falschood. But, Sir, what else can or a God: ii e. in a state of great glory be expected from a man who could and power. For the term God is ap- have the unblushing effrontery to write plied to any being to whom power is and to publish the following sentence: given, not only to angels, but also to that “ Dr. Lardner, among other Somen, And that we might not mistake cinian authors, “ has contributed to poison the streams of divine truth, and that the machines, when worn out and promote an universal scepticism in broken, lost their activity, though he matters of belief."

could not divest himself of the idea To such persons as Mr. Wilson, I that their essences remained. This should use the words of Dr. Harwood, conclusion did away at once the prein bis Funeral Sermon for Dr. Taylor: tensions of the inanagers; but the ada “ Let those whose Christian principles mission that these essences, remained could teach them to abuse him, and indestructible, though their action was deny him salvation, heap upon his me- suspended, proved the fruitful source mory all the execrations ihat enthu- of numerous errors. This notion being siasın can very religiously and piously directly opposed to the purport of the utter. Let them spurn his ashes and promise, that the machines having insult over his grave with the same ri. been destroyed would be reconstructed, diculous wildness, the same frantic led to conclusions no less opposed to it. postures, and the sanie low revenge, as It was supposed that they would be it is well known some of them did recalled to action and retain their over Dr. James Foster's after his in- activity, amid the continued fury of terment. Such treatment now can no the most intense flames, serving but as more affect his happiness, than it ever the instruments of their violence. It affected his arguments. He now en- was even believed that the language in joys a calm uudisturbed repose, under the instructions, which plainly exthe protection and guardianship of him, pressed the temporary destruction of the who has the keys of death, and the invisible machines, purported their continued world : and in the morning of the re- action, in vomiting incessant fames surrection, when those who sleep in the upon their respective operators.; and dust of the earth shall awake, will rise also that all of them except the very from the ruins of the grave, the first in first that had been made, were for ove immortal glory, splendour and blessed single offence of that operator, of which ness," I am, Sir,

all the other operators were wholly Your's, respectfully, unconscious, constructed for this very EDWARD TAYLOR. purpose. So far did many of them

carry this persuasion, that they thought Mechanism ; an Allegory. it the height of presumption to expect [Concluded from p. 390.] the least beneficial effects, by any esSection II.

ertions, or attention to the instructions N

dered it, that while the mists of pable. Both his machines and his illusion continued to accumulate on instructions, aceording to their ideas, one side of the horizon, the heams of were the very reverse of being useful: light began to break in from the oppo- nor did they think they could be better site hemisphere. Some of the operators employed, than in making strong pronow began to rouse out of their le- testations that they were vile instro thargy, and to resume the use of their ments, fit for nothing but mischief, faculties. An honest spirited fellow, and that it was impossible for them to who was not altogether averse to his do any real good whatever with them; employment, and had luckily discovered and therefore that they hoped he would a copy of the original instructions, be pleased entirely to change their began to protest stoutly against the structure, and moreover, so to overrule gainful trade of the managers; and by and direct all their own operations, degrees discovered that the super- that they would in future shower down abundant blessings which they pre- nothing but perpetual benefits upon tended to dispense, on certain terms, theniselves, whatever inight be the fate had no existence but in their crafty of the great majority of their compaimaginations. The mist, however, nions. This kind of language they continued to be so great, that he could considered as expressive of proper

dis by no means distinguish between the positions in the presence of the Genius, Genius and the eminent Operator with and such as he would be very likely to whom he had been so strangely con- reward in that extraordinary, not to say founded; nor could he distinctly see to most extravagant manner which they read the book of instructions. But requested. It might have been well from what he could trace, he concluded had they considered how they would

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