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State of Public Affairs. him to instigate and carry on this prosecu- with recommendations to persons to fartion. No one can differ more widely in ther his interests. On bis arrival, howhis religious sentiments than the writer ever, he went to the Society for the Cou from both Mr. Peyton and Mr. Newstead;, version of the Jews, and tendered himself but God forbid that he sbould use against as disposed to abandon the religion 'in them any weapons but those of reason which he was educated. He was in consand persuasion. He did, hope that the sequence adopted a member of that Socitemper of the times had shamed tbem out ety, and received some assistance. Some ut Persecution and latolerance; and he is days afterwards, be called on him, and reluctant even now to give up the hope told him lie had something to inform trim that these monsters sleep never to wake of, which be thought of importance to igain.-Stausford News.

poor cws: be then described the enceu

ragement which the Society. were disposed Society for Converting the Jews. to give to any who were willing to become Four Dutch Jew merchants and two Christians,-to this be added the enomeother persons of the same persuasion in ration of the cames of several persons who this country, named Solomoos and Abra- tad pretended to become Christians, but hams, attended at the Mansion House at who were Jews at heart, and who bad got the instance of another Dutchinan, who ample sums from the Society; he for stated that he belonged to the Society for one, le said, had taken tbe same course, the Conversion of the Jews: he stated bis and although be hated the Christian reliDane to be Mecbiz, that he had bat re- gion, should make the most of the Society. cently arrived from Holland, and bad be- Understanding that it was the intention come a Christian, On his arrival, he had of some of his (Mr. Solomons') friends to introductions to several Jews, and among do something for this nim, he had fout it otbers Mr. Solomons, in the neiglibonr- his duty to inform then of the principles hood of Soho Square. This gentleman he had arowed; he accordingly wrote him took bim into a private room and lectured a letter, in consequence of which, wben hiin on the impiety of his embracing the the complainant maile bis appearance, he Christian faith, of which he (Mr. Solo- was turned out of the house. The Lord mous) spoke in the snost blasphemous Mayor said he had bimself contributed language. Some days afterwards, witness to the Society alluded to, and very much was invited to dine at a house in Dukie's feared his money bad produced very little place, with some Dutch Jews : be went good; he had reason to beliere that many there, but instead of a good dinner, was designing persons had imposed upon the assaulted by the persons present, and he Society merely for fraudulent purposes. at length escaped in the greatest terror of Whether the story now told was correct or his life. This conduct he attributed to not, he could not say; but at all events the fact of his having ceased to be a Jew. We could only recommend the injured In opposition to this statement, Mr. Solo- party to prefer an indictment against the mons represented, that the complainant persons by whom he stated bimself to bad been in great distress in Holland, have been so ill treated. that sereral of the Jewish merchants Public Ledger, August 19, 1816. clothed bin, and sent him to England,

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MONTHLY RETROSPECT of PUBLIC AFFAIRS;

OR, The Christian's Survey of the Political World. THE last month was distinguished hy any who before him filled the magisterial remarkable occurrence in the Metropolis, chair. The Common Hall, alive to his ruethe re-election of the Lord Mayor to the rits, displayed by the show of hands á very odice which he has for the last year sop- commanding majority in bis favour; yet. ported with so much honour to himself, the Alderman who was next in rotation and advantage to the city. Perhaps there thought it right to demand a poll, and never was an instance in which all parties thus gave the opportunity to the friends concurred so completely with respect to of his Lordship to come forward, and the character of the person who was thus prove by a very great majority bow Ligh highly bonoured; for though firm in his he stood in the estimation of his fellowpolitical principles, and those principles citizens. By the constitntion of the city, were in opposition to what had had the the members of the Conimon Hall present ascendancy for many years, yet in erery two candidates to the Conrt of Aldermea instance all parties had reason to be satis- to elect one, and in this case though the fied with him; and for zeal, activity and later did not fuel exactly like the Commna integrity he basis aot been surpassed by Wall, and the ideas of rotation might have

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an impression on their minds, yet his now thoroughly understood, and the adLordship was returned by them as the new vantages of adhering to it being very Lord Mayor elect, and was to the satis- much diminished, its zealons advocates faction of every one, who is gratified at are becoming less active, and so many the honours bestowed on real merit, and have suffered from its presalence, that no sensibile of the benefits of his administraó' new adherents are to be expected in the tion, invested with a second chain.

rising generation. Tbe idea of rotation, or that every Al- The above remarks on the pretensions of derman should in his turn be Lord Mayor, rotation may be applied to many other siis of weigbt with those who do not rightly milar cases, where people are inclined to consider the nature of election, and who give up the use of their reason, and to be are guided by precedent rather than rea- guided by mere precedent; to be slaves to son. If rotation is allowed, then what paper documents instead of listening to the need is there of a Common Hall to fix dictates of conimon sense'; being scrvants upon two candidates for the office? The of the letter, not of the spirit. This is two next to the chair might be presented no common case, but it is hoped that few of to the Aldermeu, and the first returned the readers of this survey are led away by without any form of meeting. But this such notions. They will examine for themwould be taking away from the freemen selves, and act upon higher principles, retheir right of choice; and as the Alder- flecting that, even in the votes they may be men - are not elected by the whole body, called upon to give, there is a duty which but each separately by his own ward, it they owe to tbenıselves and their country, would be giving to each ward the right of not to be frittered away by paltry consiappointment in succession, to the highest derations. otice of the city. If, therefore, a ward The account of several parts of the counfrom certain causes should elect an im- try has been melancboly from tumults, that proper person in the opinion of the other hare arisen from the depressed state of the wards, yet the right of setting him aside manufactures, particularly those of iroo. is destroyed by this pretended right of They have been quieted by the interference rotntion.

of the civil power, which prevents indeed Again, when a person has distinguished the injuries that misguided meo may do to himself by everything valuable in the themselves and their employers, but still character of a magistrate, as in the case of their situation is a call upon the benero: the present Lord Mayor, and the re-elec- lence of others, which happily in this coun. tion of him might be bighly advantageous try will not be denied. To add to this to the city by the completion of the plans distress a rery extraordinary wet season has which he bad formed in his first mayor- been highly injurious to the harvest, and alty, yet according to the strange notion the ports will soon be opened to our reliefg of rotativo, the city is to be deprired of which, from the Corn Bill, so injudiciously, the benefit of his services, because forsooth passed two years ago, have been sbut, the next person conceived that it was bis Thus, to add to our distresses, the bread next turn to fill the office, and he must be has been made dearer, and with all the supe forced upon the city, though perhaps the plies to be expected from abroad, it is not consequence would be the paralysing of likely that it should be lowered during the all the efforts of his predecessor. In fact approaching winter. It is our duty to subit is necessary to mention only these few "mit with resignation to this dispensation of circumstances to shew the absurdity of the Proridence; and every one liigb or low, notion of rotation, which may be a tole- must endeavour to alleviate as much as rably good rule not to be broken into, possible the calamity. except on such occasions as presented Meetings have been held in several parts theniselves at the last election.

of the country, to take into consideration But the re-election of the Lord Mayor those distresses, and in most of them resois of consequence in other respects, as it lutions have been passed. containing very manifests the declining influence of those severe animadversions on the state of the persons who bad for many years exercised House of Commons, and the representation a very great sway in the metropolis. The of the country. The facts, authorized in person next in rotation was a very decided the House of Commons itself, and no where advocate for the line of politics maintained contradicted, of the imperfection in the by that party, and erery nerre was strained representation, the corruption attending to promote his election. Yet with every the election of representatives, and the degree of exertion on the one side, and on places and pensions held by the members, the other every thing being left to the are particularly dwelt upon; and as the spontaneous movements of the electors, abuses are now universally known and felt, the rotation candidate could not obtain it is to be hoped that the remedy of them nearly half as many votes as bis Lordship. will no longer be delayed. . Tbc House of Indeed the principles of that party being Commons is indeed by no means wbat it is

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represented in theory. Three circumstan- reformers then promote virtuous edueaces have principally led to the change in tion and right principles, and then a the nature of that body.

House of Coninous, the free objects of The first is the innovation introduced in their choice, will be found capable of the reign of Henry the Eighth, of goveruing framing good laws for the public welfare. • by sessions of parliament, instead of par- France is exhibitiog to the world a speJiaments called for the business of the cimen of represeutatire government. AH nation, and dissolved as soon as that bu- the accounts, if they may be depended siness was performed. Before that time, upon, manifest how little sensible that two parliamenis have been beld in a year; nation is of the value of such a gorernafter the innovation was made, a lengthened ment, how incapable they are of acting op term was thought more convenient, and by to the principles of enlightened patriotthat very improper bill now called the sep- ism. If in our country there are men tennial act, parliaments are familiarly looked so desperately wicked as to use the name upon as for seven years daration, and the of government in the election of a member price of seats in the House is adjusted upon of parliament, still they have not tbe that principle.

audacity to commit their crimes in the The second circumstance is the allowance face of day. It is done privately and of placemen and pensioners to sit in the secretly. Their menaces or their bribes House : the consequence of which is, that are conveyed with a certain degree of in certain questions the roles of members decorum, a tacit confession, that they are may be determined by their situation, not traitors to their country, in abusivg their hy the propriety of the measure. This is an otices, and betraying even the government evil, intended to be guarded against by our they pretend to support. But in France ancestors; and now, when a member takes it is said, that the name of the king is a place under government, a new election publicly made use of, and persons are de must be made for his town, borough, coun- signated as being agreeable or disagreeable ty, but the placeman by sciog re-elected, to him, who onght not in any way whatever returns to his seat, and thus it is in the to interfere in the choice of the people. power of the proprietor of a vorough to The result of the elections is said to be frustrate the intentions of the bill, by favourable to the ministers ; that is the which placemen were excluded.

Ultra-royalists will not have the asceudThe third circumstance is, that many ancy in their new that they bad in the boroughs have through course of time last parliament. This will be a bappy greatly decayed, but the right of elrction thing for France, as tiat wretched counremaining in them, they become the pro- try may bave a chance for something like perty of a few individuals. Thus London goverument, if it has got rid of the ignois represented by four members, but cer- rant and prejudiced men, who would have tain individuals in the country have twice restored all the iniquity of bigotry, by that number placed in the House by their which the Bourbou administration, parinfluence, and expected to rote according ticularly under the reign of Louis XIV. to the inclination of their principal. had been distinguished. One circum

Wbilst these abuses prevail it is in- stance is favourable to their country: proper to say that the Commons in En- these Ultra-royalists, who were the first gland are represented in parliament, or to destroy the liberty of the press, pow. that tbe original institution is pre- feel the eifects of their own base measures, serred; and it is not to be wondered at, and begin to find out the benefits of its that in the legal and constitutional meet- freedom. The police too, whose arbitrary ings of the country such abuses are in- sway they admired, whilst they thenreighed against. But though every friend selses governed its secret springs, bas of his country would gladly see these been a great curb to them ; and, in fact abuses destroyed, yet we must not be so tbey are compelled now to acknowledge, sanguine in our expectations as to expect that something niust be done for the pubthat the reform of parliament would bclic as well as themselves. The debates the panacea for all our evils. Indeed had therefore of the new legislative body will the people been fairly repres-nted in the be interesting. House of Commons, no such measure as The King of Holland has opened his the late very injurious bill tile Corn Bill parliament at Brussels by a speech from could bave passed, a measure as injurious the throne, in which he laments the into the land owners interest, which it was crease in the price of provisions from the intended to protect, as it bas been burtful unfarourable weather that has prevailed to the manufacturing and commercial in on the Continent ; speaks of measures to : terests, which it has nearly ruined. But be introduced favouring industry, com- ; still if the government of a country de- merce and works of public utility, of some pends more on the people, the more statement of expenditure and income, of requisite it is, that that people should be changes of territory with Prussia, of the well instructed and virtuous. Let the formation of a militia and a completo

statement of expenditure and income to who wished no one to enjoy liberty but be laid before thens. This parliament themselves. promises to be engaged in acts beneficial The Dey of Algiers is employed in to their country, tbough their tariti of repairing his broken walls, but be will be duties lately published shews thieen to be long before be provokes aguin a similar as blind as their neigiibours to the advan. chastisement. The event has bowerer tages of a free intercourse between na- produced a very extraordinary letter, if tions, which unfortunately in all of them the papers have not been deceived, and are crantped by tinancial considerations. palmed a fiction on tbe public, frem Lord

The King of Wirtemburg is still quar- Exmouth to his pretended Holiness the relling with his subjects, wbo seem reso. Pope. Little would our ancestors hare lutely employed in placing such checks on expected, that a peer of parliament should his authority, as are'uot suited to the old salute such a character with the title of system of the petty German Princes. It Holy Father, and much less to request bis is probable bowever, that the congress for prayers. 'Ibis is one of the symptoms of the whole empire may take up some of the decay of the ancient Protestant spirit, these questions, and prevent the petty and makes it njore incumbent upon as to sovereigns from being too despotic in tbeir set our children upon their guard against dominions. The movements of that con- the delusive influence of the tinies. gress will be very interesting, but it is not The Americas acconnts are favourable likely that it will engender any tbing like to the successes of the old Spaniards orer the Holy Roman Empire, which bas been their opponents in the countries bordering bappily for the country so completely de- on the Gulph of Mexico, but still the stroyed. The Prussians are still looking agitation remains and it will not easily be anxiously for their new coustitution. The quelled. The King of Spain bas published Emperor of Russia is said to bave pro- upon bis marriage a general pardon, but mised to abstain from any interference in with so many exceptions, that the patriots German politics. This monarch has made of that country are not likely to be benea tour through great part of his European fited by it. They are so much behind dominions, and has every where, particu- the rest of the world in knowledge and larly at Moscow, been received with tbe information, that it is in raiu to expect enthusiasın which his virtues excite. Po- there a specdy orerthrow to despotism, land under his dominion will be much priestcraft and the inqnisition. happier than with its former aristocrats, NEW PUBLICATIONS IN THEOLOGY

AND GENERAL LITERATURE.

Usefal Knowledge; or; A Familiar and A Plea for Primitive Communion, occaExplanatory Account of the Various Pro- sioned by the Rer. K. Hall's récent Pubductions of Nature, Mineral, Vegetable lication, by George Pritchard, of London. . and Animal, which are chiefly employed Is. 6d. for the Use of Mau. Illustrated with Fi- The Decision of a General Congress gures. By the Rev. William Bingley, convened to agree on " Ternis of ComA. M. 3 vols. 12mo. ll. ls.

munion," occasioned by the Rev. R. The Life of William Hutton, F. A.S.S. Hall's Pamphlet.' By Christmas Erans, including a Particular Account of the of Anglesey. 4d. Riots at Birmingham in 1791. To which Ivimey's History of the English Bapis suljoined the History of bis Family, tists. 2 Vols, sro, Il. 5s. boards. written by Himself and published by his A Candid Statement of the Reasons Daughter, Cath. Hutton. 8vo. portrait, 125. which induce the Baptists to differ in Bapiism.

Opinion and Practice froin so many of their (Sec pp. 308 and 436.)

Cūristian Brethren. By J. Nyland, D.D. An Answer to the Question, Wliy are 2s. 6d. you a Strict Baptist ? A Dialogue be- The System of the Baptists 'Exposed, tween Thonias and Johu. By William in a Letter to a friend. By one of their Button. 2s.6d,

own Minister's. 3d. CORRESPONDENCE. We are sorry that we are pot at liberty to report from Mr. Belshám any other answer to tlie inquiry of D.D. p. 471, than that the Commentary upon the Epistles of Paul, which is the subject of that inquiry, is not yet in a state of preparation for the press.

ERRATA.
XI. p. 479. col. 2, four lines from the bottoni, dele the comma after " party."

-480. col. 2. line twelve from the top, place an inverted comwa after Scriptures.

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Estimate of the Philosophical Churacter peculiar force to the stndy of the mind of Holles.

itself; a study, where the chief source [From Dissertation I. by Dugald Stewart, of error is the imperfection of words;

prefixed to Supplement to Encyclopædia and where every improvement on this Britannica, Vol. I. p. 59–65.]

grcat instrument of thought may be THE THE rapid advancement of intel- justly regarded in the light of a dis

lectual cultivation in Englaud, cosery.t between the years 1588 and 10+0 (a In the foregoing list of illustrious period of almost uninterrupted peace), names, Mr. Fox has, with much prohas been remarked by Mr; Fox. priety, connected those of Bacon and “ The general improvement;" he ob- Raleigh; two men, who; notwithserves, " in all arts of civil life, and standing the diversity of their profes. above all, the astonishing progress of sional pursuits, and the strong con. literature, are the niost striking among trast of their characters, cxhibit, nerer the general features of that period; theless, in their capacity of authors, and are in themselves causes sufficient

some striking features of resemblance. to produce effects of the utmost im

Both of them owed to the force of portance. A country whose language their own minds, their emancipation was enriched by the works of Hooker, from the fetters of the schools ; both Raleigh, and Bacon, could not but

were eminently distinguished above experience a sensible change in its their contemporarics, hv the origimanners, and in its style of ihinking; nality and enlargement of their phile and even to speak the same language sophical views ; and both divide with in which Spencer and Shakespeare the venerable Hooker," the glory of had written, seemed a sufficient plea exemplifying to their jet sunpolished to rescue the Commons of England from the appellation of brutes, with

+ It is not so foreign as may at first ite which Henry the Eighth had addressed supposed to the object of this Discourse, them.”—The remark is equally jnst to take notice here of the extraordinary and refined. It is by the mediation of demand for books on Agriculture under an improving language, that the pro- the government of Jannes 1: Tlte fact' is gress of the mind is chiefly continned thus very strongly stated by Dr. Jolinsop, from one generation 10 another; and in his Introduction to the Harteian Mis that the acquirements of the enlight- cellany. “ It deserves to Be remarked, ened few are insensibly imparted to because it is not generally knowin, that the many. Whatever tends to dimi- the treatises on busbandry and agriculnish the ambiguitics of speech, or to ture, which were published during this fix, with more logical precision, the reign of King James, are so 'nusilerous, import of general terms ;-above all, that it can scarcely be imagined by whom whatever tends to embody, in popular they were written, or'to alion they were

sold.” Nothing can illustråte forms of expression, the ideas and

strongly the effects of a pacific system of feelings of the wise and good, aug. policy, 'in encouraging a general taste for ments the natural powers of the hu- reading, as well as an actite 'spirit of man understanding, and enables the national improvement. At all times, and succeeding race to start from a higher in every country, the extensive sale of ground than was occupied by iheir books on agriculture, may be regarded as fathers. The remark applies with one of the most pleasing synıptoms of

mental cultivation in the great body brin * Born 1589, died 1679.

people.

more

.

VOL. XI.

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