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Rejoinder lo Mr. Rult' on Count Zinzendorf.
525 9. More than half their number taking notice of some of his statefollow no business : others are dealers ments; in doing which I shall endeain horses and asses: farriers, siniths, vour to be as brief as the subject tinkers, braziers, grinders of cutlery, admits. basket-makers, chair-bottomers, and To expose to the world the failings musicians.
of a fellow-creature, must necessarily 10. Children are brought up in the prove a painful task to a benevolent habits of their parents, particularly to mind; but publicly 10. advance, or music and dancing, and are of disso- even insinuate, a charge of immorulity lute conduct.
against an individual unable to de11. The women mostly carry bas- fend himself, without substantiating kets with trinkets and small wares; such allegation, appears to me a and tell fortunes.
procedure altogether unwarrantable. 12. Too ignorant to have acquired Your Correspondent, however, seems accounts of genealogy, and perhaps to me placed in this awkward predicaindisposed by the irregularity of their ment, by his unnecessary and unhabits.
proved insinuation against the Count. 13. In most counties there are par. The injurious reflection he threw out ticular situations to which they are in his first paper, I am sorry to find partial. In Berkshire is a marsh, near reiterated by him, after wb had been Newbury, much frequented by them; advanced by myself. Since what he and D:. Clarke states, that in Cam- regards as evidence is not produceable bridgeshire, their principal rendezvous in a work designed for general readis near the western villages.
ers, why advert to so ungrateful a 14. It cannot be ascertained whe- topic at all? Christian charity, not to ther, from their first coming into the mention justice, would in my opinion nation, attachment to particular places have here dictated silence. But your has prevailed.
Correspondent assigns the following 15, 16, and 17. When among reason for his insinuation to the prestrangers, they elude inquiries respect- judice of the Count. “I considered ing their peculiar language, calling it it my duty, to guard the memories gibberish." Don't know of any person of such men as Watts and Doddridge, that can write it, or of any written from the imputation of an unqualified specimen of it.
approbation of Count Zinzendorf." 18. Their habits and customs in all A strange mode of acting this, to exalt places are peculiar.
one character by depreciating another ! 19. Those who profess any religion But whoever regarded the Count with represent it to be that of the country unqualified admiration? That he was in which they reside : but their de- a great and good man I have no scription of it seldom goes beyond doubt, but he had his defects and repeating the Lord's Prayer; and only weaknesses; and in persons of his few of them are capable of that. ardent cast of mind they are always Instances of their attending a.y place most prominent. for worship are very rare.
In reference to the religious poems 20. They marry for the most part to which your Correspondent alludes, by pledging to each other, without (for they were not used as hymns,) any ceremony. A few exceptions let me inform him thai scarcely any have occurred when money was had the Count for their author; and, plentiful.
as already noticed, as soon as he per21. They do not teach their chil- ceived that they were open to misrepredren religion.
sentation, he checked their further 22 and 23. Not one in a thousand circulation. Yet even these poems, can read.
objectionable as their original phra
scology is, become far inore Sir, Exeter, Aug. 7, 1816. Rimius's hands; and I affirm cannot I HOPED to have had no further be justly appreciated from his exhi
occasion to engage the attention of bition of them: his illegitimate renyourself, or your readers, to the sub- derings, and utter neglect of the conject of my former paper, (p. 264;) pexion in which the passages quoted but your Correspondent's reply in the by him stand, necessarily preclude last Number of your estimable Reposi- his work from inplicit credit.' Perinit tory, (p. 390,) seems to require my me, Sir, to add, that the only clue to
a just exposition of such phraseology, Your Correspondent tells his read. is to be found in an intimate acquaint. ers, that iny appeal to the case of ance with the theological and moral Dr. Gill “ has very little, if any conviews of Count Zinzendorf and the nexion with the subject;" but let me, brethren' of that day. Such phra- notwithstanding, still adduce it as seology, though open to abuse, was, well calculated to confirm my posihowever, I am warranted in affirming, tion, viz. that there is no necessary only employed in a spiritual sense by connexion between impropriety of the brethren themselves, and I am language and impropriety of thought satisfied, from experience and obser- and feeling ; though I would decidedly vation, gave rise amongst them to protest against the use of any such no other than the purest ideas and language myself. On this account I emotions. Had the excellent Jortiu cannot approve of your Correspondbeen aware of this circumstance, how- ent's use of the word amatory, where ever he might reprehend such lan- divine love is the subject, because that guage, he would have refrained from word being usually expressive of senimplicating in his censure the character sual attachment, will be thus assoejated of ihe Count.
in the mind. But I am blamed by your Corre The compliment paid by your Corspondent for not having verified my respondent, to the brethren of the allegations against Rimius ; in answer present day, at the expense of their permit me to adopt his own words : esteemed predecessors, will I appre“ I did not conceive such a 'discussion hend scarcely be accepted by them. adapted to a work designed for general It remains for mé only to apologize readers." Your Correspondent and for the length of this paper, and in myself are here placed in similar conclusion (to avail myself once more circumstances; however with one of your Correspondent's words) will material difference : my estimate of say that “I am not aware that I Rimius's work appeared necessary, ought to trouble him, or any of your whereas your Correspondent's attack readers, further on the disagreeable on the Count's character may be con- subject which has very unexpectedly sidered optional. That I may not been forced on my attention,” but however be thought to have advanced which a sense of duty prompted me charges wholly without foundation, to undertake, in behalf of an esteemed I shall take the ‘liberty of adverting individual, whose character I consider to one instance amongst others of unjustly aspersed. Rimius's unfairness, would I could With
every sentiment of regard, say incapacity, as a translator: the
J.T.B. example I select is his injustifiable rendering of the German termination On the Divine Government. lein by pre
Sir, eines ; as in the words laemlein, wunda I Hand your Correspondent, An Oid tein; the literal rendering of these words is 1 adınit little lamb, little Inquirer,f in the Repository for June, wound; but the connexion in which (p. 322,) who animadverts upon the they stand, plainly pointed out to first scheme of Divine Providence Rimius that they ought to be translated precious lamb, precious wound; to have overlooked what I there said, for Christ and his sufferings being the
he observés, “ Crantz and La Trobe have theme, and the brethren of that time left it unimpeached.” As historians, an being in the habit of using that answer to that work did not fall within termination to express holy endearment. their province, bad they been so inclined; Thus a translator, deficient in ability, full
, and I think according to the Count's
but I will inform him that he may find a in rectitude, may pervert view of Bible truth, a satisfactory reply, author's meaning without infringing to all the charges brought against him, in any grammatical rules.
a quarto volume published in the German
language about the year 1754. In my last paper I noticed the line of + It will have been seen that this conduct the brethren thouglit proper to Correspondent has ceased from bis labours, adopt, with regard to Rimius's publica and fallen into his place in our Obituary, tion; Though your Correspondent seems p. 487.
without touching upon the second, the effect of independent powers, are (p. 74,) which I should have pre- therefore as much the appointment of sumed would have had his appro- God, as the place and action of every bation.
atom of lifeless matter. We may be If we admit the existence of God, confounded by the variety of effect, as the Creator of all things, I think it and wonder how any mind could comwill follow as an unavoidable conse- prehend such a vast machinery ; but quence, that all lifeless matter that we are no less confounded by the he has formed must obey the laws powers of creation. Thus then all with which it is impressed, and that matter and its effects, and all animals therefore not an atom is to be found, which we see, and their actions, are of which did not necessarily occupy the divine appointment, or the necessary station and perform the office for which effects of creating power; except it was appointed. I mean when such indeed the actions of men, which must atom has not been acted upon or now be examined. influenced by living existence. So Either man is governed in his whole far we seem to proceed, without the conduct by the fixed laws of his intervention of hypothesis, . upon nature, or he is emphatically free in grounds absolutely certain, taking for all his voluntary conduct there is no gunted only, that matter and its laws middle supposition which is tenable, were created and made by an intelli- and under these opposite suppositions, gent being If An Old Inquirer deem the greatest names have arranged this a gratuitous hypothesis, namely, themselves in argument and disputathat intelligent being created all mat- tion. I presume not to determine ter, and impressed it with its laws, I the question, but only to reason upou confess it to be an hypothesis — but the consequences of either supposition. one, which seems not only reasonable, If man then be an agent perfectly but what is now generally admitted. free in all his voluntary conduct, it So far then, as lifeless matter is con
will follow that he possesses a power cerned, I think we need not enter from his Creator, which he exerts at upon any farther illustration. A vast, pleasure, concerning the effect of class of living beings, which we do which nothing can be predicated. not deem rational and moral agents, Whatever evils men occasion by their next invite our inquiry, the birds in voluntary conduct, and whatever the air, the fishes in the sea, and the good, is ascribable to them, and not innumerable irrational animals on the to their Creator. earth. The question then will be, If God formed the first male and do these ever act, or can they act, in female with such powers, then he contrariety to the laws to which their appointed not the existence of the Creator has subjected them? Have huinan race, for it depended upon they independent powers, or do they their voluntary co-operation whether necessarily follow the laws of their the race should proceed. God gave nature? For it will not, cannot be the powers, the use or abuse of them denied that they are created subject to belongs only to man. According to certain laws. They have feeling, feel this reasoning, the maximum of happleasure and pain, and necessarily piness and misery may be fixed; but avoid the one and choose the other. whatever of happiness or misery be Their actions, are they the simple the effect of the voluntary powers of result of those feelings, or have they a men, as these are free and independent liberty of self-determination? In as powers, are not of divine appointment, far as we can judge from observation, but arrange themselves under Dr. Pathey appear to follow their feelings ley's scheine of chance.
Whatever simply, for we cannot perceive that sufferings coine upon brute animals, they have any thing to oppose to these by the voluntary conduct of man, as feelings. We kill the iyger because it was not foreseen or appointed, is he destroys us, not because in so doing, not resolvable into the will of God.' we imagine him to abuse his liberty This supposition places man in an and act contrary to his nature. All awful situation, and he cannot but the actions of these immense tribes wish that the first pair had died withof animals, if they be the simple result out issue. of the laws of their nature, and not On the opposite supposition that
Mr. Gilchrist on the Greek Article. Questions on the actions of man, are the necessary
Newington Green, result of his nature and circumstances, SIR,
September 10th, 1816. he has the consolation of a less tremen
OFFER a few remarks on a comdous responsibility, but then it is in munication in your last Number, contradiction to all the general systems (p. 448), respecting the Greek Article, of religion.
but without the smallest intention of AN INQUIRER. stepping in between your CorrespondP. S. I will take the liberty of ent and Dr. Charles Lloyd. I have adding a few remarks upon Dr. Pa- not the least doubt that a gentleman ley's Scheme of Chance. He says of the Doctor's learning can“ prove to that there may be chance in the midst demonstration that the Deity of Christ of design ; two men travelling by de- is not to be inferred by any right applisign between London and York, meet cation of the Article to passages in the by accident, or chance, on the road. New Testament;" and shall be glad to Here is chance in the midst of design. see such proof in the Monthly ReposiThis principle must be admitted to tory or in a separate publication. its full extent, when human design Your respectable
Correspondent will only is contemplated. Thus the con- not, I trust, be offended with my resequences of nine tenths of the actions marks on some parts of his letter. His of men are consequences of chance. object seems to be useful knowledge, No man by design injures his circum- and therefore I presume that my notice stances, few by design injure their of his communication will be as well health, thus every man's death nearly, received as it is well intended. “The is by chance. Very few men when Article (your Correspondent remarks) they marry design children, this is not is only an index." I thought so when their motive or design, therefore, every I wrote the following sentence in Reason man's birth is by chance. There is the Arliter of Language: “ This and that according to this scheme, very little are merely two indexes or pointers, such that affects the being or happiness of as we often see on way-posts or buildsensible beings the effect of design. ings to direct the eye to some object, And this is perfectly agreeable to my and which are properly printed as a second scheme of the Divine govern- hand, because they supply jis place. So ment, which is the only doctrine con that or this supplies the place of a hand, sistent with the philosophical free or rather of a finger, and was originally agency of man, and which, as it nothing but its name.” Such was my excludes foreknowledge of effect from opinion at that time: whether I in. the Deity completely as to whatever vented or borrowed it I cannot now relates to man in this world, excludes ascertain; but I recollect well that also effective design. God wills that even then the nature and origin of the if men are born, they should possess a parts of speech had cost me much hard definite organization, and be subject ihinking and tiresome searching. But to certain general circumstances, and on further inquiry (and, I trust, clearer, there the design of the Deity stops. deeper' reflection), I was compelled Their future, not their present desti- (somewhat reluctantly, for I had pubnation, depends entirely on his will, lished an opinion), by what I deemed and if there be either justice or good- convincing evidence, to abandon the ness in it, must be as various as the idea of index, and proclaim the fallibi. variety of human character. This is lity of my understanding. The final Dr. Paley's doctrine of chance, and decision of my erring judgment is ex. seems to be agreeable to appearances, pressed very fully in Philosophic Etyand the common apprehensions of mology. If your Correspondent will mankind.
favour my Work with a perusal, he Every middle scheme is a system will find that my opinion coincides of confusion and contradiction, 'or of with that of Aristotle and that of Dr. constant miracle, so that there appears Middleton at the same time. In reto be no alternative between Paley's presenting the Greek as having no re. Chance, and Hobbes's Necessity. semblance to the English Article, in. This is the full extent of my assertion, deed I suspect the Doctor knew not I meddle not with the question as to what he said nor whereof he affirmed. which scheme is the true one.
He was right in saying that the Greek
National Wcalth and Social Institutions.
529 he would have been equally right had in developing the principles of lanhe said that the relative pronoun is the guage satisfactorily, I trust that I shall Article. The terms relative and article icat his remarks with becoming reseem both to have originated in just spect. conception.
lle may have more reverence for Your Correspondent remarks : scholastic authority than I can admire, “though it be granted that 'o was but I feel confident that he will be at originally a pronoun, it is no more a the trouble of understanding my mean. pronoun now than it is a verb or ad ing, though I fear much that some of jective." Dugald Stewart employs my readers will resemble those alluded similar language in his remarks upon to in the following sentence: “When the Diversions of Purley, which I do men have once acquiesced in untrue not wonder at; but I would submit to opinions, and registered them as au. the re-consideration of your Corre thentical records in their ininds, it is spondent, wliether such language be no less impossible to speak intelligibly suited to rigorous inquiry and just con-. (or convincingly) to them, than to ception. The question of any import- write legibly upon a paper already ance, is not what technical names have scribbled over.' Unfortunately for been applied to o, but what it is. useful learning and true science, the What is its nature or use?' Will your minds of many teachers are scribbled Correspondent have the goodness to ex over with school-boy nonsense; but as , plain what a pronoun or a verb is? I the judicious Locke justly remarks: can assure him the question is not cap- “ It is not strange that inethods of tious, for if he can give a simpler, more learning which scholars have been acintelligible and satisfactory account of customed to in their beginning and these matters than I have endeavoured to entrance upon the sciences, should ingive, he shall have my best and sincerest fluence thein all their lives, and be thanks. “ The Monthly Reviewer (it settled in their minds by an overruling is said) has justly maintained the su reverence, especially if they be such as periority of the English over the Greek universal use has established. Learners in precision, by the means of the in- must at first be believers, and their definite-an-in_combination with master's rules having been once made the definitive." But I suspect if the axioms to them, it is no wonder they Monthly Reviewer were asked this should keep that dignity, and, by the simple question—what is the definite authority they have once got, mislead or what is the indefinite article? he those, who think it sufficient to excuse would not give a very ready or very them, if they go out of their way in a 'intelligible answer. 'What is called well beaten tract. And when fashion the definite article has no necessary hath once established what folly began, connection with definitencss; and what custom makes it sacred, and it will be is absurdly called the indefinite article thought impudence or madness to conis merely a varied spelling and pro- tradict or question it." nunciation of the numeral one.
If I have not already occupied too There is a gentleman with whose much of the room allotted in the Reremarks on these subjects I should be pository to communications of this naextremely glad to see your pages en- ture, I should be glad to have some riched, for I consider his understanding queries inserted in reference 10 a subof a much higher order than that of ject which has received some notice in either the mere linguist or the mere your pages, hoping that some of your metaphysician. He has only to think readers will be induced to reply to as freely, clearly and profoundly on them. philology, as on Philosophical Neces What are the principal advantages sity, to render important services to true and disadvantages of the different forms grammar and sound logic. He has of government? Wherein consists true with much candour (I ought perhaps national prosperity? Is the doctrine to say generosity after the poignancy of of Malthus an insurmountable obstacle some of say strictures) acknowledged to the perfectibility or improvableness to that I have successfully illustrated se- any great degree of human society? veral obscure points; and if he will lo other words, are vice and misery point out some of the more essential necessary to keep population down to particulars wherein I may have failed the level of the means of subsistence?