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Lelter, &c. on the Doctrine of Jesus.
575 particularly Pythagoras, Socrates, disinterested, and of the sublimest Epicurus, Cicero, Epictetus, Seneca, eloquence. Antoninus.
The disadvantages under which his I. PHILOSOPHERS.
appear are remarkable. 1. Their precepts related chiefly
1. Like Socrates and Epictetus he to ourselves and the government of wrote nothing himself. those passions, which, unrestrained,
2. But he had not like them a would disturb our tranquillity of Xenophon or Arrian 10 write for mind.* In this branch of philosophy him. On the contrary, all the learned they were really great.
of his country, enirenched in its 2. In developing our duty to others power and riches, were opposed to they were short and defective : they him, lest his labours should underembraced indeed the eircles of kindred mine their advantages. And the comand friends, and inculcated patriotism, mitting to writing his life and docor the love of our country, in the trines fell on the most unlettered and aggregate, as a primary obligation; ignorant of men, who wrote too from towards our neighbours and country- memory, and not till long after the men they taught justice, but scarcely transactions had passed. viewed them as within the circle of 3. According to the ordinary fate benevolence; still less have they of those, who attempt to enlighten inculcated peace, charity and love to and reform mankind, he fell an early all our fellow-men, or embraced with victim to the jealousy and combination benevolence the whole family of man
of the altar and the throne at about kind.
thirty-three years of age, his reason II. JEW'S.
having not yet attained the maximuni 1. Their system was Deism, that is, of its energy; nor the course of bis the belief in one only God, but their preaching, which was but of about ideas of him and his attributes were three years, presented occasions of degrading and injurious.
developing a complete system of moral 2. Their ethics were not only im- duties, perfect, but often irreconcileable with 4. Hence the doctrines, which he the sound dictates of reason and really delivered, were defective as a morality, as they respect intercourse whole, and fragments only of what he with those around us.
did deliver, have come to us, mutiIU. JESUS.
lated, misstated, and often únintelIn this state of things among the
Jigible. Jews, Jesus appeared.
5. They have been still more disHis parentage was obscure ; his con
figured by the corruptions of schisinadition poor; his education null; bis tising followers, who have found an natural endowments great.
interest in sophisticating and perverlHis life correct and innocent ; he ing the simple doctrines he taught, by was meek, benevolent, patient, firm, engrafting on them the mysticisms of
a Grecian sophist, frittering them
into subtleties, and obscuring them To explain, I will exhibit the beads with jargon, until they have caused of Seneca and Cicero's Philosophical good men to reject the whole in disworks, the most extensive of any we have gust, and to view Jesus himself as an received from the ancients. Of ten heads in Seneca seven relate to ourselves, de Lra,
impostor. Consolatio, de Tranquillitate, de Constan
Notwithstanding these disadvanvia Sapientis, de Otio Sapientis, de Vita tages, a system of morals is presented Beata, de Brevitate Vitæ. Two relate to style and spirit of the rich fragments
to us, which, if filled
in the true relates to the government of the world, de he left us, would be the most perfect Providentia. Of eleven tracts of Cicero, and sublime that has ever been taught five respect ourselves, viz. de Finibus, by inan. Tusculana, Academica, Paradoxa, de Se
The question of his being a memnectute. One, de Officiis, partly to our
ber of the Godhead, or, in direct comselves, partly to others. One, de Ami- munication with it, claimed for him citia, relates to others, and four are on by some of his followers, and denied different subjects, to wit, de Natura Deo- by others, is foreign to the present rum, de Divinatione, de Fato, and Soin view, which is merely an estimate of nium Scipionis.
the intrinsic merit of his doctrines.
Narrative of a celelrated Auto de Fé in the City of Logrono. 1. He corrected the Deism of the and common aids. A developement Jews, confirming them in their belief of this head will evince the peculiar of one only God, and giving them superiority of the system of Jesus over juster notions of his attributes and all others. government.
3. The precepts of philosophy and 2. His moral doctrines, relating to of the Hebrew code laid hold of ackindred and friends, were more pure tions only: He pushed his scrutinies and perfect than those of the most into the heart of man, erected his correct of the philosophers, and greatly tribunal in the region of his thoughts, more so than those of the Jews. and purified the waters at the fountain And they went far beyond both in head. inculcating universal philanthropy, 4. He taught emphatically the docnot only to kindred and friends, to trine of a future 'state, which was neighbours and countrymen, but to Joubted or disbelieved by the Jews, all mankind, gathering all into one and wielded it with efficacy as an family, under the bonds of love, important incentive; supplementary to charity and peace, common wants the other motives to moral conduct.
Narrative of a celebrated Auto de Fé, in sition in the confusion accompanying the City of Logrono.
the late invasion of Spain), and he can [That the following Narrative may vouch for the general correctness of the not be suspected of having been co-following narrative. Joured by Protestant prejudice, we The extirpation of witchcraft was think it right to preface it, by an ex- the main object of this religious emtract from the private letter of our bassy; but it was commissioned to Correspondent, who will, we trust, extend its fearful power to every thing excuse this freedom. “ I am not at in the shape of heresy. An account all sure that the enclosed deserves a of its proceedings was printed in 1611 place in the Monthly Repository; but by a zealous Catholic, “ desirous (as I thir.k I can promise you that what is he informs his readers) that they being meant to follow, will have more that aware of the iniquities of the devilish is extraordinary and interesting-if it be sect of witches," may “watch over the interesting to trace the extravagancies, safety of their houses and families." the worse than extravagancies, of the The Cortes, who saw that to unmask human character. The deeds of the spiritual tyranny would be to subdue it, inquisition have usually been narrated encouraged a re-publication of the by its enemies: this is its own au- pamphlet (of which four editions hare thorized official narrative. The docu- been printed); but bigotry has now ments I examined had been scrutinized succeeded in consigning it to tempowith the utmost care, and every indi- rary oblivion. The writer, however, vidual sentence was marked with the has the pleasure of knowing that inany rubric of one of the inquisitors. They of the MSS. containing the official were signed by the different individuals narratives of the foul and ferocious who were employed in the commission, deeds of the inquisition have escaped and addressed, I think, to the Cardinal from its dark and secret chambers. Archbishop of Toledo, Dr. B. de San. They are lodged in security, and will dobal y Rojas, who was at that time at one day instruct and shame the world. the head of the holy office." Ed.] The relation of the proceedings of
the Logrono commission is prepared I Niterary
literary annals of Spain (the be- ciscan friar, who says that “the book ginning of the 17th century), an eccle- contains nothing against our holy resiastical commission was sent by the ligion and good Christian customs," inholy office to celebrate an au o de fé timating of course that to torture and in the city of Logrono. The writer of burn heretics is a very
good Christ the present article has had an opportu. ian custom"), “ but on the contrary, nity of examining the original docu- what is very true and necessary to be ments of its proceedings (is they told to all the faithful, to undeceive the escaped from the archives of th: inqui- deceits of Satan.”
Narrative of a celerated Auto de Fé in the City of Logrono. 577 The celebration of “ this most fa- tinued-first, of “ two famous cheats”, mous and holy auto" was attended by who had “ committed great enormities such multitudes of priests, monks and in the name of the holy inquisition," friars, and by such crowds of the de- (as if the imitators could exceed the vout, who came “even from far distant original!) one was fined and expatriated, countries," as had never been collected the other received two hundred lashes on any former occasion. A host of and was condemned to be kept five “minstrels, musicians and 'ministers” years at the galley-oar. Fourteen were accompanied the procession of the variously punished for different blas" holy green cross". (the standard of phemies and heretical opinions. the inquisition), which was afterwards of a Jewish sect of Christians, who put planted on a high scaffold, and sur on clean shirts on Saturdays, and perrounded by torches. A religious guard formed other ceremonies of the law of paraded about it till the dawn of the Moses,” after having abjured their erfollowing day, when fifty-three culprits rors, were ordered to suffer banishment were brought forth from the prisons of and other punishments.
One was “ the holy office." Twenty-one, who transported for having sung, “Yes, the had recanted, marched first in “ the promised Christ is come, no! yes! no!" vestments of degradation,” and some Another who “ had been Judaizing for with ropes round their necks, with five and twenty years," having sued for which they were to be scourged. pardon " with tears and true repentTwenty-one others followed, con- ance," was “ only imprisoned for life." demned to various punishments. Next A Moor (Mahometan) who owned he came the bones and the figures in effigy had apostatized, was reconciled and of five individuals who had been already condemned to receive one hundred executed; and at last six other persons, lashes. In the details of the evidence who, at the end of the ceremony, were against these convicts, “such fearful to be delivered up to be burnt alive. and horrible things were related as had "They were all so appropriately and never before reached the ears of man;" beantifully clad” (the relation says), and though a great deal of the narrative " that it was truly well worth sceing" was omitted, they could hardly finish A mule bearing a coffer covered with by close of day. The reporter goes on velvet, in which the sentences were to say, “ towards all these wretches the enclosed, was next in rank, and then greatest mercy was shown, and more acthe inquisitors, the magistrates and the count was taken of their penitence than different religious orders, all arranged of their crimes." with “ great authority and gravity." Eighteen persons who were to be
On arriving at the scaffold, the reconciled, were next brought to the “ worst criminals were stationed at highest floor of the scaffold, and while the top, and the rest at different eleva- they were on their knees, they were tions according to their crimes.” The “ received into the communion of the inquisitors, officers of the civil power, church by a most devout and solemn ecclesiastics of rank and other dignified service." All who witnessed it were individuals to the number of a thou- inspired by the holiest feelings ; “nor sand, were seated in the lower benches did they cease giving grateful praises to of the scaffold; and a place was erected God and to the most holy inquisition.” for the criminals after they had been And thus the auto was concluded. The long enough exhibited, in which were green cross" was borne to the church two pulpits from whence their sentences amidst anthems of “ Te Deum lauda. were to be read to them.
mus;" the convicted were handed over After a sermon from a Dominican to the civil power to receive “ the merfriar, the whole of the first day was ciful award” of their devout judges ; employed in reading the sentences of and so the day closed upon the pious eleven of the most atrocious of the ca- actors in this dark tragedy. pitally condemned, six of whom were In another communication some degiven up to be immediately burnt, and tail shall be given of the incredible of thiese no further mention is made. evidence which was received against
On the following Monday the other these victims of superstition-the evicriminals were brought forth; every dence indeed of a host of witnesses. thing was arranged as before; a sermon The records of human credulity can was preached by a Franciscan monk, perhaps furnish no parallel. B. and ihe reading the sentences was con
578 Dr. Thomson's Plan of a Charitable Fund in Unitarian Congregations.
Halifur, September 17, 1816. per week (not in arrears) be entitled SIR,
to vote on any case brought before the I Northe Newcounitarian Ehapel, va N the “ Account of thę opening members of the fund.
5. That a president, secretary, Oldham, in Lancashire," in your treasurer, two auditors, and one col. Nuniber for February, (XI. p. 121,) lector for every ten donors or subthe reporter has taken notice of a few scribers, be appointed; the election observations which I took that oppor- to these offices to be annual, with the tunity of making on the propriety of exception of that of president, which establishing a Fellowship Fund in con- shall be offered permanently to the nexion with Unitarian congregations. minister for the time being. As several friends have approved of
6. That when a case is to be offered the idea, and have applied to me to
for consideration and assistance, the detail my proposal, I have done so, secretary, on receiving a requisition and offer the following plan for inser- signed by five members, shall call a tion in the Monthly Repository or nieeting of the fund to be held iinme. Christian Reformer.
diately after the afternoon's service in
the vestry (school-room or chapel as 1. That ihere be established in the may be), to take the case into consociety of Unitarian Christians assem- sideration and the sum proposed to bling at ***** a fellowship fund. be voted.
2. That its objects are : (1.) to assist 7. That no case shall be finally the members of the society with oc. decided till a second meeting has been casional relief under the pressure of held on the Lord's day afternoon sickness, infirmity or want; (2.) to (after service) next following the first defray the expenses (such as fire, can- ineeting, except in cases of infirmity, dles, &c.) incidental to the meetings sickness, or want requiring immediate for religious edification and prayer* in relief. the society; (3.) to
8. That in all cases a majority of occasional contributions as the fund the members entitled to vote (Rule 4.) may allow to Unitariau chapels about shall decide, the president, and in his 10"be erected or enlarged; to the absence the chairman, having a castacademies in our persuasion establish- ing vote. ed at York and Hackney; to the 9. That the subscriptions and donaUnitarian Fund, and to any other tions as received by the treasurer, shall institution now existing, or which be put into the tank for savings, [or may hereafter be formed, which may into the hands of such person as a secin calculated to promote the diffu- majority shall deem trust-worthy] in sion of Christian truth, and to incul- the joint names of the president, secre. cate holiness of heart and life.
tary and treasurer; and that all orders 3. That the fund be supplied by for payment shall be signed by not voluntary donations and subscriptions. less than two of these officers.
4. That every donor of five shillings 10. That the secretary keep a book annually, or subscriber of one penny for minutes of the meetings, and the
treasurer an account book : That these . The second object is specified in this be open at every meeting for the sule from such a fund having been needed inspection of donors and subscribers (and supported by a small weekly contribu- (not in arrears). That a statement of tion of the members) in the religious society the accounts examined and attested to which the proposer belongs. This ob- by the auditors be submitted to the ject may be omitted and others specified general annual meeting, and if apaccording to the local circumstances of
proved be hung up in a conspicuous particular societies : such to assist infant societies in obtaining regular public part of the
vestry (or other place of
meeting) for worship and in defraying the expenses of
less than rent and of fitting up a place for that pur
month. pose; to form or assist in defraying the held after afternoon service on the
1. That an annual meeting be expenses of plans for establishing plain and Scriptural preaching in districts, or
first Lord's day in January, of each circuits ; the support of a restry library, year, and that notice shall be given tract society, Sunday school, &c. the of the same on the preceding Lord's purchase of Bibles and bymn books for the day, as well as on the day of meetpoor in the society, &c. &c.
ing: that at this meeting the officers
Dr. Thomson's Plan of a Churitable Fund in Unitarian Congregations. 579 be elected, the accounts passed, and deserves particular notice, viz. that other business be transacted.
these plans for raising additional sums FORMS OF NOTICE.
of money in any congregation, do in We, the undersigned, request you to fact detract from the stipend of the calla meeting of the members of the fel- stated minister; or where that stipend lowship fund to be held the next Lord's is low and insufficient, tend to keep day (the instant) immediately it so. I allow this objection in all its after afternoon's service, to take into force as applied to many of the topics consideration the propriety of voting a of sermons on particular occasions and sum of money 10 (assist our Unitarian to subsequent congregational collec'brethren at 'l'horne in Building their tions ; but I deny the assumption upon Chapel] (sigued) AB. CD. EF. GH. which this objection proceeds, as IJ. dated To Mr.
Secretary applied to the project detailed above. to the Fellowship Fund.
It will be found (except in cases of Notice from thie secretary, to be read endowment) that a small salary bears, by the minister or clerk.
a direct proportion to the smallness of The members of the Fellowship a congregation. If this be so, all plans Fund are requested to meet in the that tend to increase the numbers of a vestry this afternoon immediately after religious society, tend to the increase service.
of the minister's salary; and this tenBy a plan of this kind, Mr. Editor, dency must be granted to all means union and co-operation in individual likely to convey information, excite societies would be promoted; a state additional interest, and promote perof things in çvery point of view desira- sonal attachment and intercourse and ble, and preliminary to any good to be congregational union and co-operaexpected from a general association tion. of the Unitarian body. The progress By some an objection may be felt of Unitarianism, and the efforts made to the term fellowship fund.' I care for its advancement, would be detailed little about the naine, and have not in these societies, and carried home to any objection to its being termed an and again discussed at the firesides of auxiliary fund, a coininon fund, or the members. Thus accurate informa- any other name, provided the end be tion would be circulated, and an in- kept in view. It certainly is always crcased interest in and attachinent to desirable to call things by their right the cause excited, not only amongst the names, and I do not propose the promembers of the same congregation, ject or the designation as at all correbut between the scattered societies of sponding with the xowwria, the “ felthe Unitarian body. The calls upon lowship" of the priinitive Christian Unitarian liberaliiy, for the erection of church, nor as at all wishing to internew chapels and other important ob- fere with that apostolical institution jects, have of late happily been fre- wherein it is observed. quent. But if continued, which I Christian contribution, were it unitrust will be the case, they cannot be versal, would be more efficient; and so promptly met, and so cffectually most earnestly would I wish to see answered as they ought to be. The it supersede the proposal before you, willing giver will from prudential which is simply a project to organize motives be obliged however reluctantly a new and permanent set of contributo withhold his aid. We must there wors, and which must stand or fall on fore look out for other and inultiplied the ground of expediency alone. One sources of supply, and call in the word as to the productiveness of such a many in aid of the few. Before you plan, and I have done. So far as I is a plan for that purpose, which know, we have not any data to formi whilst it organizes a fresh set of contri- . any tolerably correct estimate of the butors, and falls so easily upon all as Unitarian population of the United not to be felt by any, does not inter- Kingdom ; but if for the sake of ilfere with nor supersede the exercise of lustration, we suppose a plan to liberality on the part of the affluent be adopted which would associate members of the Unitarian body. I one hundred thousand contributors will only add of this project, that I throughout the empire, at one penny a shall be truly glad to see it superseded week cach, it would produce nearly by a better.
twenty-two thousand pounds per aunum, There is indeed anc, objection which (21,6001. 134. 4d.); when probably a: