Imatges de pÓgina

Remarkable Providence in the Life of Crellius.


substance of his argument against the A remarkable Example of God's Provi scholastic doctrine of general concep- dence, visible during a Journey of tions. It is from the works of Hobbes, Christopher Crellius. Copied ( Amstertoo, that our later Necessitarians have dam, 1774,) from MS. Papers of borrowed the most formidable of those Samuel Crellius, und now Translated weapons with which they have com- from a Dutch Copy. The Original bated the doctrine of moral liberty ; Letler was written in Latin. and from the same source has been (Communicated to the Editor by Mr. Vanderived the leading idea which runs der Kemp, of the United States of through the philological materialism America.) of Mr. Horne Tooke. It is probable, Samuel ČRELLIUS wishes happiness indeed, that this last author borrowed

to H. V.0. it, at second hand, from a hint in I WILL, tote gratify your desire, stated by Hobbes, in the most explicit remarkable event, which you

listened and confident terms. Of this idea, to with pleasure. When my father, * (than which, in point of fact, nothing Christopher Crellius, with other Unis can be imagined more puerile and tarians was driven from Poland in the unsound,) Mr. Tooke's etymologies, year 1666, he became acquainted in when he applies thein to the solution London with a pious woman, who of metaphysical questions, are little was instructed by John Biddle and more than an ingenious expansion, was called Stuckey, the mother of adapted and levelled to the Nathaniel Stuckey, a youth of bright

comprehension of the multitude.

hope, and mentioned by Sandius, in The speculations of Hobbes, how- bis Biblioth. Antitrin. page 172, but ever, concerning the theory of the who, very, prematurely, and if I ain understanding, do not seem to have not mistaken, died in the sixteenth been nearly so much attended to die year of his age. This woman spoke ring his own life, as some of his other to my father in this manner—“ You, doctrines, which, having a

nore my dear Crellius ! wander now as an immediate reference to human affairs, exile, in poverty—a widower-burwere better adapted to the unsettled thened with four children ; give me and revolutionary spirit of the times

. two of these, a son and a daughter, in It is by these doctrines, chiefly, that England, and I will take care of their his name has since become so mcmo education.” My father thanked her rable in the annals of modern litera- cordially, and promised to consider it: Inre; and although they now derive when returned to Silesia he consulted their whole interest from the extra- his friends on the subject, and departordinary combination they exhibit of ed with his eldest son and daughter in acuteness and subtlety with a dead the year 1605 from Breslau, through palsy in the powers of taste and of Poland, towards Dantzic, to embark moral sensibility, yet they will be from there to Holland, and so to Engfound, on an attentive examination, land. This voyage to Dantzic my fåto have had a far more extensive influ-ther undertook with his own waggon ence on the subsequent history both and horses. His driver was the pious of political and of ethical science, Paul Sagosky, from whom I heard an than any other publication of the same

account of the event in Brandenburg, period.

Prussia, in the year 1704, when he

was far advanced in age. lectual gifts with the most degrading

It was afternoon, the sun declining intellectual weaknesses.

to the west, when my father, only With respect to the Scepsis Scientifica, twelve Polish miles from Dantzic it deserves to be noticed, that the doc- reached a tavern, in whieh he resolved trine maintained in it concerning physical to tarry that night, because he saw causes and effects does not occur in the before him a large wood, which he form of a detached observation, of the could not pass through by day light, value of which the author might not have and he deemed it unadvisable to enter been fully aware, but is the very basis it towards night, uncertain if he of the general argument running through should find another house, and, moreall bis discussions.

over, was not well acquainted with the road. They stopped then at the



taver, and brought the waggon into a young children in jeopardy ; return large stable, and fastened the horses rather with me to my tavern, there. to the manger. The landlady, her you may refresh yourself and your husband being from home, received horses, spend the night comfortably, them with civility. She gave orders to and continue your journey early in the take the baggage from the waggon and morning. My father answered, that bring it into the inner room, where he was obliged to proceed on his she invited my father with the chil- journey, however unpleasant it was. dren to the table. Meanwhile the The landlord urged his entreaties with driver, when he had sed the horses, greater importunity, and approaching explored the spacious stable, not for my father's waggon, and taking hold getting to scrutinize with careful of it, he renewed to dissuade à furanxiety every corner, because the ther process with a lowered brow and taverns in Poland, at such a distance a grim countenance, and insisted that froin cities and villages as this was, they should, and must return; on are seldom a safe refuge for travellers, which my father ordered the driver and there is always apprehension of to lay his whip. over the horses, to robbers a:od murderers. In this search disengage himself from this dangerous he discovered in one corner of the man, in which he succeeded. stable a large heap of straw, of which They then proceeded on. My father, he moved a part with a stick, when sitting in the waggon, sent up his he perceived that this straw covered prayers in an audible voice to his God, a large hole which emitted an offen- as was his usual custom on his trasive sinell, while the straw was vels, and recommended himself and tainted with blood. On this he di- those dear to him in this perilous rectly returned to the inner room, situation to his providential care, in mentioned to my father in secret which devotion he was accompawhat he had seen, and saying that nied by the driver and his two he doubted not that the landlord was children. Meanwhile the sun was a robber and morderer. My father set, an increasing darkness prevailed, left the room directly, and, having they lost the road, entered a deep yerified the fact, ordered directly to swamp, in which soon the waggon bring the baggage again on the wag- stuck, the horses being too fatigued gon, and harness the horses.

to draw it out again. My father and When the landlady observed these the driver jumped from the waggon in preparations, she shewed her surprise, the mud, strengthened every nerve, and dissuaded my father to proceed and animated the horses with words, on his journey through such a large and the whip, but all in vain; the wood in a cold night, with two young waggon could not be stirred one single children, and engaged that she would inch. My father became apprehenendeavour to render his stay as com- sive that he must pass the night in fortable as it was in her power ; but that dreary spot, and that he or his he replied, that something very inte- driver should be compelled to leave testing had struck his mind, which the wood next morning, and search rendered it impossible for him to re- for assistance in the nearest village, main there, and compelled him to without even a prospect of success ; proceed on. He thanked her for her meanwhile nothing was left him but civilities, went with his children into silent ejaculations to his God. the waggon, and departed.

After having covered his children as When they were arrived in the well as he could, and secured them wood, they met the landlord driving against a rigorous cold night, he home a load of wood, who accosted walked to a little distance from his my father, “Sir,” said he, “I beg waggon, and employed himself in of you, what moves you to enter this sending up his prayers to his God, wood, so large and extensive, and when he saw a man of small stacut in two or three cross roads, in ture, in a grey or wbitish coat, with the fall of the evening, at the approach a stick in his hand, approaching him. of night; ! doubt not, that you will After mutual salutations, this man lose the right road, and remain in asked nry father what he did there, the wood during night: you endanger and why he travelled in the night, and your health and place that of these especially through such a wood ? My


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Reinarhalle Providence in the Life of Crellius.
father explained then to hin the whole, they came so late, and why they pro-
and begged him 10 assist him and his ceeded on their journey afier midnight,
driver, 10 try once more if with his as- not far from daybreak? My father de-
sistance they might draw the waygon veloped the reason in few words, and
and horses from the mire of that was then amicibly received. When at
swamp, and bring them into the right table my father gave him a more cir-
road. " I will try, said he, if I can cumstantial account, and asked him if
effect something; upon which he ap. he ever had seen or known such a man,
proached the wastain, and placed his as he who conducted him to the right
stick under the fore wheels, and ap- road in the wood, and of whose counte:
peared to lift these a little; the same nance and clothes he gave him a de-
he did to the back wheels, and then scription : he answered, that he knew
put his hand to the waggon, to draw it not such a man, but that he knew very
with my father and the driver, out of well that the tavern at the other side of
the mire. He called at the same in the wood was no safe place for travel-
stant to the horses, who, without any lers. After awhile, he looked acciden-
appearing difficulty, lefi the swamp and tally to one of the corners of the room,
'drew the waggon upon solid ground. not far from the table, where he saw
After this the stranger conducted them some books on a bencli. Taking onc
into the right road, from which they of these and looking into it, he saw it
had wandered, and told them to keep was a bookof a Polish Unitarian. This
now that road, and neither deviate from curiosity alarmed the master of the
it to the right or left, and when, said house; but as soon as my father

he, thou shalt arrive at the end of this ceived this, he said to him, keep good
wood, you will discover at some dis- courage, friend! I shall not bring you
tance a light in one of the nearest into any difficulty for that book, nei-
houses of the village, which you must ther inform against you for heresy; and
pass. In that house lives a pious man, to give you niore confidence in this as-
who, although it is so late, will receive surance, I must tell you that I too am
you civilly and give you lodgings for an Unitarian. Then he told him his
the night. My faiher cordially ihanked name, which by fame was known to
this man for his assistance and instruc- his landlord, who now full of joy was
tion, and, while he had turned his face delighted to roceive such a guest in his
from him to put his hand in his pocket house. My father ailored the ways of
and offer him some money, he had dis- God's Providence, in bringing him to
appeared. My father looking towards this place. This man was a linen-wea-
him again saw noboly; he looked all ver, who, when the Unitarians were
around him, and even searched awhile banished from Poland, remained here
for him, but could not find him again: for several years hidden through the
then he called with a loud voice, where favour of a nobleman, the lord of his
art thou, my friend! return, I pray you, village, and liberal-ıninded in religion.
towards me, I have yet something to He would not permit my father to start
say to you; but he received no answer, next day, but persuaded him to tarry
neither saw his deliverer again. Sur- with him a few days more, and treated
prised and astonished, he waited yet a my father, with his children and the
long while, ascended his waggo:)

, and driver and horses, very hospitably.
thanked God for this favour. They ar- There are more examples of a parti-
rived in safety through the wood, and cular providence in regard to the Polish
saw the light in that house, of which Unitarians, of which I lately told you
the stranger had spoken. My father soine; and it would be a desirable
knocked softly at the window, upon thing, if all these had been directly
which the master of the house opened recorded by those who could bear
it, and looked out to see who there was. witness to them. Farewell.
My father asked if he could give him Amsterdam, Aug. 1730.
lodgings? He replied by asking how

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Some Observations on the Scrmons of not already anticipated! But as I have

Missionaries. Translated from the for a long iine remarked certain incon. Spanish of P. Feyjoo, a Monk and veniences which result from the dis Pul·lic Writer to the King of Spain, courses of particular preachers, owing in the last Century.

to the vehemence of their zeal to cor [Translated and Communicated by a Lady, and learned men, I shall offer two re

rect rice, though otherwise discreet S. E. D.] FRIEND AND SIR,

Aections to vour consideration on those

inconveniences and their cause. I RECENTE ember, which I perfused sections of missionaries, it frequentig with singular pleasure, as in it you ex- happens that the preacher becomes press an inclination to employ that heated by exaggerating the mischief portion of your time usefully, which occasioned by soine dne particular rice being exempted from the duties of your to the souls of his auditors: I repeai, profession is at your own disposal, and it is very common to magnify much cannot be better employed than by beyond its real extent the prevalence continuing the sacred ministry of of this vice amongst the inhabitants of preaching in the neighbouring towns the town where he preaches. This is in the manner of a missionary. On highly reprehensible, and, far from conthis subject you tell me you not only ducing to reformation, tends to increase hope for my approbation, but likewise the general corruption. I will explain that I would impart any particular ob- my position. The diseases of the soul servations which may occur to me on are not less contagious than those of this topic, to render the employment the body; they are even more so. It more beneficial.

is only some particular species of bodily To this I answer, that in regard to sicknesses that are infectious, but every my approbation there can be no doubt, malady of the soul (all moral rices) when the thing proposed is such as may be communicated. Two circumdemands from the inost indifferent not stances must concur to render a dis. merely acquiescence birt applause. I temper contagions, a transmission of assure you if I had been endowed with the breath of the sick person and a necessary talents for preaching, when previons disposition to the disorder in the king granted me an exemption ihe receiver. When an epidemic difrom the service of the cathedral, 1 sease rages in any town, all the inhashould in some measure have devoted bitarits are not affected, either because myself to this ministry, alternately with the morbid exhalations from the sufthat of public writer, an occupation in ferers do not extend to all those in which I was already engaged; and in health, or because there is not a dispo all probability ny health would have sition in every constitution to imbibe been benefited by some bodily exercise that kind of contagion. Now for the being mixed with the inevitably se- application of this theory. The madentary employment of writing: how- ladies of the soul transfuse or commuever I wanted the two indispensable nicate their malignant influence by qualifications for missionary labours, being known: while they are convirtue and strength of Jungs, or, in cealed they only injure the heart that other words, neither soul nor body al- engenders them, but when they are loved my undertaking the office of a published, their noxious vapours form preacher. With respect to virtuo even an atinosphere more or less extended in an exemplary degree, I know I according to the degrec of publicity, might have acquired it, my free will sometimes reaching to a large towa, co-operating with the aid of divine sonietiines to a whole province; and grace; but weakness of chest was in- within this sphere their baleful incurable, being constitutional, and a Auence is felt' by every individual in defect I have suffered from even in my the least disposed to inhale the poison :

in short, on all whose ruling passion As to the observations you desire me inclines them to the vice thus pubto make, what can I say that you have lished.

earliest years.

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Some Olservations on the Sermons of Missionaries.

637 But to explain the thing in simple There exists another abuse very and natural terms, throwing aside me- nearly allied to the former, which, .taphors and allusions, I will make the by being inore common, is, perhaps, moral mechanism (if I may be allowed still more pernicious:-many preachers the expression) of what passes in this in sermons they call inoral (and all matter appear clearly.

ought to be of this description), freMen reciprocally inspire each other quently introduce invectives against with decency: those especially who are the sex, insisting on the fragility of eminently modest, possess great in- women, not reflecting that this enfluence over others. The man who courages vicious men in their criminal lives in the society of persons whom enterprises. To exaggerate the weakhe believes to be virtuous, is checked ness of one party is to strengthen the by this consideration, and restrained audacity of the other, and augments from indulging any passion that may the evil on both sides; since while the lead him to the cominission of a par- confidence of men is increased, women ticular fault; because he is aware his are furnished with an excuse for their shanie would be in proportion to the failings. Would it not be more adscarcity of bad examples to keep him viseable to reprove the aggressors, than in countenance. ' Lei us suppose the inveigh against their victims? I have case that by some means this man dis- written elsewhere what I repeat here, covers the persons whom he thought That whoever would render all women, virtuous are in reality vicious characters, or nearly all women chaste, must begin by that they have yielded to the tempta- reformning all men. tions which assault him, what will be The second remark I have to offer the consequence? He will more easily on missionary sermons, is, that they give way to his irregular propensities, call on men to repent through dread not only through the direct incentive of the Divine justice, but rarely or very of bad example, but also by the removal slightly excite them to love God on acof the restraint which ihe supposed count of his infinite goodness. I allow virtue of hisсompanions and neighbours that God is not only supremely benehad hitherto imposed on his mind. volent and merciful, but likewise rigo From hence it is plain how much rously terrible and just, but with this harm may be produced by proclaiming difference, he is good from the excelthe prevalence of any particular vice in lence of his nature, he is terrible on a town or district. However, may not account of our wickedness. I likewise this abuse of the pulpit be a mere ima- allow that the fear of God is holy; I gination of my own, raised for the sake allow there are circumstances in which of combating it? Would to God it it is proper to give particular weight to existed only in my fancy! I have re- motives derived from terror; I allow ceived but too certain information of God ought to be feared as well as its reality, and sometimes I have wit- loved: there is no doubt in all this; nessed it myself. I once heard a but the question is, whether fear or preacher of no small eininence declaim love is the strongest incentive to obein his discourse against a particular dience, and which of the two is most vice, which although frequently very agreeable to our Creator. On this mischievous, was not more prevalent point I shall call in the great authority in the town where he preached, than of St. Bernard to decide. “God, in any other place of equal size:--how- says he, Sermon 83, “ exacts from his ever, his mind ivdamed with zeal re- rational creature, that it should fear presented the evil of such magnitude, him as a master, honour him as a fathat he exclaimed all the inhabitants ther, and love him as a husband. Now were guilty without exception, raising which of these three species of tribute his voice to its utmost pitch, and re- is most pleasing to him? which most peating all, all, that he might leave no suitable, which most worthy? Without doubt of the universality of the incul- doubt it must be that of love." He purpation. Was not the effect on his sues this subject through the whole discongregation such as I have stated, course, extolling in the most beautiful answerable to the enthusiasm of the language the great superiority of love orator? In general, whatever multi- over fear, both as to its pleasing God plies delinquents in opinion, in reality and being useful to ourselves. pultiplies crimes.

The divine St. Francis de Sales goes VOL. X

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