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Gleanings.

595 “ Any part of the above list which could instantly changed countenance; and be procured would much oblige me; only let assuming a severe look, after a mome have enough.

ment or two of pause, “ No," replied "I will return the books I now have he, “ that religious institution is not to next Sunday, by my youngest son. be mixed with our profane ceremonies. “I am, Dear Sir,

Even at the time of my coronation, I “ With unfeigned respect and gratitude,

was very unwilling to take the sacra“ Your friend and servant,

ment. But, when they told me that « WILLIAM VIDLER. "West-Ham, August 19, 1811.

it was indispensible and that I must " P.S. My son will take back any books receive it; before I approached the *bich you may have gotten ready to go.

communion table, I took off the Mr. J.7'. Rutt, Goswell Street."

bauble from my head. The sacrament,

my lord, is not to be profaned by our GLEANINGS; OR, SELECTIONS AND gothic institutions." The severity of the REFLECTIONS MADE IN A COURSE king's manner while he pronounced

these words impressed all present, and

suspended for a short time the conNo. CCLXXVII.

versation. The Same, 1.384-386. Greatness in Death. Though sinking under the accumu

No. CCLXXIX. lated pressure of advancing age, as Early Quakers Unitarians. - The well as of disease and infirmity, Maria

Athenian Mercury. Theresa (Empress of Germany), re- Whether the early Quakers were tained the possession of all her faculties Unitarians is a purely historical ques. nearly to ihe last moments of her life. tiop:- Unitarianism is neither the Religion and resignation smoothed its better nor the worse for the determi. close.—Only a short time before she nation of it: nor needs the opinion of breathed her last, having apparently the founders of Quakerism to influ, fallen into a sort of insensibility and ence the present Quakers. The old her eyes being closed, one of the ladies Quakers had simplicity and sense and near her

person, in reply to an inquiry a love of liberty, but none of these, made respecting the state of the Em, any more than their religious principress, answered that her Majesty seemed pels, are hereditary, to be asleep. No, replied she, I could Abundant facts may be produced sleep if I would indulge repose ; l'ut I um to slew that the Quakers of a century sensible of the near approach of death, and ago were accounted and described as I will not allow myseif to be surprized ly Unitarians. Some of these have been him in my sleep. I wish to meet my dis- produced in our volumes; we shall solution awake.

bring forward another proof. Wraxall's Hist. Memoirs, I. 364, 5. In that most singular periodical

work, the Athenian Mercury, published No. CCLXXVIII.

by J. Dunton, 1691, in folio, each The King's View of the Sacrument. Number containing a folio half sheet,

Towards the end of the month of there is, Vol. III. No. 23, the followJanuary, 1805, at a time when he ing question [The object of the work (the present King Geo. 111.) was is to resolve all the most nice and curious much occupied in preparations for the questions proposed by the ingenious] : Installation of the Knights of the Gar- Suppose a Jew, a Mahometan, a ter, destined to take place on the ap Church of England man, an Anabapproaching twenty-third of April; and tist, a Quaker and a Muggletonian, while conversing on the subject with all living together in one house some persons of high rank, at Windsor; 'peaceably and according to their one of them, a nobleman deservedly own principles :—may they not all distinguished by his favour, said, “Sir, expect happiness after this life?" are not the new knights now meant The Athenian Club, who undertook to to be installed, obliged to take the answer all questions, were they high sacrament before the ceremony?" as heaven or deep as hell, manifest Nothing could assuredly have been their temper, by the first clause of further from his idea or intention, than their oracular response, viz. “It's to have asked the question in a man- pity the Querist did not put in an ner 'capable of implying any levity or Atheist too to have made it up a irreverence. Nevertheless, his Majesty perfect number." They then proceed

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to say that the question is already must own according to their present answered by the Church of England writings, there are not many articles which anathematizes all who say in of coinmon Christianity, if any, the affirmative. The Scriptures, too, which our English Anabaptists dis

they allege positively damn Jews, own, besides that of infant baptism, * and Mahometans and also Muggle whwein some great men of the Church of

tonians, who they add are known by God have crred together with them." nothing but “ hating the Bible, some The Athenians may probably refer to blasphemy and a great deal of non- Bp. Jere. Taylor, whose Liberty of sense.” They then pronounce sen- Prophesying wears an.“ Anabaptist" tence on the Quakers, in form follow- face. Other parts of their work will ing: “For the Quakers : We are scarcely allow us to suppose that in sure that many, or most of 'em have great men of the Church of God," held very dangerous and detestable they include John Milion, who was opinions. They generally speak con- tainted with the heresy of the “ Anatemptibly of the Bible, and will by no baptists.". means allow it to be God's word: they The Athenian Mercury is very have turned it into an odd sort of a amusing, as an exhibition of the jejune allegory, even the highest and inquiries, the doubts, the wit and the most sacred truths therein contained, mirth of our great grandfathers, who and have spoken not very honorably of in spite of their broad brimmed hats, our Saviour, and almost generally deny their doublets and hose, were much the Trinity, and many, if not all, the sort of folks that we embrace ihe other Socinian dream of the The greatest difference between them soul's sleeping till the resurrection. and us consists in the bolder and more Besides, they use neither of the dignified spirit of civil and religious Sacraments, and if our most authentic liberty thai, through their exertions, accounts do not impose upon us, were we have acquired. Wę may smile at at their first appearance in England, their questions, but they led to ques. commonly acted by a worse spirit than tions of more moment. A Corre. what they pretend to. These 'tis hard spondent in the Mercury_gravely asks, to hope well of, nor can we see how What was the sex of Balaam's ass ? with any manner of propriety they and is solemnly answered hy proofs can be called Christians. But if there from the history that it was a she-ass

. be any of 'em who have left their Another inquires, how infants, and first principles, and are degenerated aged and deformed persons shall arise into Christianity, (we ask pardon for at the day of judgment ? and the unhethe harshness of the expression) and sitating answer is that all shall arise grown more religious, as well as more of the age of thirty or thirty three, our mannerly, there may be more hopes Saviour's age at his resurrection ! of em.” This judgment on the Quakers was

No. CCLXXX. evidently not prompted by passion

Alcoran. merely, for if Socinian had been ap- It has long been a question agitated plied to them as a term of reproach among the Mahometans, and with because they were disliked on other great beat, whether the Alcoran was accounts, it would also have been created or increated? Those who said branded on the forehead of the “Ana- it was created, seemed to others to baptists," whom no Church of Eng- diminish and lessen its authority : but land oracle ever spared ; but there is they defended themselves many ways; some sort of candour in the determi- among which one is, that 'tis the ex. nation concerning these once fearful press saying of God, We have put the herelies: e.

“For the Anabap- Alcoran; now that which is put is tist, it's certain both from Popish and created. Others took the opposite Proiestant writers, and even eye-wit- side of the question. They took the nesses themselves, that there never was safest side who adhering to the words a fiercer or more dangerous enemy to all of the Alcoran, said, that it was put, or order both sacred and humane, than sent down, and were silent about its

at his first appearance in creation. Germany: but we hope he's now Recland, of the Mahometan Religion, grown better, and that our soil has a in Four Treatises, &c. 8vo. 1712. little mended his crab-stock. For we

he was

p. 24.

( 597 )

REVIEW.
“Still pleased to praise, yet not afraid to blame."-POPE.

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Art. I.-A Course of Lectures, contain- themselves. Where this character is

ing a Description and Systematic Ar- wanting, there is wanting that relation rangement of the several Branches of of type to antitype, which subsists between Divinity : : accompanied with an Ac the things of the Old Testament, and the count both of the principal Authors, things of the New." (Pp. 1, 2). and of the Progress, which has been The Margaret Professor's representmade, at different Periods, in Theolo- ation of the very essence of a type," gical Learning. By Herbert Marsh, is perfectly agreeable to certain systems D.D. F. R. S. Margaret Professor of of theology: we are convinced however Divinity. Part IV. On the Inter- that it receives no countenance from pretation of Prophecy; Cambridge, the Scriptures. If our readers will look Printed, Sold there by Deightons, into their English Bibles, they will find &c. and in London by Rivingtons. only single passage which speaks of 1816. 8vo. pp. 86.

types ; this is i Cor. x 11.; and eren T: THE subject here discussed by the this is nothing more than the marginal

Margaret Professor, is so impor- reading in the larger copies—the word tant, curious and difficult, and his re- examples being preferred in the text and putation, as a theological scholar, so adopted by Newcome. On examining, deservedly high, that we opened this too, the places in which the correspond pamphlet with more than common ing Greek substantive occurs, we can eagerness : an examination of it's con- discover no support to the doctrine that tents, will shew in what degree our a type is a designed resemblance. expectations have been gratified.

Dr. M. indeed says (ib:), At the conclusion of the third part

the only mode of distinguishing of his Lectures, he treated of typical the cases, where this relation (of type to, interpretation, “ with which," says he, antitype] actually exists, from the cases u the interpretation of prophecy is so where it is only supposed to exist, is to far connected, as types are prophetic of examine what things in the Old Testament their antitypes."*"'In our review of bave been represented by Christ and his chat publication, we hinted our doubts apostles as relating to things in the New. with respect to the correctness of his for then we have authority for such reladefinition of a type, and, at the same

tion : tben we know, that one thing was time, expressed a hope that the matter designed to prefigure the other." would " be more largely and satisfacto- To this authority we implicitly subrily considered in some of” Dr. Marsh's scribe: hut we shall soon perceive that “ succeeding Lectures."t: It is re- it does not warrant the conclusion at sumed, accordingly, in No. XIX. the which the Lecturer arrives. second paragraph of which begins with Before he considers (3) the prophetic the following sentences :

character of a type, he ought to show “ To constitute a type, something more

indubitably that a type, such as he deis requisite, than a mere resemblance of scribes it, has an crisience in the volume that, which is called it's entitype. For of Revelation. Here, we think, his one thing may resemble another, when the reasoning and his illustrations fail : things themselves are totally unconnected. ( Whether a future event is indicated But it is the very essence of a type, to have by words, or indicated by other tokens, the a necessary connexion with it's antitype. connexion of that event with the words in It must have been designed, and designed one case, or the tokens in the other, will from the very beginning, to prefigure it's be equally a fulfilling of prophecy." antitype ; or it partakes not of that cba

True if the connexion be in loth racter which belongs to a real type; a chasacter, which implies, not an accidental instances designed; wlrich is exactly parity of circunstances, but a pre-ordained the point to be proved, instead of being and inherent connexion between the things assumed. On this proof the Professor

enters in the course of his third para, * A Course of Lectures, &c. p. 117. graph. According to Dr. M., (Part III).

“ We cannot have a more remarkable, + M. Repos. VIII. 677.

or a more important example, than that of 4 H

VOL. XL.

the paschal lamb, as applied to the death Lord's supper" (13, 14). Let us begin of Christ. For not only was the paschal with weighing his observation in regard lamb sacrificed for the sins of the Jews

to the latter," the Lord's supper" (4): under circumstances resembling those, under which our Saviour was sacrificed for

“ Since the sacrament of the Lord's the sins of the world, but we have the au

supper was instituted by Christ bimself in thority of Scripture itself for the assertion, remembrance of his death and passion, the that the sacrifice of the paschal lamb was

ceremony, which was a type of the one, from the very beginning designed to indi- may be considered as a typé also of the cate the sacrifice of Christ on the cross.

other." When Joho the Baptist first saw our Sa- In plainer language, the meaning of viour, he exclaimed, · Behold the lamb of Dr. M. is, that of the Lord's supper God, which taketh away the sins of the the paschal supper may be considered as a world.' St. Paul is still more particular:

type. His manner of expressing hinifor he says, ' Christ, our passover is sacri- self, should not be passed in silence. fited for us : and St. Peter declares, that Instead of saying, totidem verbis, that it blond of Christ, as of a loma without is actually a type, or that, on the prinblemish and without spot, who rerily was

ciples of sound reasoning, we must fore-ordained, before the foundation of the infer it to be such, he simply reinarks, world.' From a comparison of these pas- that it may be considered as a type. No sages we learn, not only that the two sa- doubt, there is a large class of persons crifices resembled each other, but that the by whom it may le so considered : an sacrifice of the paschal lamb was originally unscriptural system of theology, eom. intended to designate the sacrifice of Christ. bined with fervour of imagination, will The former sacrifice therefore has all the behold types in almost every page of qualifications, which are necessary to con- the Jewish records. It is highly prostitute a type.” (3, 4).

bable that; under the influence of these Does this conclusion flow legiti- causes, men will multiply resenıblances mately from the premises? The re- of this descriptions, and that they may semblance is granted : but proof is want- consider every resemblance as typical. ing of it's being a designed resemblance. The point at issue between the Pro Our Saviour, we know, has been deno- fessor and us, is the ground on which minated the lamb of God' and our he considers the paschal supper as tye passover: this fact however is no evi, pical of the Eucharist. Now this dence of the paschal lamb and supper would seem to be the supposed relation being typical of him—with equal of the sacrifice of the paschal lamb (as reason might it be alleged that, because the type] to the sacrifice of Christ (as he speaks of himself as the good shep- the antitype]. However; since no such herd,' his pastoral character was the relation is asserted, or even implied, in antitype of David's. Such a principle Scripture, it follows that the alleged of criticism would conduct us, 'in relation of these two ceremonies to truth, to doctrines and inferences which each other is also imaginary. The scarcely any theologian, of any' deno- foundation being removed, ttie supermination, could endure. Nor can Dr. structure falls. M. fairly lay stress on the word fore- Equally unsuccessful is this Lecturer ordained, in his quotation from the in his attempt to shew that “thie sawritings of the Apostle Peter. On crameril of baptism was prefigured by consulting the original, our readers will an event of great importance in the be fully sensible that the antecedent is history of the Jews." Though he laChrist: he it is “who was fore-ordained bours the point at some length, he only before the foundation of the world;" convinces, us that the proof of it is too a declaration to which we unreservedly weightý a task for even the abilities and and gratefully assent, but which is far learning of Dr. Marsh. Let us heat from being identical with the proposi- the Professor's statement (4): tion “ that the sacrifice of the paschal lamb was originally intended to designate Corinthians (s. 1.), says, Bretbren; }

“ St. Paul, in his first Epistle to the the sacrifice of Christ.” Our author endeavours to evince thut qur fathers were under the cloud, and

would not that ye should be ignoraut, how that there are “ two very remarkable all passed through the sea, and were baptypes of the Old Testament, the one tized unto Mosus is the cloud, and in the applying to the Sacrament of baptism, sea ; and did all eat the same spiritaal meat, the other to the Sacrament of the and did all drink the same spiritual drinks the

his

if," says

Review.--Marsh's Lectures. Part IV.

599 for they drank of that same spiritual rock, having “another instance of type and that followed them, and that rock was antitype, ratified by the authority of Christ.' In this passage {adds Dr. M.] it a divine Apostle, in all their rarious is evident that St. Paul copsidered the relations," ihat, if we will only be being baptized unto Moses, as typical of content to make this sacred author his being baptized unto Christ."

own interpreter, we shall be sensible That the Margaret Professor chuses of his being a total stranger to the so to consider it, is sufficiently “ evi- comparatively modern doctrine of dent." But there is no evidence what- type and antitype !". ever that the case was viewed by the

We have no inclination to become A postle in the same light. Let the parties in the controversy now carryreader determine, whether persons who ing on within the pale of had never heard of this theological

Church of England" on baptism and fiction of types would put such a con

regeneration. The Margaret Professtruction upon Paul's words : it is an

sor takes occasion to communicate to interpretation which, we venture to

auditors and his readers his pronounce, they will not bear. The thoughts concerning it: passage has some obscurities : we may

he, we detach regeneration from perhaps admit that it implies comparison baptism, we not only fall into the and resemblance ; concerning a type a visible sign of nothing to be signified,

absurdity of making the outward act however it is profoundly silent. The existence of proselyte baprism

but we destroy the sacrament of bapamong the Jews, must not be assumed tism as a sacrament altogether"-and, (5) as an indubitable fact; writers of again, they who wilfully and de eminent impartiality and erudition liberately detach regeneration from having called it in question. Con baptism, impugn essentially the docceding, nevertheless, to Dr. M. that trine of our Established Church, inasthis was one of their customs, it is much as they impugn it in one of our altogether irrelevant to remind us that

holy sacraments. Such then is the shey“ appear to have generally consi- claim of the “ Established Church"dered the passage of their forefathers to bestow regeneration by means of through the red sea, not as a mere in baptism :* we are less astonished at sulated historical fact, but as something difference of judgment among her

her preferring the claim than at the representative of admission to the divine Favour, boy baptism." When we inquire articles. The disputants might be

sons respecting the import of her into the doctrine of the Scriptures, on this or any other matter, the comments seasonably employed in ascertaining

sense of the term “regeneration authority: in truth, the language of in the Scriptures. It is deserving of Maimonides, as quoted by Whitby (in remark that words which are suffiloc:)

, conveys no further idea than that cienily current in systems of theology, of an imagined resemblance between rarely present themselves in the New the passage of the red sea and the rite Testament. This is true of the ex. of baptisin: and this is the sum of pression before us : we meet with it Whitby's owu commentary on the in only two passages, in neither of verse.

which does it describe a personal But if this text will not sustain and moral change, but an improve, Dr. Marsh's inference, still less supment in point of religious knowledge port can he acquire from the words and privileges. of Paul in the passages which he pro- manner worthy of himself till he dis

Dr. Marsh does not reason in a ceeds to cite.t 'It is a mere assump: misses the subject of types and antition that, when the Apostle speaks of baptism, any reference is intended to types. When apparently unwilling a memorable event in the Jewish his would deny that the sacrifice of the

to relinquish it, he asks (16), “Who tory: his language and his argument require no such explanation.

paschal lamb is declared in the Neve So far then are we from “ here" Testament to be a prefiguration of the

death of Christ?" "We reply, by ad. • In particular, Lardner. Works. Vol. XI. 820.

# See Article xxvii. as quoted. by + Rom. vi. 3. Gal. iii. 27, Acts xxii. 16.

Dr. M. Tit. lii. .

* Matt. xix. 28. Tit. iii. .

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