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ing the attention of the Unitarian public to and Dr. Marsh being knowd as its ward the present state of their firances, they by opponent. We can hardly "suppose that uo means wish to trespass apon that the Professor has been rewarded with the liberality in which they have so largely mitre for his political publications tending participated. They merely desire it to be to promote the war against kepublican known, that their own resources are very. France: the results of that war are now inadequate to the provision which they are so clearly seen and so strongly felt, that called upon to make, And that the smallest even the Pitt party must, one should tbink, donations with which they may be favoured look back upon its promoters with sentia will be most thankfully received.

ments very diferent from gratitude. We W. HARRISON. can still jess imagine, in these times of Any persoos disposed to contribute to professed orthodoxy, that Dr. Marsh is the assistance of the Oldham brethren, advanced to bis present dignity on account may transmit their donations either to of his services to Biblical Literature. the Rev. . R. Aspland, Hackney, or to the Those services are in the eye of a true Rev. W. Harrison, 20, Brazen-nose Street, Churchman of very questionable merit; Manchester.

since they have contributed in spite of Dr. For particulars of the different contribus Marsh's own protestations) to take away tions to the Oldham Chapel, vide M. Rep. the supports of some of the fundamental for Feb. 1816, p. 123.

doctrines of the soi disant orthodox church.

Whatever be the cause of the new DOMESTIC

Bishop's creation, it will be honourable MISCELLANEOUS.

to him and gratifying to the lovers of Dr. llerbert Marsh, diargaret Pro- Biblical learning, if he proceed in the fessor at Cambridge, is promoted to the course which he has so successfully entered See of Llandats, vacant by the death of upon, and lay open the road to a thorough Dr. Watson. - This appointment is proba- knowledge of Scriptural divinity. He bas bly designed to preserve an equilibrium on displayed on some occasions an independe the Episcopal bench; the last gentleman.ence of mind and a spirit wbich are an raised to this dignity, Dr. Ryder, Dean of earnest to his friends that the See of LlanWells, made Bishop of Gloucester, being daff will still be eminent for the public a zealous member of the Bible Society, virtue as well as talents of its bisbop.

MONTHLY RETROSPECT of PUBLIC AFFAIRS;

OR, The Christian's Survey of the Political World. A great fleet is gone out to chastise it is then if possible to a superior line of consaid the Algerines, for their mode of war- duct. It is a beautiful trait in the history fare, which differs from that pursued by of the Romans, that in a treaty with the the states which call themselves Christian. Carthagišians, they insisted on the aboliThe papers are in consequence full of bit- tion of human sacrifices. We may readily tergess against the Corsairs, not reflecting conceive what influence the religion of how very little superior to theirs is the Moloch must have had on the temper and conduet of more civilized life. Sone al manners of his worshippers. Traces of it lowance is also to be made for those may be seen in the writings of St. Auwretched men, who have not the advan- gaštine, whose divinity was warped by the tages which we possess of more improved feelings of his country; and we are not to instruction from the Scriptures, from the be surprised that Calvio should have beliberty of the press, and a better system of held with "joy the torturing of Serrelis, government. It is to be recollected also without reflecting that tliis inhuman senti. what cause of hatred to the Christian name ment sprang from the Carthaginian Mo they inherit from their ancestors; for they loch, not from the God and Father of our are the descendants of the Moors, whom Lord Jesus Christ, who is distinctly prothe wicked policy of the Spaniards drove claimed to us under the endearing cpithet with unexampled barbarity from the of a loving Fatber. This reflection merits country in which they had been settled to be impressed on every mind subjugated for several bundred years. Besides, if ther to Calvin; for the same cause produces the Christians complain of slavery in Africa,“ same effects, provided the circumstances are it is to be recollected that the Africans in the same: and however meliorated by the their turn, when taken slaves, have been spirit of the times is the Calvinistic spirit, subjected to a very great degree of hardship yet its basis remains the saine, derived from op board the Christian gallies.

Moloch, not from him of whom it is said Far be it from us to vindicate the Afri- God is Love. cans, or to deny the propriety of bringing This new warfare will lead to many re

State of Public Affairs.

499 Rections on the conduct of Christians to- servants of boliness to the perfecting of wards each other." For nearly a quarter of buman life. At any rate it is now the time

century they, wbo profess this holy name, for all men of enlightened minds and lihave been living io 'a state, which is the beral dispositions to forward the designs of direct opposite to wbat the name implies these sovereigns, and to encowrage their Every Christian is directed to address his undertakings. As they express their deheavenly Father in a prayer, that his king- termination to act upon Christian principles, dom may come : but this is a kingdom of too much care cannot be taken to place peace, and it cannot be conceived that, if those principles before them in their proper this prayer which was repeated so frequently liglit; and one of the first ohjeets should by so many millions of tongues, had really be so to regulate the relations of states to come from the heart, the nations of Europe each other, that they may not hereafter could have lived in the state of warfare, rush beedlessly into war, but take every which it has been our melancholy fate to previous step which prudence dictates and experience. We know that it has been and religion requires, before they run into the is urged continually, that war has existed danger of calling upon themselrès or their from the earliest times, and will continue subjects the Avenger of blood. as long as there are men on carth. True France appears to be approaching to a it has existed for too long a period, and more settled state. It has been said of the will exist as long as the spirit of the first- Bourbons, that they neither learned any born Cain, the first murderer, coutinues to thing nor forgot any thing during the years be the theme of general applause. But let of their adversity. But whatever might be it be recollected, that this spirit is entirely their state, whether that of dreaming, or opposite to the spirit of Christianity : and dozing, or attending in some degree to the as real Christianity makes a progress in the changes in their nation, they cannot aroid world, the spirit of Cain will give way to it, the general rule; they must submit to cirand at last be entirely subdued. In the cumstances. They cannot bring the nation mean time it is the duty of Christians to to what it was before the Revolution, and oppose it to the utmost of their power, and they must accommodate themselves to the to hail with satisfaction every attempt to change. One great point has been subbring men to a just knowledge and ab- mitted to by them. The Legion of Honour horrence of war, and at any rate to en- formed by Buonaparte has been adopted deavour to alleviate as much as possible its by them, and the consequence is, that the horrors. The events of the last years shew tattering distinctions of ancient nobility bow little is to be gained hy blood : con- will bend to the new bonours, more suited querors and conquered on calculating their to the preseut times. In fact they now find respective gains and losses, bavo reason to that it is impossible to restore the nobility regret that the voice of religion had not its and the clergy to their ancient privileges, dae effect on all parties.

The minds of men are so changed in thie! Let us hope that the new Christian respect, that the deference formerly exacted treaty, as it is called, may hare some ef- would now appear ridiculous. But it must fect. The eyes of Europe are turned to be long before the French can adapt thenthe congress of sovereigns united on this seives suitably to the new order of things. occasion. Mankind has been so often de- The court now sees that in governing twenty ceived by professions, that apprehensions millions of people, used for twenty-five are entertained that under cover of religious years to a freedom of sentiment, unknown zeal greater inroads may be made on civil in the times of the 'Bourbons, cannot be liberty. Yet who knows whether God may ruled by the few that were devoted to their not have turned the hearts of sovereigns cause. The old Royalists may be offended, towards their people, and reflecting on the but the necessity of the case requires that miseries which they have occasioned to each men in office should be selected from other other, and to their subjects, too often upon parties; and whatever may be deemed the frivolous occasions, they may be led to em crimes of the Revolutionists, some of thein brace a system, which shall prevent in fa- must be admitted into the management of ture unnecessary effusion of blood. The public affairs, or there will be no rule at alt. page of history bears too ampie testimony By degrees party spirit may subside. Eacho to the poet's exclamation

party should look a little more to its own Delirant reges plectuntur Achivi:

faults, and not to the faults of their neigh

bours: and of all spirits, that which is the and the converse is also truc Delirant Achivi, plectuntur reges.

most dangerous to the kingly authority is

the military. Happy will it be for all naThe bʻists of all parties must be changed; tions and for all sovereigns, when they see and if they have rendered themselves up as this subject in its true light. ' A sovereign, servants of iniquity to iniquity, it is an en- who is despotic by means of the military, couraging thought that the time is at hand is only a slave to the military, and bolds his when they will rader themselves up as throne on a very precarious teaure.

Such contradictorý necounts arrive from have been productive of riet and tumult. Spanish America, that it is impossible to There seems to be a general disposition on form a decisive opinion of its state. One the part of the higher to attend to the wants event in the Northern part seems fatal to of the lower classes; and as long as this is the Spanish power. It is said, that General cultivated, however we may feel for the Humboldt, with a great body of French of present calamities, we may rest confident ficers, has entered into the service of the that time will do much towards the relief insurgents of Mexice, and with such in- of them. There has been distress at the structors in the art of war, they will find end of every war, but peace brings healing po great difficulty in overcoming their op- in its wings. Only let us not be wanting ponents. In the South, apprehensions are to ourselves, nor think too slightingly of entertained for the independence of Buenos its blessings. Ayres; and the kingdom of Brazil is re- Meetings have been held in towa and in ported to have sent considerable forces to several parts of the country, for the relief wards La Plata, if not to attack the rising of the poor. One at the London Tavern republic, to secure at least the territory was presided over by the Duke of York, North of its banks. Enough is to be done accompanied by two of his brothers, the by the court of Brazil in its own kingdom, Archbishop of Canterbury, several otber without interfering in this contest; for by members of the Houses of Lords and Comlooking well to its own internal government, mons, and a very respectable body of mensit may soon become a power of far greater bers and tradesmen of the city of Loodon. consequence than it can be by a return to The purport of the meeting was to raise 5 Europe.

subscription, but the framers of the moAt home a great gloom overhangs the tiops gave an erroneoas statement of the country, from the distresses of the agri- causes of the distress, which led to a sbary cultural, commercial, and manufacturing discussion, ending in the alteration of the interests. This was foreseen by those who motion and the withdrawing of the amendconsidered the artificial state in which we ment. The latter entered into a political lived during the war; and it must be some disquisition, in which a very great majority time before things return into their natural of the room concurred, ceasuring the lavisk channel. A mistaken policy gave way per- expenditure of the public inoney, and calling haps too much on the alarm, and a strange for reform in various particulars. There alarm it was, on the comparative cheapness was much truth in the assertions of all parof provisions ; bat the hopes raised by their ties, for it is to a complication of cause becoming dearer have been falsified. The that the present distress is owing, anong evil took its rise from another source, which which the injudicious act, under the name do prohibitions could remedy. We had of the corn-bill, is apprehended by many lived with an artificial circulating medium, to bear no inconsiderable share. Tbe fact which could not bear the sudden shock that is, that whatever may bave been the chases, was given to it by the peace. The restora- the distress actually exists; and though a tion of payment in gold will pnt things on society of this kind can go but little way a proper footing ; but in the return to it, towards the general relief, yet the spirit of the sufferings of individuals must be great. bepevolence which it engenders cannot be Notwithstanding the unfavourable season too highly commended, and in many inwe bare experienced, we may yet look to a stances its assistance will be efficacious. plentiful harvest; and it is fortunate for us A Common Hall bas also been held, that government need not be apprehensive which has determined on a petition to the of nny financial difficulties.

Prince Regent on his Throne, & resolution The riots in the Isle of Ely terminated which requires the assent of two parties in the execution of five of the ringleaders, before it can be carried into execution. A and a few more were subjected to inferior strong objection was made to the petitioning punishments. The conduct of the unhappy of the House of Commons, from an evidenz men in taking leare of the world, and the disapprobation of the proceedings of that solempity which so judiciously took place House. But perhaps it is not duly consiupon the occasion, will, it is to be hoped, dered, that the right of petitioning is a pserent a securrence to similar interpositions vory great advantage possessed by the of the law. An extraordinary course was people of this country; and that if petitaken by some of the persons employed in tions were general, and they are not likely collieries. They dragged heavy waggons to be general unless a strong case is made along the road, laden with coals, moving out, it is not likely that the House of Comfury peaceably, but bending their course mons would resist the unanimous feeling of tu the metropolis. They were bappily pre- the nation. At any rate, whatever may be vented, but in a mild way, from arriving to our political differences, Charity is not of the end of the journey, wbich could not but a party.

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Various Articles of Intelligence, fr. stardorer for insertion next month..,

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THE

some seem

Estimate of the Philosophical Character philosophy of mind, have been much of Lord Bacon.*

less attended to; although the whole (From Dissertation I. by Dugald Stewart, scope and tenor of his speculations

prefixed to Supplement to Encyclopædia shew, that to this study his genius was Britannica, Vol. I. p. 48–59.] far more strongly and happily turned, "HE state of science towards the than to that of the material world. It close of the sixteenth century, was not, as

to have presented a field of observation singu- imagined, by sagacious anticipations larly calculated to attract the curiosity, of particular discoveries afterwards to and to awaken the genius of Bacon; be made in physics, that his writings nor was it the least of his personal have had so powerful an influence in advantages, that, as the son of one of accelerating the advancement of that Queen Elizabeth's ministers, he had science. In the extent and accuracy a ready access, wherever he went, to of his physical knowledge, he was far the most enlightened society in Eu- inferior to many of his predecessors ; rope. While yet only in the seven, but he surpassed them all in his teenth year of his age, he was removed knowledge of the laws, the resources by his father from Cambridge to Paris, and the limits of the human underwhere it is not to be doubted, that the sianding. The sanguine expectations novelty of the literary scene must have with which he looked forwards to the largely contributed to cherish the future, were founded solely on his natural liberality and independence of confidence in the untried capacities of his mind. Sir Joshua Reynolds has the mind; and on a conviction of the remarked, in one of his academical possibility of invigorating and guiding, Discourses, that "every seminary of by means of logical rules, those facullearning is surrounded with an atmos- ties which, in all our researches after phere of Aoating knowledge, where truth, are the organs or instruments every mind may imbibe somewhat to be employed. “ Such rules," as he congenial to its own original concep- himself has observed, “ do in some tions." + He might have added, with sort equal men's wits, and leave no still greater truth, that it is an atmos- great advantage or pre-eminence to phere, of which it is more peculiarly the perfect and excellent motions of salutary for those who have been the spirit. To draw a straight line, or elsewhere reared to breathe the air. to describe a circle, by aim of hand The remark is applicable to higher only, there must be a great difference pursuits than were in the contempla; between an unsteady and unpractised tion of this philosophical artist; and hand, and a steady and practised; but it suggests a hint of no inconsiderable to do it by rule or compass it is much value for the education of youth. alike."

The merits of Bacon, as the father Nor is it merely as a logician that of experimental philosophy, are so Bacon is entitled to notice on the universally acknowledged," that it

present occasion. It would be diffi. would be superfluous to touch upon cult to name another writer prior to them here. The lights which he has Locke, whose works are enriched struck out in various branches of the with so many just observations on the

intellectual phenomena. Among these,

the most valuable relate to the laws of Born 1561, died 1626. + Discourse delivered at the opening of memory, and of imagination; the

latter of which subjects he seems to the Royal Academy, January 2, 1769. VOL. XI.

31

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have studied with peculiar care. In the different classes of prejudices inelone short but beautiful paragraphı dent to human nature, is, in point of concerning poetry (under which title practical utility, at least equal to any may be comprehended all the various thing on that head to be found in creations of this faculty), he has es- Locke; of whom it is impossible to hausted every thing that philosophy forbear remarking, as a circumstance and good sense have yet had to offer, not easily explicable, that he should on what has been since called the beau have resumed this important discusideal ; a topic, which has furnished sion, without once mentioning the occasion to so many over-refinements name of his great predecessor. The among the French critics, and to so chief improvement 'made by Locke, much extravagance and mysticism in in the farther prosecution of the arguthe cloud-capt metaphysics of the new ment, is the application of Hobbes's German school. * In considering theory of association, to explain in imagination as connected with the what manner these prejudices are nervous system, more particularly as originally generated. connected with that species of sym

In Bacon's scattered hints on topics pathy to which medical writers have connected with the philosophy of the given the name of imitation, he has mind, strictly so called, nothing is suggested some very important hiuts, more remarkable than the precise and which none of his successors have just ideas they display of the proper hitherto prosecuted; and has, at the aim of this science. He had 'mani. same time, left an example of cautious festly reflected much and successfully inquiry, worthy to be studied by all on the operations of his own underwho may attempt to investigate the standing, and had studied with unlaws regulating the union between common sagacity the intellectual chamind and body:t His illustration of racters of others. Of his reflections

and observations on both subjects, he

has recorded many important results ; “ Cum mundus sensibilis sit anima and has in general stated them withrationali dignitate inferior, videtur Poësis out the slightest reference to any phyhæc humanæ naturæ largiri quæ historia denegat ; atque animo umbris rerum utcunque satisfacere, cum solida haberi non the influence of imagination over the body. possint. Si quis enim rem acutius intro- His own words are very remarkable ; more spiciat, firmum ex Poësi sumitur argumen- particularly, the clause in which be retum, magnitudinem rerum magis illustrem, marks the effect of fixing and concentrating ordinem magis perfectum, et varietatem the attention, in giving to ideal objects magis pulcram, aniniæ humanæ com- the power of realities over the belief. “Ad placere, quam in natura ipsa, post lapsum, aliud quippiam, quod huc pertinet, parec reperiri ullo modo possit, Quapropter, admodum, nec pro rei subtilitate, vel cum res gestæ et eventus, qui veræ historiæ utilitate, inquisitum est ; quatenus scilicet subjiciuntur, non sint ejus amplitudinis, ipsa imaginatio animæ vel cogitatio perin qua anima humana sibi satisfaciat, quam fira, et veluti in fidem quandam præsto est Pvësis, quæ facta magis beroica eraltata, valeat ad immutandum corpus confingat. Cum historia vera successus imaginantis.” (Ibid.) He suggests also, reruin, minime pro meritis virtutum et

as a curious problem, to ascertain how scelerum narret, corrigit eam Poësis, et far it is possible to fortify and exalt the exitus, et fortunas, secundum merita, et imagination, and by what means this may ex lege Nemescos, exbibet. Cum historia most effectually be done. The class of vera obvia rerum satietate et similitudine, facts here alluded to, are manifestly of the animæ humanæ fastidio sit, reficit eam same description with those to which the Poësis, inexpectata, et varia, et vicissitu- attention of philosophers has been lately dinum plena canens. Adeo ut Poësis ista called by the pretensions of Mesmer and of non solum ad delectationem, sed ad animi Perkins : “ Atque huic conjuncta est magnitudinem, et ad mores conferat." disquisitio, quoniodo imaginatio intendi et (De Aug. Scient. Lib. ii. cap. xiii.) fortificari possit? Quippe, si imaginatio

+ To this branch of the philosophy of fortis tantarum sit virium, operæ pretium mind, Bacon gives the title of Doctrina fuerit nosse, quibus modis cam exaltari, de fædere, sive de communi vinculo anime et se ipsa majorem fieri detur ? Atque et corporis. (De Aug. Scicnt. Lib. iv. hic oblique, nec minus periculose se incap. i.) Under this article, he mentions, sinuat palliatio quædam et defensio maramong other desiderata, an inquiry (which imæ partis Magiæ Ceremonialis." &c. &c. be recommends to physicians) concerning (De Aug. Scient. Lib. iv. cap. iij.)

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