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REFLECTIONS MADE IN A COURSE
Are private vices putlic benefits? In whole people into a philosophical soother words, is what is called a great, ciety? What are the best means for powerful and Aourishing state of so- that purpose? What are the advanciety, necessarily corrupt or vicious ? tages and disadvantages of ecclesiastical What are the advantages and disadvan- establishments? Are they compatible tages of foreign commerce ? What with the peace, security and progressive are the advantages and disadvantages improvement of a well-ordered comof luxılly—of the fine arts—of large monwealth? Are any religious sects towns of immense fortunes--of hc. or factions (two or more congregations reditary wealth and titles of abridging united into one body), whether estalabour by machinery, &c. &c.? Have blished or tolerated, compatible with public anusements, as the theatre, the the well-being of comnionwealths? opera, &c. a good or bad tendency? Are charities of any description benefits Have works of fictim, as plays, novels, or injuries to society! poesies, &c. a good or bad tendency? These, Sir, are a few of such queries What are the true origin, nature and as I should be glad to see well antendency of gallantry, cicisheism, &c.? swered in your pages. Crude thoughts What are the origin, nature and ten- in loose remarks will serve no good dency of politeness? Is it (as Man- purpose; but if some of your readers deville represents it) essentiallyinsincere will digest or think any of the above or hypocritical, the slavish offspring of queries into simple, clear, distinct, selfdespotic courts What is ihe real evident, or demonstrable propositions, value of what are called accomplish- they will confer a benefii on society, ments: What are the advantages and and very much oblige disadvantages of the modern plan of Your Correspondent, education? What parts of modern
JAMES GILCHRIST. education are useful-what parts are useless-what parts are mischievous ? GLEANINGS; OR, SELECTIONS AND What are the advantages and disadvantages respectively of universities, col- OF GENERAL READING. leges, day-schools, boarding-schools, &c.? Is it probable that there might
No. CCLXXII. be more of useful learning and true Lord Clarendon's Character of the science without any of them? Whe
Emperor Julian. ther are maxims and manners or laws « And now succeeded Julian in and institutions of greatest importance the Empire ; whether an apostate or to the well-being of commonwealths? no, may for aught I know be law. Is it possible to have a system of laws fully doubted. That he was a great so simple as to preclude the necessity enemy to the Christians, and that he of professional lawyers ? Is it possible found a way more to discredit and to have justice adninistered in a well dishonour Christianity by his wit and ordered commonwealth without a code mirth and scoffs and discountenance, of laws? Are there any absolute or (which made a greater impression upon abstract principles of justice? What the Christians of that age, and made is the firmnest and broadest basis of more of them to renounce their faith, equity? What is the fairest or least than any one of the fiery and bloody arbitrary title to property? What are persecutions had done) is very clear: the best preventives of faction, com- yet I have never seen ground enough motion, fraud, violence, discontent, io conclude that he ever embraced the &c. in a commonwealth? What are Christian faith, or was instructed in it; the most effectual means of preserving for though he had conformed in some a commonwealth in the even tenour outward appearance, to the commands of progressive improvement, equi-dise of his uncle the Emperor Constantine, fani from despotism and anarchy? yet he appeared always addicted to the What is the great central principle, religion of the Gentiles, in which he round which a commonwealth must was very learned; and taking him as constantly revolve, to have the greatest a Gentile, he may well be looked sum of freedom, dignity and happiness, upon as a prince of extraordinary virand most security from despotism and tue, and one, who if he had not been anarchy-external and internal war? carried by a wonderful providence, Is it possible and desirable to raise a and against all the advice of his friends Gleanings.
531 and several predictions (to which he next morning he went to hunt, with was naturally superstitious enough) all the train of his courtiers, and when into that war where he was slain, it they were got into the deepest woods is probable might have extended his of the forest, drew that nobleman away empire to as great an extent of domi- from the rest of the company, air nion and reputation as ever it had spoke to him thus : “ Behold ! we are under any of his predecessors. And here alone, armed and mounted alike. here it may not be unfit (though I Nobody sees or hears us, or can give believe it will be very unpopular) to either of us aid against the other. If observe how much passion and preju- then you are a brave man, if you have dice contribute to the corruption of courage and spirit, perform your purhistory: for we know not io what pose; accomplish the promise you have else to impute all those relations of the made to my enemies. If you think I manner of his death, and his last ought to be killed by you, when can speech in contempt of our Saviour, you do it better? when more opporthan to the over zeal of religious tunely? when more manfully?-Have persons of that age; who, believing you prepared poison for me? that is his apostacy, thought they could not a womanish treason: Or would you load his memory with too many re- murder me in my bed? an adulteress proaches, nor sufficiently celebrate could do that. Or have you hid a God's mercy in the vengeance acted dagger to stab me secretly? that is the upon him in so extraordinary a man- deed of a ruffian. Rather act like a ner. And the Spaniards do still soldier; act like a man; and fight with believe that he was killed by Saint me hand to hand; that your treason Mercurius with one of the lances may at least be tree from baseness.”which was always kept in that Saint's At these words, the traitor, as if he tomb, as it was missed on the day in had been struck with a thunderbolt, which Julian was killed, and found fell at his feet and implored his pardon. again the next day in its place, all “ Fear nothing: you shall not suffer bloody, Whereas, if we will believe any evil from me,” replied the king, Ammianus Marcellinus, (who is and kept his word. incomparably the best writer of that The above story is related (from the age and was himself in that battle,) he mouth of Malcolm's own son, David was hurt in a very sharp charge of the the First, to Henry II. of England, liis enemy when great numbers fell on great grandson,) by Erhelred, Abbot of both sides; and being carried out of Rivalis. [De Genealogia Reg. Angl. the field into his tent, where he lived p. 367.] some days after he found his wound to See Lord Lyttelton's llenry II. 8vo. be mortal, he sent for the principal 1. pp. 94, 95. officers of his army, made a long discourse to them of the public affairs
No. CCLXXIV. and of his particular person and his Spiritual Comedy at Rome. actions and intentions, full of wisdom ** The Father-Jesuits at Rome havo and magnanimity, and died with as had a play, or spiritual comedy, acted great serenity and tranquillity of mind in their Casa Professa (or part of their
any Roman general of whoin we college where they read their lectures) have received very good account in concerning the conversion of Japan. story."
In the first scene of which there Religion and Policy, 8vo. 1811. 1. appeared a Jesuit making a sermon 23-25.
to the pit about this subject. That
God, being upon the work of renewNo. CCLXXIII.
ing the world, bas in this age raised Magnanimity of a Scottish Prince. up their society, which his Divine
Malcolin the Third having received Majesty hath been so gracious to, that information, that one of his nobles had human power has been able to conceived a design against his life, he oppose it, and such other jimcracks, enjoined the strictest silence to the in- which they brought in a Japunese to former, and took no notice of it him- " reply 10:' who said, that ihey did self, till the person accused of this not believe that God sent 'them execrable treason came to his court, in thither, but that some eneiny
of order to execute his intention, The mankind wafted them orer into their
country, and there they make it their power of dividing the estate as they business to set people together by the pleased, and of giving the son what ears, and to spy out the nakedness of they should see convenient; the fathers their country, and divers others such have divided it all into len parts, and conceits. And so the play went on, fairly given one part to the son, and with divers other remarkable passages kept the other nine for themselves. spoken by the actors, all against them. The son hereupon has made his comAnd I cannot imagine how this came plaint to the Duke of Ossuna (the into their heads, unless it be to tell viceroy) of this great inequality; who the world to their teeth, that they hearing both parties, has made good know what folks talk and think of the division that the Jesuits made of them; and that they value no man a the whole estate ; but changing the farthing for it."
terms, has ordered that the nine parts Father Paul's Letters, p. 326, do (by the will) belong to the son, and Venice, 1612.
one part (and no more) to the fathers,
because they were to give him what No. CCLXXV.
plsused them." Jesuits Ontroitted.
The Same, p. 326. “ At Palermo these sweet fatliers have met with a pretty accident. A
No. (CLXXVI. certain wealthy genileman died there,
4 Canonization. that was hugely devoted to them; and Not many years ago, a Dominican baving inade his will, and left his only of Toledo was ranked among the Saints son and those fathers together, his heirs, for having remained thirty years in his making thicin his executors, with a cell alone and without smiling or speaking.
July 27th, 1816. compared together. This being done, Observations on Matt. xi. 27. if a single text can be produced which
VHERE MYSTERY exists, there asserts the mysteriousness of any rein points which are revealed there can tract ás erroneous my opinion on the be no mystery. If the sun burst on us utter irreconcilableness of the term in his splendour, darkness is imme- mystery with the terin revelation. diately put to flight. To speak of the What then, it may be asked, is the mysteries of Revelation, is at once to import of the passage to which reference employ phrascology as incorrect as can is inade at the head of this paper ? well be conceived, and to arraign the Must we not pronounce it somewhat Divine wi-dom, goodness and fidelity favourable to the notion that even Rein the doctrine of the Gospel. It is tó velation has its mysteries ? So it may say ihat God, having professed to give be thought, when torn away from it's mankind the most important know- context, when interpreted by readers ledge respecting himself, and the de- whose minds have received a bias signs which he executes by Jesus from human creeds : so it will not be Christ, has, nevertheless, failed of his considered after it has been thoroughly intention, has withholden what, ac- examined. cording to the persons whom I have in As error is best confuted by the view, is yet essential to be believed; establishment of truth, I begin with inasmnch as withont the belief of it endeavouring to ascertain the just sense we can have no salvation.
of our Lord's declaration, “ All things The question concerning this sup- are delivered unto me of my Father : posed alliance of mystery with Revela- and no man knoweth the Son but the iion, may be brought within a short Father; neither knoweth any inan the compass and to an easy issue. Let all Father, save the Son, and he to whomthose passages of Scripture where the soever the Son will reveal him.” word mystery occurs be collected and The Gospel was rejected by numbers
of those to whom it had been first of the Father'- where the term seen fered, and especially by the leading is manifestly equivalent with knoton. persons in the Jewish nation, by the To justify this exposition, which, sect who possessed the chief honour in it's principle, agrees with Dr. S. and influence among them. It was a Clarke's, * and with Rosenmuller's,t consolation however to the benevolent it may be remarked that in the New mind of Jesus Christ that some of the Testament persons are not unfrequently lower classes of the people had received denoted by the word things, I as in his doctrine with willing, hearts, and 1 Cor. i. 27, 28; that the Father is the that he could look forward to the fur- appropriate naine of God under the ther diffusion of it, particularly beyond dispensation of the Gospel, and extheʼlimits of Judæa. On this account, pressive of his parental relation to all he, accordingly, presented to the God mankind; that the Son is a title of ofwhom he worshipped the following fice; that nothing is more common devout acknowledgment: “ I thank than to state general propositions in an thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and absolute form; and that the concise earth, because thou hast hidden these modes of speech in use among the things from the wise and prudent,” Eastern people admit and receive light from men who are such in their own from the occasions and the subjects in conceit, “and hast revealed them unto respect of which they are employed. babes,” to persons of humbler attain- The true sense then of tbe passage ments and pretensions, and of teachable before us I take to be the following, dispositions- “ Even so, Father, for • that at the time when these words so it seemed good in thy sight.” Here were uttered, no one, but the Father, it is observable that our Lord expressly the only God, knew the extent of our distinguishes between what is hidden Saviour's commission, including, as it and what is revealed : and to this ad- really did, the whole human race; and, mirable devotional address succeeds the on the other hand, that no man save the declaration, “ all things, &c. &c." Son, none but Jesus Christ, possessed
From this reference of the passage to a knowledge of the merciful designs it's conne.rion, we learn that Jesus is of the Father being thus unlimited speaking throughout of the designs of -although it was a truth which the the Father, and of the instrumentality Messiah had the privilege of commuand commission of the Son, in the scheme nicating at his pleasure. How well of the Gospel.
this interpretation accords with facts, Let us now consider somewhat more and with our Lord's character and minutely the words themselves :
circumstances, it is unnecessary to re“ All things," all matters relative to present. the Christian dispensation, all persons Of a double meaning the passage of every nation, who are to be the sub- does not appear to be susceptible. jects of it, “ are delivered unto me of Consequently, if I have succeeded in my Father," committed unto me by ascertaining it's just signification, all God, the only possessor of underived other paraphrases of it must be erroand essential power : or, as the same fact is expressed, John iii. 35, “ the If, for example, any persons will Father loveth the Son, and hath given in fer from these words that the nature all things into his hand.” “ And no or the essence of the Father and of the man knoweth the Son," or is as yet Son are known mutually to themselves, acquainted with the comprehensive and to those who are favoured with this object of his office, “but the Father,” knowledge by Jesus Christ, let such who putteth the times and seasons in expositors be informed that they subhis own power, and worketh according stitute their own imaginations for the to the counsel of his own will: "nei- language and the meaning of the Bible. ther knoweth any man the Father," The Bible does not profess to instruct no one is in possession of the extent of us in the essence of the Deity, but the plans of Divine grace,
save the declares that he is a perfect spirit, and Son, and he to whomsoever the Son conveys to mankind the most valuable will reveal him ;" which latter senti- knowledge with regard to his character, ment is illustrated and supported by our Lord's words in John vi. 46--not * A Parapkrase, &c. in loc : that any man hath seen the Father- + Scholia in N. T. in loc : save he who is of God, he hath seen 1 Hammond, 8c. in loc : VOL. XI.
government and will. And of the of his characters, is adopted in The great Messiah, the Mediator of the Racovian Catechism ;* a mannal which, covenant of the Gospel, it invariably ! hope, will soon be more extensively speaks as the man Christ Jesus ; never known among my readers, and from even intimating that his nature and which I shall wow make two extracts person are mysterious, and certainly on a subject to which their attention holding forth no such intelligence in has lately been directed :t the sentences on which I am com- " — was be [Christ] not a priest till menting
he entered into the heaven? not when Further; It ought not to be concluded he hung upon the cross?" from the last clause, he to whoinsoever “ A. At no hand; for, as you heard the Son will reveal bim,' that Jesus even now, the divine author to the communicates to any of his followers Hebrews, ch. viii. 4, expressly saith a private or individual revelation of that if Christ were upon the earth, he the nature or the mind of God. This would not be a priest. Besides, forasmistake is very current, and tends to much as the same author testifieth that produce in some men spiritual pride, Christ ought in all things to be made in others religious despondency. It is like unto his brethren, that he miglit a public revelation which our Lord become a faithful and merciful high here mentions; one that was made in priest to God ward, it is evident that part by his own instrumentality, in until he had been made like unto his part by that of his apostles. There are brethren in all things, that is in aftwo passages in the New Testament fictions and death, he was not our with which the words before us ought merciful and faithful high priest." 'especially to be compared : John i. 18, The following question and answer, “No man hath seen God at any time; deserve the notice of careful inquirers the only begotten Son, who is in the into the sense of Scripture : bosom of the Father," i. e. who has a “ Why doth the Scripture, treating compleat acquaintance with the Divine. of Christ's priesthood, say that he inte counsels for the salvation of the world, tercedeth for us?" “ he hath declared him :" Matt, xüi. “ A. Both that the care which 16, 17," verily, I say unto you that Christ takes of our salvation might, by blessed are your eyes, &c.; for many the requests which he is said to nake prophets and righteous men have de- to God, appear to us; and also that the sired to see those things which ye see, prerogative and eminency of the Father and have not seen them, and to hear above Christ might remain entire and those things which ye hear, and have inviolate." not heard them.”
Here the coinpiler of the Catechism So far therefore is the phraseology alludes to Heb. vii. 24, 25. But the which has been the subject of these word intercession, which occurs in that remarks from stating or implying the passage, does not necessarily and excluexistence of a mysterious union between sively import the act of offiring supplicathe Father and the Son that it declares tions for the welfare of others. It is a a plain and most interesting truth: \ term of very extensive signification, mean, the concurrence of God and and mcans the management of the conChrist as to the grand objects and vast cerns of our fellow men. extent of the Christian Revelation ; a The intercession of Christ, therefore, truth particularly valuable to those is not his pleading with offended jusprofessors of the Gospel who are of tice, or his interposing to afert Divine Gentile parentage !
N. wrath : it is a part of his mediation or
ministry as the APPOINTED Messenger August 7th, 1816. of God and Saviour of mankind; and Supplementary Remarks on the Priesthood thus, in the language of this Catechism, of Christ.
it illustrates “ the prerogative and emi[See pp. 402, 403.) nency of the Father."
N. T I theology to represent Jesus Christ
* Translated into English. Aniseerdam, as sustaining the several offices of pro- 1652. pp. 163, &c. ('atechesis Ecclesiarum phet, priest and king. This division, Polonicarum. 925, &c. though not exactly this arrangement, + M. Repos. XI. 402, 403.