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statement of expenditure and income to who wished no one to enjoy liberty but be laid before thens. This parliament themselves. promises to be engaged in acts beneficial The Dey of Algiers is employed in to their country, tbough their tariti of repairing his broken walls, but be will be duties lately published shews thieen to be long before be provokes aguin a similar as blind as their neigiibours to the advan. chastisement. The event has bowerer tages of a free intercourse between na- produced a very extraordinary letter, if tions, which unfortunately in all of them the papers have not been deceived, and are crantped by tinancial considerations. palmed a fiction on tbe public, frem Lord

The King of Wirtemburg is still quar- Exmouth to his pretended Holiness the relling with his subjects, wbo seem reso. Pope. Little would our ancestors hare lutely employed in placing such checks on expected, that a peer of parliament should his authority, as are'uot suited to the old salute such a character with the title of system of the petty German Princes. It Holy Father, and much less to request bis is probable bowever, that the congress for prayers. 'Ibis is one of the symptoms of the whole empire may take up some of the decay of the ancient Protestant spirit, these questions, and prevent the petty and makes it njore incumbent upon as to sovereigns from being too despotic in tbeir set our children upon their guard against dominions. The movements of that con- the delusive influence of the tinies. gress will be very interesting, but it is not The Americas acconnts are favourable likely that it will engender any tbing like to the successes of the old Spaniards orer the Holy Roman Empire, which bas been their opponents in the countries bordering bappily for the country so completely de- on the Gulph of Mexico, but still the stroyed. The Prussians are still looking agitation remains and it will not easily be anxiously for their new coustitution. The quelled. The King of Spain bas published Emperor of Russia is said to bave pro- upon bis marriage a general pardon, but mised to abstain from any interference in with so many exceptions, that the patriots German politics. This monarch has made of that country are not likely to be benea tour through great part of his European fited by it. They are so much behind dominions, and has every where, particu- the rest of the world in knowledge and larly at Moscow, been received with tbe information, that it is in raiu to expect enthusiasın which his virtues excite. Po- there a specdy orerthrow to despotism, land under his dominion will be much priestcraft and the inqnisition. happier than with its former aristocrats, NEW PUBLICATIONS IN THEOLOGY

AND GENERAL LITERATURE.

Usefal Knowledge; or; A Familiar and A Plea for Primitive Communion, occaExplanatory Account of the Various Pro- sioned by the Rer. K. Hall's récent Pubductions of Nature, Mineral, Vegetable lication, by George Pritchard, of London. . and Animal, which are chiefly employed Is. 6d. for the Use of Mau. Illustrated with Fi- The Decision of a General Congress gures. By the Rev. William Bingley, convened to agree on " Ternis of ComA. M. 3 vols. 12mo. ll. ls.

munion," occasioned by the Rev. R. The Life of William Hutton, F. A.S.S. Hall's Pamphlet.' By Christmas Erans, including a Particular Account of the of Anglesey. 4d. Riots at Birmingham in 1791. To which Ivimey's History of the English Bapis suljoined the History of bis Family, tists. 2 Vols, sro, Il. 5s. boards. written by Himself and published by his A Candid Statement of the Reasons Daughter, Cath. Hutton. 8vo. portrait, 125. which induce the Baptists to differ in Bapiism.

Opinion and Practice froin so many of their (Sec pp. 308 and 436.)

Cūristian Brethren. By J. Nyland, D.D. An Answer to the Question, Wliy are 2s. 6d. you a Strict Baptist ? A Dialogue be- The System of the Baptists 'Exposed, tween Thonias and Johu. By William in a Letter to a friend. By one of their Button. 2s.6d,

own Minister's. 3d. CORRESPONDENCE. We are sorry that we are pot at liberty to report from Mr. Belshám any other answer to tlie inquiry of D.D. p. 471, than that the Commentary upon the Epistles of Paul, which is the subject of that inquiry, is not yet in a state of preparation for the press.

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Estimate of the Philosophical Churacter peculiar force to the stndy of the mind of Holles.*

itself; a study, where the chief source (From Dissertation I. by Dngald Stewart, of error is the inperfection of words;

prefixed to Supplement to Encyclopædia and where every improvement on this Britannica, Vol. I. p. 59–65.] THE rapid advancement of intel- justly regarded in the light of a dis

great instrument of though may be The capaculevation in England,

covery.+ between the years 1588 and 1610 (a In the foregoing list of illustrious period of almost uninterrupted peace), names, Mr. Fox has, with much prohas been remarked by Mr. Fox. priety, connected those of Bacon and “ The general improvement," he ob, Raleigh ; two men, who, notwithserves, " in all arts of civil life, and standing the diversity of their profesabove all, the astonishing progress of sioval pursuits, and the strong conliterature, are the niost striking among trastof ibeir characters, exhibit, neret the general features of that period; theless, in their capacity of authors, and are in themselves causes sufficient some striking features of resemblance. to produce effects of the utmost im. Both of them owed to the force of portance. A country whose language their own minds, their emancipation was enriched by the works of Hooker, from the fetters of the schools, both Raleigh, and Bacon, could not but

were eminently distinguished above experience a sensible change in its their contemporaries, hy the origimanners, and in its style of thinking ; nality and enlargenent in their philuand even to speak the same language sophical views ; and both divide, with in which Spencer and Shakespeare the venerable Hooker," the glory of had written, seemed a sufficient plea exemplifying to their yet impolished to rescue the Commons of England from the appellation of brutes, with which Henry the Eighth had addressed supposed to the object of this Discourse,

+ It is not so foreign as may at first ise them.”—The remark is equally jnst to take notice bere of the extraordinary and refined. It is by the mediation of demand for books on Agriculture under an improving language, that the pro- the goverument of Jane, T: The fact' is gress of the mind is chiefly continned thus very strongly stated by Dr. Johbsdp, from one generation 10 another; and in his Introduction to the Harleian Ms that the acquirements of the enlight- cellany...“. It deserves to be remarked, ened few are insensibly imparted to because it is not generally known, that she many. Whatever tends to dimi. the treatises on busbahdry and autietilnish the ambiguitics of speech, or to

ture, which were published during the fix, with inore logical precision, the reign of King James, are so 'nunerous, import of general terms ;-above all, that it can scarcely be imagined by whom whatever tends to enibody, in popular they were written, or'to aliom they were

” Nothing can illustrate forms of expression, the ideas and

strongly the effects of a pacific systein of feelings of the wise and good, ang policy, in encouraging a general taste for ments the natural powers of the hu- reating, as well as an actite 'spirit of man understanding, and enables the national improvement. At all times, and succeeding race to start from a higher in every country, the extensive sale of ground than was occupied by iheir books on agriculture, 'may be regarded as fathers. The remark applies with one of the most pleasing synıptoms of

mental cultivation in tb• great body of a • Born 1588, died 1679.

people. AM

more

VOL. XI.

countrymen, the richness, variety, and, or of Raleigh. It is with the philosograce, which might be lent to the phicul merits, however, of Hobbes, that English idiom, by the hand of a we are alone concerned at present ; master.

and, in this point of viewv, what a It is not improbable that Mr. Fox space is filled in the subsequent hismight have included the name of tory of our domestic literature, by his Hobbes in the same enumeration, had own works, and by those of his innuhe not been prevented by an aversion merable opponents! Little else, into his slavish principles of govern- deed, but the systems which he puhment, and by his general disrelish lished, and the controversies which for metaplıysical theories. As a wri- they provoked, occurs, during the inter, Hobbes unquestionably ranks terval between Bacon and Locke, to high among the older English classics ; mark the progress of English Philosoand is so peculiarly distinguished by phy, either in the study of the Mind, the simplicity and case of his manner or in the kindred researches of Ethical that one would naturally have ex. and Political Science. pected froin Mr. Fox's characteristical “ The philosopher of Malmesbury," iaste, that he would have relished his says Dr Marburton,“ was the terror of style still more than that of Bacont the last age, as Tindall and Collins are

of this. The prese sweat with contro* To prevent being misunderstood, it versy; and every young churchman is necessary for me to add, that I do not militant would try his arins in thunspeak of the general style of these old dering on Hobbes's steel cap."* Nor authors; but only of detached passages, was the opposition to Hobbes confined which may be selected from all of then, to the clerical order, or to the contra as earnests or first fruits of a new and versialists of his own times. The brighter era in English literature. It may most eminent moralists and politicians be safely affirmed, that in their works, of the eighteenth century may be rankand in the prose compositions of Milton, ed in the number of his antagonists, are to be found some of the finest sen- and even at the present moment, tences of which our Janguage has yet to scarcely does there appear a new pobliboast. To propose them now as models

cation on Ethics or Jurisprudence, for imitation, would be quite absurd. Dr. Lowth certainly went much too far where a refulation of Hobbism is not when he said, “That in correctness, pro

to be found. priety and purity of English style,

Theo period when Hobbes began his Hooker bath hardly been surpassed, or literary career, as well as the princieren equalled, by any of his successors." pal incidents of his life, were, in a Preface to Lowth's English Grammar. singular degree, favourable to a mind

† According to Dr. Burnet (no con- like his; impatient of the yoke of temptible judge of style), Bacon was “the authority, and ambitious to attract first that writ our language correctly." attention, if not by solid and useful The same learned prelate pronounces Ba- discoveries, at least by an ingenious con to be “ still our best author;" and defence of paradoxical tenets. After this, at a time, wben the works of Sprat, a residence of five years at Oxford, and many of the prose compositions of and a very extensive tour through Cowley and of Dryden, were already in France and Italy, he had the good the hands of the public. It is difficult to conceive on what grounds Burnet pro- The prose of Bacon, Harrington, and ceeded, in bazarding so extraordinary an

Milton, is altogether stiff and pedantic, opinion. See the Preface to Burnet's thougb their sense be excellent." Translation of More's l'lopia.

How insignificant are the petty gramIt is still more difficult, on the other matical improvements proposed by Swift, hand, to account for the following very when compared with the inexhaustible bold decision of Mr. Hume. I transcribe riches imparted to the English tongue by it from an Essay first published in 1742; the writers of the seventeenth century: but the same passage is to be fouod in the

and bow inferior, in all the higher qualilast edition of his works, corrected by ties and graces of style, are his prose himself. “ The first polite prose we bare, compositions, to those of bis immediate was writ by a man (Dr. Swift) who is predecessors, Dryden, Pope, and Addistill alive. As to Sprat, Locke, and eren

son ! Temple, they knew too little of the rules

# Divine Legation, Pref. to Vol. II. of art to be esteemed elegant writers.

p. 9.

Estimate of the Philosophical Character of Hobbes.

631 fortune, upon his return to England, The fundamental doctrines incul. to be admitted into the intimacy and cated in the political works of Hobbes, confidence of Lord Bacon ; a circum- ale contined in the following propostance which, we may presume, con

sitions. All men are by nature equal; tributed not a little to encourage that and, prior to government, they had bold spirit of inquiry, and that aversion all an equal right to enjoy the good to scholastic learning, which charac- things of this world. Man, too, is terize his writings. Happy, if he had, (according to Hobbes), by nature a at the same time, imbibed some por- solitary and purely seltish animal; the tion of that love of truth and zeal' for social union being entirely an intethe advancement of knowledge, which rested league, suggested by prudential seem to have been Bacon's ruling pag- views of personal advantage. The sions! But such was the obstinacy of necessary consequence is, that a state his temper, and his overweening self- of nature must be a state of perpetual conceit, that, instead of co-operating warfare, in which no individual has with B.icon in the execution of his any other means of safety than his magnificent design, he resolved to rear, own strength or ingenuity; and in ou a foundation exclusively his own, which there is no rooin for regular a complete structure both of moral industry, because no secure enjoyment and physical science; disdaining to of its fruits. In confirmation of this avail himself even of the materials view of the origin of society, Hobbes collected by his predecessors, and appeals to facts falling daily within treating the experimentarian philoso- the circle of our own experience. pbers as objects only of contempt and “ Does not a man (he asks) when ridicule!

taking a journey, arm himself and In the political writings of Hobbes, seek to go well accompanied ? When we may perceive the infuence also of going to sleep, does he not lock his other motives. From his earliest doors? Nay, even in his own house, years, he seems to have been decidedly does he not lock his chests? Does hostile to all the forms of popular he not there as much accuse mankind government; and it is said to have by his actions, as I do by my words ?"* been with the design of impressing An additional argument to the same his countrymen with a just sense of purpose may, according to some later the disorders incident to democratical Hobbists, be derived from the instinctestablishments, that he published, in ive aversion of infants for strangers ; 1618, an English translation of Thu- and from the apprehension which it cydides. In these opinions he was is alleged) every person feels, when more and more confirmed by the he hears the tread of an unknown foot events he afterwards witnessed in in the dark. England; the fatal consequences of For the sake of peace and security, which he early foresaw with so much it is necessary that each individual alarm, that, in 1640, he withdrew should surrender a part of his natural from the approaching storm, to enjoy right, and be contented with such a the society of his philosophical friends share of liberty as he is willing to at Paris. It was here he wrote his allow to others; or, to use Hobbes's book De Cive, a few copies of which own language, “ every man must diwere printed, and privately circulated vest himseļf of the right he has to all in 1642. The same work was after things by nature; the right of all men wards given to the public, with ma- to all things being in effect no better terial corrections and improvements, than if no man had a right to any in 1647, when the author's attach- thing." + In consequence of this ment to the royal cause being strength- transference of natural rights to an ened by his personal connexion with individual, or to a body of individuals, the exiled king, he thought it incum- the multitude become one person, bent on him to stand forth avowedly under the name of a State or Repubas an advocate for these principles lic, by which person the cominon which he had long professed. The will and power are exercised for the great object of this perforinance was to cominon defence The ruling power strengthen the hands of sovereigns against the rising spirit of democracy, * Of Man, Part I. chap. xiii. by arming them

with the weapons of + De Corpore Politicu, Part I, shap. a new pbilosopby.

i. g 10.

by erery

Vears

pushed

cannot be withdrawn from those to The ethical principles of Hobbes whom it has been committed ; nor are so completely interwoven with his can they be punished for misgovern- political system, that all which has meni. The interpretation of the laws been said of the one may be applied is to be sought, not from the com- to the other. It is very remarkable, ments of philosophers, but from the that Descartes should have thought so authority of the ruler ; otherwise 'highly of the former, as to pronounce society would every inoment be in Hoblies to be “ a much greater master danger of resolving itself into the dis- of morality than of metaphysics ;" a cordant elements of which it was at judgment which is of itself sufficient first composed. The will of the magis- to mark the very low state of ethical trate, therefore, is to be regarded as science in France about the middle of the ultimate standard of right and the seventeenth century: Mr. Addiwrong, and his voice to be listened to son, on the other hand, gives a de

citizeu as the voice of con- cided preference (among all the books science

written by Hobbes) to his Treatise on Not many afterwards, * Iluman Nature ; and to his opinion on Flohbés the argument for the this point I most implicitly subscribe ; absolute power of proces still further, including, however, in the same comvi a work to which he gave the name mendation, some of his other philoof Leviathan. Under this appellation sophical Essays on similar topics. he means the l'ody zvolitic; insinuating, They are the only part of his works that man is an unitameable beast of which it is possible now to read witin prey, and that goverment is the any interest; and they every where strong chun Ly which he is kept from evince in their author, even when he mischief. Tie fundamental princi- thinks most unsoundly himself, that ples here" maintained are the same power of setting his reader a thinking, as in the book" De Cive; but as it which is one of the most unequivocal inveighs more particularly against marks of original genius. They have ccclesiastical tyranny, with the view of plainly been studied with the utmost subjecting the consciences of men to care both by Locke and Hume. To the civil authority, it lost the author the former they have suggested some the favour of some powerful pro- of his most important observations on tectors he had hitherto enjoyed among the Association of Ideas, as well as the English divines who attended much of the sophistry displayed in the Charles II. in 'France; and he even first book of his Essay on the Origia found it convenient to quit that king of our Kyowledge, and on the facdöm, and to return to England, where titious nature of our moral principles ; Cromwell (to whose government his to the latter (among a rariety of hints political tenets were now as favourable of less consequence), his theory conas they were meant to be to the royal cerning the nature of those established claims) suffered him to remain unmo- connexions among physical events, lested. The same circumstances ope- which it is the business of the natural rated to his disadvantage after the philosopher to ascertain, t and the Restoration, and obliged the king, who always retained for him a very strong attachment, to confer his mark's + The same doctrine, concerning the of favour on him with the utmost proper object of natural philosophy (comreserve and circumspection.

monly ascribed to Mr. Hame, both by bis The details 'which I have entered followers and by his opponents, is to be

found in various writers contemporary into, with respect to the history of with Hobbes. It is stated with uncomHobbes's political writings, will be

mon precision and clearness, in a book found, by those who inay peruse entitled Scepsis Scientifica, or Confessed them, to throw much light on the ignorance the way to Science; by Joseph auihor's reasonings. Indeed, it is Glanvill (printed in 1665). The whole only by thus considering them in their work is strongly marked with the features connexion with the fortunes of the of science) a somewhat sceptical genius;

the circumstances of of an acute, an original, and (in matters the times, and writer, that a just notion can be and, when compared with the treatise on formed of their spirit and tendency.

1

witchcraft, by the same suthor, adds another proof to those already mentioned, of the possible union of the bigbest intel.

. In 1651.

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