Imatges de pÓgina

the paschal lamb, as applied to the death Lord's supper" (13, 14). Let us begin of Christ. For not only was the paschal with weighing his observation in regard lamb sacrificed for the sins of the Jews

to the latter," the Lord's supper" (4): under circumstances resembling those, under which our Saviour was sacrificed for

“ Since the sacrament of the Lord's the sins of the world, but we have the au

supper was instituted by Christ bimself in thority of Scripture itself for the assertion, remembrance of his death and passion, the that the sacrifice of the paschal lamb was

ceremony, which was a type of the one, from the very beginning designed to indi- may be considered as a typé also of the cate the sacrifice of Christ on the cross.

other." When Joho the Baptist first saw our Sa- In plainer language, the meaning of viour, he exclaimed, · Behold the lamb of Dr. M. is, that of the Lord's supper God, which taketh away the sins of the the paschal supper may be considered as a world.' St. Paul is still more particular:

type. His manner of expressing hinifor he says, ' Christ, our passover is sacri- self, should not be passed in silence. fited for us : and St. Peter declares, that Instead of saying, totidem verbis, that it blond of Christ, as of a loma without is actually a type, or that, on the prinblemish and without spot, who rerily was

ciples of sound reasoning, we must fore-ordained, before the foundation of the infer it to be such, he simply reinarks, world.' From a comparison of these pas- that it may be considered as a type. No sages we learn, not only that the two sa- doubt, there is a large class of persons crifices resembled each other, but that the by whom it may le so considered : an sacrifice of the paschal lamb was originally unscriptural system of theology, eom. intended to designate the sacrifice of Christ. bined with fervour of imagination, will The former sacrifice therefore has all the behold types in almost every page of qualifications, which are necessary to con- the Jewish records. It is highly prostitute a type.” (3, 4).

bable that; under the influence of these Does this conclusion flow legiti- causes, men will multiply resenıblances mately from the premises? The re- of this descriptions, and that they may semblance is granted : but proof is want- consider every resemblance as typical. ing of it's being a designed resemblance. The point at issue between the Pro Our Saviour, we know, has been deno- fessor and us, is the ground on which minated the lamb of God' and our he considers the paschal supper as tye passover: this fact however is no evi, pical of the Eucharist. Now this dence of the paschal lamb and supper would seem to be the supposed relation being typical of him—with equal of the sacrifice of the paschal lamb (as reason might it be alleged that, because the type] to the sacrifice of Christ (as he speaks of himself as the good shep- the antitype]. However; since no such herd,' his pastoral character was the relation is asserted, or even implied, in antitype of David's. Such a principle Scripture, it follows that the alleged of criticism would conduct us, 'in relation of these two ceremonies to truth, to doctrines and inferences which each other is also imaginary. The scarcely any theologian, of any' deno- foundation being removed, ttie supermination, could endure. Nor can Dr. structure falls. M. fairly lay stress on the word fore- Equally unsuccessful is this Lecturer ordained, in his quotation from the in his attempt to shew that “thie sawritings of the Apostle Peter. On crameril of baptism was prefigured by consulting the original, our readers will an event of great importance in the be fully sensible that the antecedent is history of the Jews." Though he laChrist: he it is “who was fore-ordained bours the point at some length, he only before the foundation of the world;" convinces, us that the proof of it is too a declaration to which we unreservedly weightý a task for even the abilities and and gratefully assent, but which is far learning of Dr. Marsh. Let us heat from being identical with the proposi- the Professor's statement (4): tion “ that the sacrifice of the paschal lamb was originally intended to designate Corinthians (s. 1.), says, Bretbren; }

“ St. Paul, in his first Epistle to the the sacrifice of Christ.” Our author endeavours to evince thut qur fathers were under the cloud, and

would not that ye should be ignoraut, how that there are “ two very remarkable all passed through the sea, and were baptypes of the Old Testament, the one tized unto Mosus is the cloud, and in the applying to the Sacrament of baptism, sea ; and did all eat the same spiritaal meat, the other to the Sacrament of the and did all drink the same spiritual drinks

“ evi

Review.-Marsh's Lectures. Part IV.

599 for they drank of that same spiritual rock, having “ another instance of type and that followed them, and that rock was antitype, ratified by the authority of Christ. In this passage (adds Dr. M.] it a divine Apostle, in all their various is evident that St. Paul considered the relations," ihat, if we will only be being baptized unto Moses, as typical of content to make this sacred author his being baptized unto Christ."

own interpreter, we shall be sensible That the Margaret Professor chuses of his being a total stranger to the so to consider it, is sufficiently

comparatively modern doctrine of dent." But there is no evidence what

type and antitype !". ever that the case was viewed by the

We have no inclination to become A postle in the same light. Let the parties in the controversy now carry.

the reader determine, whether persons who ing on within the pale of had never heard of this theological Church of England" on baptism and fiction of types would put such a con- regeneration. The Margaret Professtruction upon Paul's words : it is an

sor takes occasion to communicate to interpretation which, we venture to

his auditors and his readers his pronounce, they will not bear. The thoughts concerning it: ," if,” says

he, passage has some obscurities : we may

we detach regeneration from perhaps admit that it implies comparison absurdity of making the outward act however it is profoundly silent.

a visible sign of nothing to be signified, The existence of proselyte baptism tism as a sacrament altogether"-and,

but we destroy the sacrament of bapamong the Jews, must not be assumed (5) as an indubitable fact; writers of again, they who wilfully and deeminenţ impartiality and erudition *

liberately detach regeneration froun having called it in question. Con- baptism impugn essentially the docceding, nevertheless, to Dr. M. that trine of our Established Church, inasthis was one of their customs, it is much as they impugn it in one of our altogether irrelevant to remind us that holy sacraments. Such then is the shey“ appear to have generally consi- claim of the “ Established Church" dered the passage of their forefathers to bestow regeneration by means of through the red sea, not as a mere in baptism :* we are less astonished at sulated historical fact, but as something


preferring the claim than at the representative of admission to the divine difference of judgment among her favour, by baptism." When we inquire articles. The disputants might be

sons respecting the import of her
into the doctrine of the Scriptures, on
this or any other matter, the comments

seasonably employed in ascertaining

the sense of the term regeneration authority: in truth, the language of in the Scriptures. It is deserving of Maimonides, as quoted by Whitby (in remark that words which are suffiloc:)

, convevs no further idea than that cienily current in systems of theology, of an imagined resemblance between rarely present themselves in the New the passage of the red sea and the rite

Testament. This is true of the ex. of baptism: and this is the sum of pression before us : we meet with it Whitby's owu commentary on the

in only two passages,t in neither of

which does it describe a personal

But if this text will not sustain and moral change, but an improve,
Dr. Marsh's inference, still less

ment iu point of religious knowledge

support can he acquire from the words

and privileges. of Paul in the passages wbich he pro

Dr. Marsh does not reason in a ceeds to cite.t 'It is a mere assump

manner worthy of himself till he distion that, when the Apostle speaks of misses the subject of types and antibaptismn, any reference is intended to types. When, apparently unwilling a memorable event in the Jewish his

to relinquish it, he asks (16),

Who tory: his language and his argument would deny that the sacrifice of the require no such explanation,

paschal lamb is declared in the Neve So far then are we from here" Testament to be a prefiguration of the

death of Christ ?" "We reply, by ad. * In particular, Lardner. Works. Vol. XI. 820.

• See Article xxvii. as quoted. by + Rom. vi. 3. Gal. üi. 27. Acts xxii. 16.

Dr. M. Tit. li. o.

* Matt. xix. 28. Tit. ül. 6.

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dressing to him another question, the time, which are wanted in the one with which himself (ib :) has supplied case, but not in the other. If it be ob

jected therefore, that the sacred oracles “ Must not the silence of the New

are ambiguous, because the explanations Testament, in the case of any supposed of them are various, we may confidently type, be an argument against the exist

answer, that the fault is in the interpreence of tbat type ?"

tation, and not in the text. It is no won

der that in the explanations of the Hebrew Systematical divines differ not

prophets we should discover inconsistency, little among themselves in defining a when an office, for which so many qualifi. type : let us compare for example, ihe cations are required, is undertaken hy statement of Doddridge with that of men, in whom those qualifications are Dr. Marsh:

wanting altogether." “ One person, or event, or institution The Margaret Professor enters on in the divine dispensations, of which an his twentieth Lecture with a reference account is given us in the word of God,

to those "general rules for the intermay be said to be TYPICAL of another and

pretation of the Bible, which have greater person, or event, afterwards to appear, when there is a remarkable resem

been fully explained in former Lecblance between the former and the latter ; applicable, as well to the prophetic

tures,"+ and which, he says, whether that resemblance be or be not known by the manifestation of the latter. books, as to other parts of the sacred This may be called the theological sense of

volume." This introductory position the word, &c."'*

being illustrated and vindicated, he

proceeds "to the particular consideraA type then, agreeably to Dr. Dod- tion of the prophecies, which relate dridge's account of it, is not of the nature of a prophecy, but consists sim- amine these,

to the Messiah ; " since when we ex

" we examine erery ply in resemblance. Certainly how. question of real interest in the subject ever the Margaret Professor's use of of prophecy at large.”. the word is theological ; while the other is, with a single exception, correct

As the result of “an inquiry into and Scriptural. To the received notion the truth of our religion” and this

that connexion wbich subsists between of types no plausibility is given by the class of prophecies, Dr. M. gives his Epistle to the Hebrews, which, though opinion in the following terms, it contains many comparisons of the Christian with the Jewish dispensa- “ There must be prophecies in the Old tion, holds forth no example whatever Testament, which strictly, literally, and of a designed resemblance.

directly predict the coming of our Saviour. In the remainder of the nineteenth There must be something more than pas; Lecture Dr. M. assigns two causes of sages, which may be accommodated" (as " the variety observable in the expo

it is called) to his life and character." sitions of Hebrew prophecy :" these Here, we presume, all theological are an inadequate knowledge of the scholars will agree with the Professor. original language and inattention to Ou a subject concerning which they “ the situation and circumstances of are less unanimous he offers it as his the writer, whose works it is proposed decided judgment, that. to explain." There is scarcely any

“ A prophecy wbich relates to our age of the church in which such re

Saviour in a mere remote or mystical marks as the following (18) could be

sense, can hardly come within that dejustly styled unreasonable :

scription of prophecy, by which the “-though the difficulties attending preaching of Christ was made manifest." , the interpretation of the Hebrew prophets

Before we accompany our author to Are confessedly great, those difficulties are not insurmountable. And if the interpre- which he collects and explains those

his next Lecture (No. XXI.), in tation of prophecy is really subject to determinate rules, the conclusions, to

passages which he conceives, "prewhich such rules must erentually lead, dict the coming of Christ in their will be no less certain, when those diffi- plain, literal, and proper sense,” wo culties are overcome, than if they had shall concisely notice a sentence prenever existed. The 'sole difference con- senting itself in page 23. and part of sists in the labour, in the skill, and in a note in pp. 33, 34.

* Lectures, &c. Vol. II. (ed. 4.) 408.


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Review.-Marsh's Lectures. Part IV.

001 Speaking of the ability that our own prophecy has nothing analogous to the reason gives us "10 argne from the double sense of allegory. From the past to the future," he adds, by way whole of his investigation he conof illustration,

cludes “ that there is no system “If, for instance, we compare the whatever, by which we can either · present situation of our church with it's establish the cristence of secondary situation at a former period, we must have senses, or by which, on the supposition our apprehensions, and perbaps our fore- of their exisience, we can discover their bodings."

real meaning. We must be contented," We think it unfortunate that Dr. M. he adds, “to resolve the question of loses sight, even for a monient, of the secondary senses into a question of character and dignity of the Acade


He allows “ that there are some mical Professor, to re-echo the illfounded complaint of ecclesiastical passages of the Old Testament, which alarınists. The situation of “ the really have a secondary sense : "' In this church," is perfectly safe, provided Matt. i. '17, 18. Whether it should

class' he places Jer. xxxi. 15, quoted in her dignitaries are enlightened, tolerant and candid, and offer no violence to

be ranked among them, depends how. the spirit of the times, by urging "then was fulfilled, which not ira

ever on the meaning of the formula claims which are alike discountenanced by the Scriptures and by the genius of probably, expresses accommoda:ion, raour civil constitution.

iher than the completion of a prophecy. It is with pleasure we make a gimo rature nothing perhaps is inore arduous

In the whole range of theological litetation of a very different kind; happy than to ascertain the exact siguification when our humble judgment on points of this inode of speech and of some kinof theology 1 is confirmed by the sa: dred expressions. Indeed, Dr. Marsh gacity and research of this learned Lecturer :

is far from having exhausted the topic of

the double sense of prophecy; although even a late Prelate of our own he has said enough to make us suspect church, * has very incautiously subscribed that this notion is untenable. to the Jewish doctrine, that eril spirits

“ The celebrated anthor of the Dihare the power of working miracles : a doctrine which tends to destroy the argu

vine Legation," explained secondary ment from miracles, since the performance

senses in Hebrew prophecy on the of a miracle, if it does not in itself imply supposition of their logical propriety divine authority, cannot possibly do so by and moral fitness :' he conceived that any accidental circunstances, whether or they were essential to the genius of the benevolence or of any other attribute, Jewish dispensation, in its reference to which may accompany the miracle.” the Gospel. Dr. Marsh has admirably [Note pp. 33, 34.]

exposed the difficulties accompanying The twenty-first Lecture princi

this hypothesis, and with reason propally consists of examples of literal

nounces them “insurmonritable." prophecies relating to the Messiah ; in

From the fourth part of his Lectures the selection of which the Professor we have derived less pleasure and infollows Bishop Chandler. Though

struction than we expected. Besides we do not uniformly agree with Dr. M. the unsatisfactory manner in which he and his able precursor, in respect of treats of types and the double sense of the translation and application of these prophecy, we have to complain of some. passages, yet we are in general in capital omissions in this pamphlet; and strucied as well as gratified by their particularly of two. A course of Lecobservations.

iures on ihe interpretation of prophecy In the remaining Lectore (No. ought in reason to contain remarks on XXII.) an inquiry is made into the the prophetic style and figures, together foundation of secondary senses ascribed with an arrangement of the predictions to Hebrew prophecy. The difficulties of the Old and of the New Testament attending this notion, are justly and in distinct classes. We are willing

to believe that the Professor means to strongly represented. And the Lecturer is particularly succcesful in shew. deliver his sentiments on these matters ing that the alleged double sense of to the University and to the public

when he resumes his academical do.. • Mon. Repos. VI. 237.

ties; though, to say the truth, he has Horsley. See the last note. given no intimation of this design.

With a few exceptions, his present worthy of being more generally known. sct of Lectures are unworthy of his The Report gives an Account of the fame. His vigorous and inquisitive Proposal of a Tract Society at the mind, seems to be fettered, in it's ex- Annual Meeting of Protestant Disaminations, by spells which, in certain senting Ministers held at Leeds, in situations, it is almost impossible to re- June, 1815, of the subsequent Establishsist. Authe distance of somewhat more ment of the Society, and of its proceedthan half a century, theological scholars ings up to the date of the Report, and authors in this country, did not June 6, 1816. cherish a panic fear of deviating in the This West Riding Tract Society smallest degree from current systeins of consists of nine Auxiliary or Local divinity. Not so their successors in the Tract Societies, and appears to have chairs of our universities and in the associated in the first year of its existpulpits of the established church. A ence 37 Donors and 355 Annual Subfavourable opportunity of revising the scribers, producing in the aggregate the articles and liturgy, was suffered to be sum of £62. gs. 9d. The number Jost: and that church is doomed to of Tracts purchased by the Society be torn by internal controversies, to be amounts to 2,143; of which in about " a house divided against itself.” Her six months (the period that the Society ministers are fiercely disputing with has been fully formed) 1,243 have each other for the name of orthodory. been distributed through the Local

Such is the crisis at which Dr. Societies. The proportion of Donors Marsh has been elevated to the epis- and Suuscribers in the respective Local copal bench. He has merited his pre- Societies is as follows: ferment, and will adorn it, by his

Sub. learning, his talents and, we trust,

Donors scribers his moderation. Intimately conversant York,

7 - 40 with the whole circle of theological Leeds,

58 studies, he excels however in his know- Wakefield,

137 ledge of the principles and the history Halifax,

17 53 of Biblical Criticism : in this depart. Bradford, ment of literature he has deservedly Lidyaiė,

11 13 obtained the gratitude and applause of Newchurch (Rossendale) 16 the public, and has virtually brought Elland, bimself under an obligation to finish Chesterfield,

7 his Annotations on the Introduction, &c. I of Michaelis. Henceforth, we may pre

37 355 sume, he will have leisure for this employment. The Bishoprick of Landaff It appears that in each of these Conpresents no very extensive field of ser- gregational or Local Societies, a Com. vice: and to compleat his original plan miitec, Treasurer and Secretary are in of placing the celebrated work of the office; that to them is committed the Gottingen Professor within the reach local business, the choice of Tracts of the English scholar, will add new and collection of the Donations and lustre to the naine of Dr. Marsh ! Subscriptions. That once a quarter

(and on the same Lord's day evening Art. II.-The First Report of a Re- in all the Associated Congregations)

ligious Tract Society in the West viz. On the second Sunday in June, Riding of the County of York. To September, December and March, the which are added, "The Rules“A local business of the Auxiliary Son Catalogue of the Tracts A List of cieties is transacted, and in the followDonors and Subscribers And the ing week, a list of the Tracts wanted, Proceedings of the First General and the amount of the money colAnnnal Meeting, June 6th, 1816. lccted, are transmitted to the General Pp. 16. Halifax.

(or Central) Secretary and Treasurer. HIS comprehensive title is a table Thus in one week, once a quarter,

of contents to this interesting the whole commnication betwist the panıphlet; which though we are not depót and the consumers is transacted. aware of its having been published or The Subscriptions are limited to one having obtained more than a local cir- penny a week; Donations to any culation, appears to us to contain mat- amount are received; one collector for ter of such importance as to render it every ten subscribers is appointed, and




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