Imatges de pÓgina


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Reinarhalle Providence in the Life of Crellius.
father explained then to hin the whole, they came so late, and why they pro-
and begged him 10 assist him and his ceeded on their journey afier midnight,
driver, 10 try once more if with his as- not far from daybreak? My father de-
sistance they might draw the waygon veloped the reason in few words, and
and horses from the mire of that was then amicibly received. When at
swamp, and bring them into the right table my father gave him a more cir-
road. " I will try, said he, if I can cumstantial account, and asked him if
effect something; upon which he ap. he ever had seen or known such a man,
proached the wastain, and placed his as he who conducted him to the right
stick under the fore wheels, and ap- road in the wood, and of whose counte:
peared to lift these a little; the same nance and clothes he gave him a de-
he did to the back wheels, and then scription : he answered, that he knew
put his hand to the waggon, to draw it not such a man, but that he knew very
with my father and the driver, out of well that the tavern at the other side of
the mire. He called at the same in the wood was no safe place for travel-
stant to the horses, who, without any lers. After awhile, he looked acciden-
appearing difficulty, lefi the swamp and tally to one of the corners of the room,
'drew the waggon upon solid ground. not far from the table, where he saw
After this the stranger conducted them some books on a bencli. Taking onc
into the right road, from which they of these and looking into it, he saw it
had wandered, and told them to keep was a bookof a Polish Unitarian. This
now that road, and neither deviate from curiosity alarmed the master of the
it to the right or left, and when, said house; but as soon as my father

he, thou shalt arrive at the end of this ceived this, he said to him, keep good
wood, you will discover at some dis- courage, friend! I shall not bring you
tance a light in one of the nearest into any difficulty for that book, nei-
houses of the village, which you must ther inform against you for heresy; and
pass. In that house lives a pious man, to give you niore confidence in this as-
who, although it is so late, will receive surance, I must tell you that I too am
you civilly and give you lodgings for an Unitarian. Then he told him his
the night. My faiher cordially ihanked name, which by fame was known to
this man for his assistance and instruc- his landlord, who now full of joy was
tion, and, while he had turned his face delighted to roceive such a guest in his
from him to put his hand in his pocket house. My father ailored the ways of
and offer him some money, he had dis- God's Providence, in bringing him to
appeared. My father looking towards this place. This man was a linen-wea-
him again saw noboly; he looked all ver, who, when the Unitarians were
around him, and even searched awhile banished from Poland, remained here
for him, but could not find him again: for several years hidden through the
then he called with a loud voice, where favour of a nobleman, the lord of his
art thou, my friend! return, I pray you, village, and liberal-ıninded in religion.
towards me, I have yet something to He would not permit my father to start
say to you; but he received no answer, next day, but persuaded him to tarry
neither saw his deliverer again. Sur- with him a few days more, and treated
prised and astonished, he waited yet a my father, with his children and the
long while, ascended his waggo:)

, and driver and horses, very hospitably.
thanked God for this favour. They ar- There are more examples of a parti-
rived in safety through the wood, and cular providence in regard to the Polish
saw the light in that house, of which Unitarians, of which I lately told you
the stranger had spoken. My father soine; and it would be a desirable
knocked softly at the window, upon thing, if all these had been directly
which the master of the house opened recorded by those who could bear
it, and looked out to see who there was. witness to them. Farewell.
My father asked if he could give him Amsterdam, Aug. 1730.
lodgings? He replied by asking how

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Some Observations on the Scrmons of not already anticipated! But as I have

Missionaries. Translated from the for a long iine remarked certain incon. Spanish of P. Feyjoo, a Monk and veniences which result from the dis Pul·lic Writer to the King of Spain, courses of particular preachers, owing in the last Century.

to the vehemence of their zeal to cor [Translated and Communicated by a Lady, and learned men, I shall offer two re

rect rice, though otherwise discreet S. E. D.] FRIEND AND SIR,

Aections to vour consideration on those

inconveniences and their cause. I RECENTE ember, which I perfused sections of missionaries, it frequentig with singular pleasure, as in it you ex- happens that the preacher becomes press an inclination to employ that heated by exaggerating the mischief portion of your time usefully, which occasioned by soine dne particular rice being exempted from the duties of your to the souls of his auditors: I repeai, profession is at your own disposal, and it is very common to magnify much cannot be better employed than by beyond its real extent the prevalence continuing the sacred ministry of of this vice amongst the inhabitants of preaching in the neighbouring towns the town where he preaches. This is in the manner of a missionary. On highly reprehensible, and, far from conthis subject you tell me you not only ducing to reformation, tends to increase hope for my approbation, but likewise the general corruption. I will explain that I would impart any particular ob- my position. The diseases of the soul servations which may occur to me on are not less contagious than those of this topic, to render the employment the body; they are even more so. It more beneficial.

is only some particular species of bodily To this I answer, that in regard to sicknesses that are infectious, but every my approbation there can be no doubt, malady of the soul (all moral rices) when the thing proposed is such as may be communicated. Two circumdemands from the inost indifferent not stances must concur to render a dis. merely acquiescence birt applause. I temper contagions, a transmission of assure you if I had been endowed with the breath of the sick person and a necessary talents for preaching, when previons disposition to the disorder in the king granted me an exemption ihe receiver. When an epidemic difrom the service of the cathedral, 1 sease rages in any town, all the inhashould in some measure have devoted bitarits are not affected, either because myself to this ministry, alternately with the morbid exhalations from the sufthat of public writer, an occupation in ferers do not extend to all those in which I was already engaged; and in health, or because there is not a dispo all probability ny health would have sition in every constitution to imbibe been benefited by some bodily exercise that kind of contagion. Now for the being mixed with the inevitably se- application of this theory. The madentary employment of writing: how- ladies of the soul transfuse or commuever I wanted the two indispensable nicate their malignant influence by qualifications for missionary labours, being known: while they are convirtue and strength of Jungs, or, in cealed they only injure the heart that other words, neither soul nor body al- engenders them, but when they are loved my undertaking the office of a published, their noxious vapours form preacher. With respect to virtuo even an atinosphere more or less extended in an exemplary degree, I know I according to the degrec of publicity, might have acquired it, my free will sometimes reaching to a large towa, co-operating with the aid of divine sonietiines to a whole province; and grace; but weakness of chest was in- within this sphere their baleful incurable, being constitutional, and a Auence is felt' by every individual in defect I have suffered from even in my the least disposed to inhale the poison :

in short, on all whose ruling passion As to the observations you desire me inclines them to the vice thus pubto make, what can I say that you have lished.

earliest years.


Some Olservations on the Sermons of Missionaries.

63 But to explain the thing in simple There exists another abuse very And natural terms, throwing aside me- nearly allied to the former, which, .taphors and allusions, I will make the by being inore common, is, perhaps, moral mechanism (if I may be allowed still more pernicious:many preachers the expression) of what passes in this in sermons they call moral" (and all matter appear clearly.

ought to be of this description), freMen reciprocally inspire each other quently introduce invectives against with decency: those especially who are the sex, insisting on the fragility of eminently modest, possess great in- women, not reflecting that this enfluence over others. The man who courages vicious men in their criminal lives in the society of persons whom enterprises

. To exaggerate the weakhe believes to be virtuous, is checked ness of one party is to strengthen the by this consideration, and restrained audacity of the other, and augments from indulging any passion that mạy the evil on both sides ; since while the lead him to the cominission of a par- confidence of men is increased, women ticular fault; because he is aware his are furnished with an excuse for their shane would be in proportion to the failings. Would it not be more adscarcity of bad examples to keep him viseable to reprove the aggressors, than in countenance. Lei us suppose the inveigh against their victims? Í have case that by some means this man dis- written elsewhere what I repeat here, covers the persons whom he thought That whoever would render all women, virtuous are in reality vicious characters, or nearly all women chaste, must begin by that they have yielded to the tempta- reforming all men. tions which assault him, what will be The second remark I have to offer the consequence? He will more easily on missionary sermons, is, that they give way to his irregular propensilies, call on men to repent through dread not only through the direct incentive of the Divine justice, but rarely or very of bad example, but also by the removal slightly excite them to love God on acof the restraint which ihe supposed count of his infinite goodness. I allow virtue of hisсompanions and neighbours that God is not only supremely benehad hitherto imposed on his mind. volent and merciful, but likewise rigon From hence it is plain how much rously terrible and just, but with this harm may be produced by proclaiming difference, he is good from the excelthe prevalence of any particular vice in lence of his nature, he is terrible on a town or district. However, may not account of our wickedness. I likewise this abuse of the pulpit be a mere ima- allow that the fear of God is holy; I gination of my own, raised for the sake allow there are circumstances in which of combating it? Would to God it it is proper to give particular weight to existed only in my fancy! I have re- motives derived from terror; I allow ceived but too certain information of God ought to be feared as well as its reality, and sometimes I have wit- loved: there is no doubt in all this; nessed it myself. I once heard a but the question is, whether fear or preacher of no small eininence declaim love is the strongest incentive to obein his discourse against a particular dience, and which of the two is most vice, which although frequently very agreeable to our Creator. On this mischievous, was not more prevalent point I shall call in the great authority in the town where he preached, than of St. Bernard to decide. “God," in any other place of equal size:--how- says he, Sermon 83, “ exacts from his ever, his mind indamed with zeal re- rational creature, that it should fear presented the evil of such magnitude, him as a master, honour him as a fathat he exclaimed all the inhabitants ther, and love him as a husband. Now were guilty without exception, raising which of these three species of tribute his voice io its utmost pitch, and re- is most pleasing to him? which most peating all, all, that he might leave no suitable, which most worthy? Without doubt of the universality of the incul- doubt it must be that of love.” He pure pation. Was not the effect on his sues this subject through the whole discongregation such as I have stated, course, extolling in the most beautiful answerable to the enthusiasm of the language the great superiority of love orator? In general, whatever multi- over fear, both as to its pleasing God plies delinquents in opinion, in reality and being useful to ourselves. multiplies crimes.

The divine St. Francis de Sales goes VOL. XL

4 N

still further (Practice of the Love of ference consist? One is a law of ser God, Book Jl. Chap. 8): he says. vitude, the other a law of liberty. la “ Love is the universal means of our the first God treated men as his setsalvation, which mingles with every vants, in the latter he regards thein as thing, and without which nothing is children: in one he rules them by salutáry." This is to assert that love motives of fear, in the other by motives is the universal remedy for all the di- of love. This is precisely what the 'seases of the soul; it is the liquid gold Apostle writes to the Romans (chap. 8.) that the alchymnis: sought in vain to intimating that those who enibraced cure bodily infirmities. Christ, our the Gospel should no longer be subject Redeemer, when he came into the to the timnid spirit of bondage, brúc world, drew it from heaven to heal all should be gorerned by sentiments of those of a spiritual nature: before his love suitable to the children of adoption. coming, the prophets, who were the “ Non enim accepistis spiritum servitutis preachers under the ancient law, de iterum in timore, sed accepistis spiritum nounced threats and terrors; but when adoptionis filiorum, in qua clamanus alta Jesuus appeared, the one of preaching Pater.") changed, passing as we may say from Having now strongly inculcaied the the warlike Phrygian to the soft lonian propriety of leading men to virtue by measure, woolng with the most af- motives of love rather than those of feptionate sweetness of the lyre, those fear, an opinion founded on the most who were before intimidated by the venerable authority; it is easy to edmartial sound of the trumpet. The force it by considerations of the greater Gospel no where resounds with the utility of this method, motives to obeformidable titles of God strong and dience derived from love being more terrible, God of vengeance, Lord of agreeable to the goodness of God, and hosts, or God of armies, which in the more conformable to the nature of raOld Testament made the nations tional creatures. The submission of a treinble; on the contrary, in our Sa- servant which springs from fear, is a viour's discourses, he very frequently very different hoinage from the willing calls God our Father."'He is men- tribute of affection: the servant obeys tioned fifteen times in a sermon' that teluctantly, the son with delight; one is contained in the 5th, 6th and 7th follows his inclinations, the other chapters of St. Matthew, and always struggles against difficulty; one is alunder this denomination, either simply lured by the beauty of the object, the your Father, or with the addition yoar other cannot advance a single step heavenly Father, so that he calls on without subduing himself; one finds i us to fulfil our duties not as servants road if not entirely smooth, at least through fear, but as 'sons through with but few inequalities, the other love.

in every passion encounters a fresh St. Paul as well as Jesus represents impediment. God as the beneficent, the universal You must clearly perceive by what Father of mankind. He generally I have said of fear, as opposed to love begins his Epistles, which are really I mean servile drcad; for filial fear is so many missionary sermons, with this not only compatible with love, but may salutation full of benevolence and kind- be regarded as a disposition conducive 'ness" Gratia vobis, et pax a Deo Patre to it. The dependence of a slave on nostró et Domino Jesu Christo :" nor his master differs widely from the dedoes he omit this kind introduction even pendence of a child on his father: the to the Galatians, who deserved the se- slave dreads the scourge, the child only verest rebukes for their declared pro- fears to give offence. The Lord is terpensity to apostatize from Christianity rible to the slave, but the father is veio Judaism, which they had before nerable to the child; the slave suffers abandoned.

chastisement as an act of vengeance, Thus spake St. Paul because Christ the child receives it as intended for his had thus spoken. Christ was the good; the slave regards it as the effect promulgator of the law of grace and of stern dominion, the child as means St. Paul a learned interpreter of that employed for his improvement in law, he who most deeply penetrated virtue. its spirit, as opposed to the spirit of the I think I have sufficiently proved by ancicat law. In what does this dif- what has been said, that a preachet 639

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Noles for the Monthly Repository, by Mr. Fr. Adr. Vander Kemp. bught to avail himself of motives drawn superadded to the strongest titles; for from love, preferably to those that how often does it happen, that the man spring from fear. But one excellence who receives a favour turns his back still remains to be mentioned, which on his benefactor, the subject abandons gives infinite advantage to the former; the prince, the prince the subject, the it consists in this, that love enpobles son forsakes his father or the father every good work that proceeds from neglects his son. this generous sentiment, and renders it.

[To be concluded in the next No.] much more pleasing to God than any thing which is the offspring of fear, inasmuch as when love has attained Notes for the Monthly Repository, ly that perfection, which we denote by

Mr. Fr. Adr. Vander Kemp. the term charity, it becomes deserving Oldenlarneveld, S. of New York, of that ineffable felicity, the duration

July 1, 1816. of which no time can limit, and that surpasses in greatness all the human

Mon. Repos. V. 49. mind can conceive. To this happiness I declare that note in the Eclectic neither obedience to the commandments of God, nor freedom from sin, Review without any trụth. I am percan ever raise us, if we are merely in- suaded I must have heard of the fact, fluenced by fear: it is the reward of if it were as it is asserted. Venema, love alone.

who wrote against Crellius, and reBut supposing eternal felicity were spected him, La Croze, who loved doubtful, would not the certainty that him, and was his constant corresponGod loves us, oblige us in return to dent, and bewailed his errors, as is love him with all our powers? Men evident from their correspondence, love each other, and run the risk of never suspected it. Till his death meeting with reciprocal affection. Ex- Crellius was a member and a patron amples of this are innumerable: we of the collegiants at Amsterdam, who meet with them in every page of his- were generally Unitarians. He went tory. Here we read of a man who, at to their place of meeting with his the expense of his fortune, relieves his sister every Sabbath day, when they friend from want, and is afterwards re- were the only remaining members, and duced to the same situation, without she proposed to serve their God at. receiving the smallest assistance. In home, which he declined, full in hope another place we find a veteran who, of a revival, and he lived till he did after shedding bis blood in defence of see the congregation again increased his country, is repaid by total neglect. to seventyThis I have been often Again, a third person divests himself told by respectable members of that of his offices and employments to confer congregation, who at that time could them on his friend, and raise his con- not suspect that Crellius's religious sequence on the ruins of his own. opinions would stand in need of their

Let us revert to what passes between evidence, I know all this is negative the sexes in this matter, and gives rise proof. I shall therefore copy you the to such endless complaints; though I opinion of Bockius, whose orthodoxy must remark that if the affection be as a Trinitarian was, as far as I know, criminal, the ingratitude is well de- never doubted. He says, in the Nova served : each pany accuses the other of Litteraria, Hamburg. 1747, p. 703, perfidy, and what is worse, the ac- “there is a story that Crellius repentcusation being true on both sides, the ed of his errors towards the close of his warning is of use to neither

. How life, and gave clear proofs of unfeigned differently does God behave towards penitence." This Paul Berger, Archus! That he loves all those who love deacon of Harmspruck, thinks not him, is a proposition of eternal truth- improbable (see the same Work, 1748, a sentence he himself has pronounced p. 345,) because, while he was sesiby the mouth of Solomon, " Ego dili, ding at Amsterdam, Crellius in the gentes me diligo," (Prov. viii.): and it is year 1731 informed him that, in conrepeated in the Gospel of St. John; sequence of conferences with the oele chap. xiv. What honour! what hap: brated Schaaft

, his belief of some piness! Among mortals, he who loves opinions had been shaken, so that he ibe best cannot be sure of a return, was in doubt concerning them. even when the claims of gratitude are But in the same Work for 1749,

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