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from the late Bishop of Llandaf: casioned by the sudden fading of an Notwithstanding this ære perennius avenue of lime trees, (behind the monumentum, I will contribute my author's residence,) in the autumn of mite towards the erecting one of more 1815."
perishable materials; because it will “Ye russet shades, which late were seen ourselves, and afford a proof to sur
convey an intimation to some amongst Array'd in summer's cheerful green, Alas, how chang'd your bue !
rounding states, that amid all their Your verdant vesture now no more
corruptions, true patriotism and raCan charm the solitary hour,
tional religion are still held in the So brown and cheerless you !
highest estimation by the liberal and
enlightened inhabitants of Great BriAnd yet-methinks your ev'ry tree
tain. I ain, Sir, Stands emblematical of me,
Your faithful Servant, Fast with'ring to decay; This awful diff'rence still appears
To Mr. Mortimer. LLANDAFF. You'll renovate in future years, Soon comes my latest day!
Letler, &c. on the Doctrine of Jesus, Such is the lot of feeble man,
by an Eminent American Stalesman.
(We have received a packet of Of time, prescribed a little span More wise and good to grow,
valuable cominunications from a veneBut to direct his course aright,
rable Correspondent in America, of His Maker gives of gracious light,
which the following is a part. No. I. An intellectual flow !
is an introductory Letter by our CorreAnd, lo! th' unbeeded sacred page
spondent, who adopts the signature
which he aflixed to Letters on the Life Proclaims aloud, from age to age,
of Servetus, in our Fifth Volume. A great and glorious theme;
Nos. II. and III. are a Letter and Good men, with new celestial breath, Shall triumph o'er the bed of death,
Syllabus, by an eminent American And rise to bliss supreme !
Statesman, whose name we are not Then let me ne'er at death repine,
at liberty to mention, but who will But, bless'd with pow.r and grace
probably be recognized by such of our divine,
readers as are acquainted with the (As fieeting hours decrease)
characters of the leading men in the
American revolution. Other commiųImprove each solemn day and night, Iu humble bope of vision bright,
nications from our valuable. TransAnd pure eternal peace !
atlantic Correspondent will follow. Peace underiv'd from works of time,
Oldenburneveld, S. of New York, The boon is mercy most entire,
July 1, 1816. To crown our deep devout desire,
LEASED with the liberal plan In heav'nly goodness giv’n!
have adopted in your Let then, glad hosts of men and angels Repository, I deem it a duty to con
tribute to its success, as far as my bring Their hallow'd incense, sweet, and retireinent will permit. The only Hallelujah sing."
thing I regret, is, that I find it not T. F. more generally encouraged. Every
lover of truth is interested in its suc
cess; and a fair defence of any reproLetter from Dr. Watson, the late Bishop bated opinion ought to meet of Llandaff, to the Secretary of the equally ready admittance, as an unSociety for Erecting a Monument in adorned exposition of what is reputed St. Paul's, to the Memory of Mr.
a revelation from hcaven. The truth Locke.
of the gospel doctrine is built on a Calgarth Park, Kendul, rock, and cannot want the feeble or SIR, June 8, 1809.
crafty support of frail men; and infiR. LOCKE has by his works delity will viush, when, struck by its
erected to himself a monu- native purity and lustre, it discovers ment, which will remain whilst and that its darts were a'med at human wherever there shall remain a venera- inventions only, Perhaps you will tion for revealed religion or an at- not disagree with me, that infidels, tachment to the civil liberty of man- moderns as well as ancients, have in kind.
their most virulent ard artful attacks VOL. XI.
upon the religion of Jesus, done less considered it, the more it expanded injury to it, than its reputed friends beyond the measure of either my time by bigotry and false zeal. It is from or information. In the moment of this conviction that I have long setting out on a late journey, I received wished to see the uncontrovertible from Dr. Priestley his little treatise of facts of the gospel history placed in “Socrates and Jesus Compared.". This one lucid point of view, and in a being a section of the general view I similar manner the gospel doctrine had taken of the field, it became a fully explained, without the smallest subject of reflection, while on the mixtire of any controverted tenet, or road, and unoccupied otherwise. The even the incidental admission of or al- result was, to arrange in my mind a lusion to any one, embraced by any syllabus or outline of such an estimate Christian sect; and, this solid basis of the comparative merits of Christharing once been adopted by friend ianity, as I wished to see executed by and foe, the discussion might gradually some one of more leisure and informaproceed to collateral topics.
tion for the task than myself. This I In this mood I was gratified with now send you, as the only discharge the perusal of a letter and sketch, which of my proinise I can probably ever bear the stamp of candour and that execute; and in confiding it to you, of profound research. He would I know it will not be exposed to the deserve well of his country, and the malignant perversions of those, who gospel doctrine, could he find leisure make of every work on the subject of to execute the plan, whose outlines religion a text fos misrepresentations he so inasterly delineated. But, ac- and calumnies. I am moreover averse cept it as it is. There are I hope many to the communication of my religious in your happy isle equal to this task. tenets to the public, because it would In this question is a Churchman as countenance the presumption of those much interested as a Dissenter; and who have endeavoured to draw them he, who shall have accomplished it, before that tribunal, and to seduce will have done more in defence of public opinion to erect itself into that the religion of Jesus, than a host of inquisition orer the rights of conwell-meaning though misguided apo- science, which the laws have so justly logists.
prescribed. It behores every man, SINCERUS. who values liberty of conscience for
himself, to resist invasions of it in the No. II.
case of others; it behoves him too, in Dear Sir,
his own case, to give no example of In some of the delightful conversa- concession, betraying the common tions with you in the evenings of right of independent opinion, by 1798 and 1799, the Christian religion answering questions of faith, which was sometimes our topic; and then I the laws have left between God and promised you that, one day or other, himself. I would give you my views of it
. To Mr.
CRITO. They are the result of a life of inquiry and reflection, and very different froin
No. III. that anti-christian system imputed to Syllabus of an Estimale of the Doctrine me by those who know nothing of of Jesus, compared with those of my opinions. To the corruptions of others. Christianity I am indeed opposed, but In a comparative view of the ethics not to the genuine precepts of Jesus of the enlightened nations of antiquity, himself. I am a Christian, in the of the Jews and of Jesus, no notice only sense in which he wished any should be taken of the corruptions of one to be; sincerely attached to his reason among the ancients, to wit, doctrines, in preference to all others, the idolatry and superstition of their ascribing to himself all human excel- vulgar, nor of the corruptions of lence, and believing he never claimed Christianity by the overlearned among any other. At the intervals since its professors. these conversations, when I could Let a just view be taken of the justifiably abstract myself from other moral principles inculcated by the affairs, this subject has been under most esieeined of the sects of ancient my contemplation : but the more I philosophy, or of their individualss
Lelter, &c. on the Doctrine of Jesus.
575 particularly Pythagoras, Socrates, disinterested, and of the sublimest Epicurus, Cicero, Epictetus, Seneca, eloquence. Antoninus.
The disadvantages under which his I. PHILOSOPHERS.
appear are remarkable. 1. Their precepts related chiefly
1. Like Socrates and Epictetus he to ourselves and the government of wrote nothing himself. those passions, which, unrestrained,
2. But he had not like them a would disturb our tranquillity of Xenophon or Arrian 10 write for mind.* In this branch of philosophy him. On the contrary, all the learned they were really great.
of his country, enirenched in its 2. In developing our duty to others power and riches, were opposed to they were short and defective : they him, lest his labours should underembraced indeed the eircles of kindred mine their advantages. And the comand friends, and inculcated patriotism, mitting to writing his life and docor the love of our country, in the trines fell on the most unlettered and aggregate, as a primary obligation; ignorant of men, who wrote too from towards our neighbours and country- memory, and not till long after the men they taught justice, but scarcely transactions had passed. viewed them as within the circle of 3. According to the ordinary fate benevolence; still less have they of those, who attempt to enlighten inculcated peace, charity and love to and reform mankind, he fell an early all our fellow-men, or embraced with victim to the jealousy and combination benevolence the whole family of man
of the altar and the throne at about kind.
thirty-three years of age, his reason II. JEW'S.
having not yet attained the maximuni 1. Their system was Deism, that is, of its energy; nor the course of bis the belief in one only God, but their preaching, which was but of about ideas of him and his attributes were three years, presented occasions of degrading and injurious.
developing a complete system of moral 2. Their ethics were not only im- duties, perfect, but often irreconcileable with 4. Hence the doctrines, which he the sound dictates of reason and really delivered, were defective as a morality, as they respect intercourse whole, and fragments only of what he with those around us.
did deliver, have come to us, mutiIU. JESUS.
lated, misstated, and often únintelIn this state of things among the
ligible. Jews, Jesus appeared.
5. They have been still more disHis parentage was obscure ; his con
figured by the corruptions of schisinadition poor; his education null; bis tising followers, who have found an natural endowments great.
interest in sophisticating and perverlHis life correct and innocent ; he ing the simple doctrines he taught, by was meek, benevolent, patient, firm, engrafting on them the mysticisms of
a Grecian sophist, frittering them
into subtleties, and obscuring them To explain, I will exhibit the beads with jargon, until they have caused of Seneca and Cicero's Philosophical good men to reject the whole in disworks, the most extensive of any we have gust, and to view Jesus himself as an received from the ancients. Of ten heads in Seneca seven relate to ourselves, de Lra,
impostor. Consolatio, de Tranquillitate, de Constan
Notwithstanding these disadvanvia Sapientis, de Otio Sapientis, de Vita tages, a system of morals is presented Beata, de Brevitate Vitæ. Two relate to style and spirit of the rich fragments
to us, which, if filled
in the true relates to the government of the world, de he left us, would be the most perfect Providentia. Of eleven tracts of Cicero, and sublime that has ever been taught five respect ourselves, viz. de Finibus, by inan. Tusculana, Academica, Paradoxa, de Se
The question of his being a memnectute. One, de Officiis, partly to our
ber of the Godhead, or, in direct comselves, partly to others. One, de Ami- munication with it, claimed for him citia, relates to others, and four are on by some of his followers, and denied different subjects, to wit, de Natura Deo- by others, is foreign to the present rum, de Divinatione, de Fato, and Soin view, which is merely an estimate of nium Scipionis.
the intrinsic merit of his doctrines.
1. He corrected the Deism of the and common aids. A developement Jews, confirming them in their belief of this head will evince the peculiar of one only God, and giving them superiority of the system of Jesus over juster notions of his attributes and all others. government.
3. The precepts of philosophy and 2. His moral doctrines, relating to of the Hebrew code laid hold of ackindred and friends, were more pure tions only: He pushed his scrutinies and perfect than those of the most into the heart of man, erected his correct of the philosophers, and greatly tribunal in the region of his thoughts, more so than those of the Jews. and purified the waters at the fountain And they went far beyond both in head. inculcating universal philanthropy, 4. He taught emphatically the doc. not only to kindred and friends, to trine of a future 'state, which was neighbours and countrymen, but to doubted or disbelieved by the Jews, all mankind, gathering all into one and wielded it with efficacy as an family, under the bonds of love, important incentive; supplementary to chariiy and peace, common the other motives to moral conduct.
Narrative of a celebrated Auto de Fé, in sition in the confusion accompanying the City of Logrono.
the late invasion of Spain), and he can [That the following Narrative may vouch for the general correctness of the not be suspected of having been co- following narrative. Joured by Protestant prejudice, we The extirpation of witchcraft was think it right to presace it, by an ex- the main object of this religious emtract from the private letter of our bassy; but it was commissioned to Correspondent, who will, we trust, extend its fearful power to every thing excuse this freedom. “ I am not at in the shape of heresy. An account all sure that the enclosed deserves a of its proceedings was printed in 1611 place in the Monthly Repository; but by a zealous Catholic, “ desirous (as I thirck I can promise you that what is he informs his readers) that they being meant to follow, will have more that aware of the iniquities of the devilish is extraordinary and interesting-if it be sect of witches," may “ watch over the interesting to trace the extravagancies, safety of their houses and families.“ the worse than extravagancies, of the The Cortes, who saw that to unmask human character. The deeds of the spiritual tyranny would be to subdue it, inquisition have usually been narrated encouraged a re-publication of the by its enemies: this is its own au- pamphlet (of which four editions hare thorized official narrative. The docu- been printed); but bigotry has now ments I examined had been scrutinized succeeded in consigning it to tempowith the utmost care, and every, indi- rary oblivion. The writer, however, vidual sentence was marked with the has the pleasure of knowing that inany rubric of one of the inquisitors. They of the MSS. containing the official were signed by the different individuals narratives of the foul and ferocious who were employed in the commission, deeds of the inquisition have escaped and addressed, I think, to the Cardinal from its dark and secret chanıbers. Archbishop of Toledo, Dr. B. de San. They are lodged in security, and will dobal y Rojas, who was at that time at one day instruct and shame the world. the head of the holy office." Ed.] The relation of the proceedings of
the Logrono commission is prepared IN N the most illustrious period of the by the recommendation of a Fran
literary annals of Spain (the be- ciscan friar, who says that “the book ginning of the 17th century), an eccle- contains nothing against our holy resiastical commission was sent by the ligion and good Christian customs," (inholy office to celebrate an au o de fé timating of course that to torture and in the city of Logrono. The writer of burn heretics is a very “good Christ the present article has had an opportu- jan custom"), “but on the contrary, nity of examining the original docu- what is very true and necessary to be ments of its proceedings (is they told to all the faithful, to undeceive the escaped from the archives of the inqui- deceits of Salan.”
Narrative of a celoraled Auto de Fé in the City of Logrono. 577 The celebration of “ this most fa- tinued-first, of “ two famous cheats”, mous and holy auto" was attended by who had “ committed great enormities such multitudes of priests, monks and in the name of the holy inquisition," friars, and by such crowds of the de. (as if the imitators could exceed the vout, who came “even from far distant original!) one was fined and expatriated, countries," as had never been collected the other received two hundred lashes on any former occasion. A host of and was condemned to be kept five “ minstrels, musicians and 'ministers” years at the galley-oar. Fourteen were accompanied the procession of the variously punished for different blas" holy green cross” (the standard of phemies and heretical opinions. “Six the inquisition), which was afterwards of a Jewish sect of Christians, who put planted on a high scaffold, and sur- on clean shirts on Saturdays, and perrounded by torches. A religious guard formed other ceremonies of the law of paraded about it till the dawn of the Moses," after having abjured their erfollowing day, when fifty-three culprits rors, were ordered to suffer banishment were brought forth from the prisons of and other punishments. One was “ the holy office." Twenty-one, who transported for having sung, “ Yes, the had recanted, marched first in " the promised Christ is come, no! yes! no!" vestments of degradation,” and some Another who “ had been Judaizing for with ropes round their necks, with five and twenty years," having sued for which they were to be scourged. pardon“ with tears and true repentTwenty-one others followed, con- ance," was “ only imprisoned for life." demned to various punishments. Next. A Moor (Mahometan) who owned he came the bones and the figures in effigy had apostatized, was reconciled and of five individuals who had been already condemned to receive one hundred executed; and at last six other persons, lashes. In the details of the evidence who, at the end of the ceremony, were against these convicts, “such fearful to be delivered up to be burnt alive. and horrible things were related as had “ They were all so appropriately and never before reached the ears of man;" beautifully clad” (the relation says), and though a great deal of the narrative " that it was truly well worth seeing." was omitted, they could hardly finish A mule bearing a coffer covered with by close of day. The reporter goes on velvet, in which the sentences were to say, “ towards all these wretches the enclosed, was next in rank, and then greatest mercy was shown, and more acthe inquisitors, the magistrates and the count was taken of their penitence than different religious orders, all arranged of their crimes." with “ great authority and gravity." Eighteen persons who were to be
On arriving at the scaffold, the reconciled, were next brought to the “ worst criminals were stationed at highest floor of the scaffold, and while the top, and the rest at different eleva- they were on their knees, they were tions according to their crimes.” The “received into the communion of the inquisitors, officers of the civil power, church by a most devout and solemn ecclesiastics of rank and other dignified cervice." All who witnessed it were individuals to the number of a thou- inspired by the holiest feelings; “ nor sand, were seated in the lower benches did they cease giving grateful praises to of the scaffold; and a place was erected God and to the most holy inquisition." for the criminals after they had been And thus the auto was concluded. The long enough exhibited, in which were “green cross" was borne to the church two pulpits from whence their sentences amidst anthems of " Te Deum laudawere to be read to them.
mus;" the convicted were handed over After a sermon from a Dominican to the civil power to receive “ the mer. friar, the whole of the first day was ciful award" of their devout judges ; employed in reading the sentences of and so the day closed upon the pious eteren of the most atrocious of the ca- actors in this dark tragedy. pitally condemned, six of whom were In another cominunication some degiven up to be immediately burnt, and tail shall be given of the incredible of these no further mention is made. evidence which was received agaiost
On the following Monday the other these victims of superstition-the evicriminals were brought forth; every cence indeed of a host of witnesses. thing was arranged as before; a sermon The records of human credulity can was preached by a Franciscan monk, perhaps furnish no parallel. and ihe reading the sentences was con