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With his Reply and Remarks, and of Two Letters of the late Dr. Toulmin's. 053 himself inore. Bui I might as well dred texts wherein the Father is styled have sat still and done nothing. Let God absolutely by way of eminence, God send some other messenger, it being impossible l. ihe construction whose labours he may think fit to itself, ihat 'it should have any other bless : I see I am no longer worthy sense. As to the point of worship, of being employed.' No, my dear Sir, all prayers, praises aird glory are either this must not be: this is not the directed to the One God and Father proper language from a servant to his of all, or to his ultimale glory. Beinaster; Christ has taught you better, sides, no Trinitarians are, or indeed and you must learn to say atter him, can be consistent in their debates on . Though Israel be not gathered, yet this matter; for they cannot fix on an shall I be glorious in the eyes of ihe uniform definition of the word, and Lord, and iny God shall be my are obliged 10 understand by it a disstrength.

tinct consciousness, which runs then

into Tritheisin, or some nominal reA pious minister saying that he lative distinction, which is Sabellianthought of not preaching on a par- ism. However, you will meet with ticular dav, because very few would more pertinent and forcible observaattend : Oh! preach, said a pious tions than I can suggest in the course friend, no one can tell what good inay of your reading on this article. Let be done till the day of judgınent. me mention to you the Appeal to

The pious Dr. Stonehouse was so Common Sense, and the Review of discouraged by his want of apparent the Trinitarian Controversy, both by success, ihough well attended, that in the same worthy author, "Mr. Hopa letter to Mr. Orion, he observed, kins. You should also peruse Low“that to preach was his duty, but man's three Tracts, and Dr. Lardner's he was become almost indifferent Letter on the Logos : perhaps the whether his audience consisted of Socinian rotions of Christ's dignity are eighteen hundred or only eighteen." nearest to truth and Scripture. I can

scarcely believe you will terminate Taunton, Nov. 24, 1770. your inquiries in the reception of MY DEAR FRIEND,

Athanasianism. May the God of I WAS rather surprised at the Truth guide and bless all your incontents of your's, though I must re- quiries !

J. TOULMIN. gard it as a proof of your integrity. It induced me to look into Mr. Boyse's

Taunton, April 10, 1771. Answer to Emlyn; and by what I

My Dear. FRIEND, saw from a slight inspection, his rea- YOUR candour will excuse my sonings appear to me only calculated delay; it was partly owing to the 10 pozzle a plain thing, and to cloud waiting for an opportunity of taking a matter with chicanery, which com- Mr. Ward's sentiments on the subject

mon sense would casíly, determine: of your's. We both approve of the , and notwithstanding all he appeared motives by which you are influenced, to advance, on his principles I see nos and of your rational zeal in the services how our Master can be cleared from of men's best interests. ' As to the the suspicion of equivocation, in Matt. propriety of your design with respect xiii. 32, and I suppose Mr. Enlyn's io Kingston, we are both such stranReply has obviated his specious rea- gers 10 the circumstances of things sonings. “But surely you do not rest there, that we can do no more than the controversy on one text. The concur in every scheme (as far ss our point to me appears, What is the idea approbation at least) which promises ihe Scriptures in their general strain to serve the cause of religion; and in and language afford us of the Divine this case would wholly rest on Dr. Being. The most exact and precise Amory's knowledge and judgment, definition of the One Suprenie God, Only we would refer it io you to is a Being consisting of Father, Son consider whether a connection and Holy Ghost, i. e. on the Trini- propose with Mr. Moffat will be tarian principles: but where is this agreeable and have a favourable as-, idea and definition to be met with in pect. Will not your sentiments the Scriptures? On the contrary, it clash? Will not this appear in your appears that the word God occurs prayers and sernions? Or will be 1288 times, and there are several hun- consent to contine hin:self to a praca VOL, XI.

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Your's very

tical strain and Scripture language? tention, The Scripture Doctrine of Jesus Would he deem such a connection on Christ, published three years since. his own account prudent or proper, My sentiments are not fíxed on the as it probably would draw some sus- point: 1 hare it in review : and my picions of heresy on him? Have you mind leads much to the Socinian, consulted him on these points? Or scheinc. May your's be directed to would you choose to refer them to his truth, and ever feel the power, the consideration? I would farther ob- hopes and zeal of real goodness and serve that I have heard Mr. H- piety. Accept our joint respects, and mention an old genileman, a Dis- the best wishes of, senting minister, (his name I cannot Dear Friend, recollect) who resided at Kingston,

affectionately, and opened a room in his own house

'J. TOULMIN, to preach in on Lord's Day: and • though his character and sermons llarlow Mills, Nov. 9, 1816. were good, he had no great encou

SIR,

IN Y answer to the inquiries of your sides his own family ever attended. Correspondent, A. F. in your last Indeed, I do not think that this Number, (p. 594,) respecting Dr. should determine you to lay aside your Bekker, I have no doubt' but he will scheme; for even to do good to so find ample information by referring to few, will not lose its pleasures or re- alınost any of the larger biographical ward; and I should' apprehend so Dictionaries, and more particularly

small a sphere would be a good intro- the French-Bayle, Moreri, Charffe duction to the world: for my owu pie, &c. but being absent from my part I believe I shall like to exchange late residence near the metropolis, the with you soinetimes. If on consulting only work of the kind I have now an Dr. Amory, you pursue the scheme, opportunity of referring to in the liyou should apprize Mrs. Haddon of brary of a friend, is the Dictionnaire it, that she may licence her house; Historique, Litteraire, et Critique, '? which she can do only at a Quarter's work in 6 vols. 8vo. and which, alSession.

lowing for the prejudices of a Roman . I imagined you would not long re- Catholic, appears to be written with tain the Trinitarian sentiments : but fairness and impartiality. The fulyour candour and impartialiiy, what- lowing is a translation of the article ever opinions you embracel, gave you respecting the above-mentioned dia claim to esteen with men, will vine. delight on reflection, and if perse

“ BEKKER (BALTHASAR,) a favered in, will meet a noble recompence mous Dutch Thcologian, born in with the God of Truth! The pros- · Friesland, 1634, who, after having pect, my friend, is great and anima- ' commenced his studies under his fating! Edward's Book I have never ther, and pursued them in the Acadeseen, and cannot say I have had mies of Groningen and Franker, was much inclination to see it, as I employed in different churches, and thought it was intended to reason us died minister of that at Amsterdam, out of our feelings, and to perplex in 1698. He was suspended from his with metaphysics what is plain and functions for a certain period incontestable at the bar of common count of his work entitled, Le Monde Have you seen

Beattie on Enchanté, 2 vols. 12mo. in which Truth? if you have not, you have he denied the doctrine of possessions much improvement and entertainment and of witchcraft by any compact

It carries conviction, con- with the devil, and affirmed that the firms faith, and gives that lively and evil spirit had no power over men. rational pleasure to which the scep. The system of Bekker was refuted by tical mind must remain an unhappy various writers, but they could never stranger. I could wish you to pur- persuade him to retraci, nor could chase Lardner's Letter on the Logos. they prevent him froni defending Dr. Chandler declared he could not an himself: he was therefore deprived of swer Lowman. There is another book bis functions by the ecclesiastical sy in that controversy which merits at. Dod, although ihey continued his sar

lary as minister. He was the author # Near Taunton.

of various other works, Recherches

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Reply to A. F. respecting Dr. Bekker.

653 ster les Comelés, in 8vo. La Saine Theo- Robinson's Remarks. Mosheim, in his logie; Explicatio Prophetiæ Danielis, in Ecclesiastical llistury, (C. xrii. S. 1, *410. &c."

No. xxxv ) from that neglect of disIn the volume of Robinson's crimination, too common, and not alWorks, quoted by your Correspon- wavs undesigned, classes Bekker with dent, there is another allusion to Dr. Spinosa, and inputes to him a design Bekker, by which it appears i hat one of using “ the principles of Des Cartrs, of the charges brought against him, to overturn some doctrines of Christwas that which I fear may be brought ianity, and to pervert others." against almost every thinking, serious A larger account of Bekker and his divine, who is so unfortunate as to be World Bewitched, published in 1691, a member of any of those Anti-Christ- will be found in Part II. S. 2, No. ian communities, the handy-work of xxxv. of the same History. But the kingcraft, priestcraft and statecraft- fullest satisfaction can offer your civil establishments of religion. The Correspondent, is by quoting some Dutch synod condeinned the Doctor, passages, and especially the coneluding " because he had explained the Holy paragraph, from the Article Balthasar Scriptures so as to make themi contrary Bekker, Biog. Dici. 1784. to the Catechism, and particularly to He was born in 1634, " at Warththe articles of faith, which he had nisen, in the province of Groningen," himself subscribed.”+ Mr. Robinson, in whose university he was educated. however, finishes the paragraph quoted In 1665, while minister at Oosterlingen, by your Correspondent, by giving it as " he took his degree of Doctor of Dihis opinion, that " although Dr. B. vinity, at Francker, and the next year was reputed a Deist, he was a fast was chosen one of the ministers of ihat friend of revelation, and all his crime city.” He had published " A Short lay in expounding some literal pas- Catechism for Children, and another sages allegorically. Not the book, ut for Persons of mare advanced Age." the received meaning of it he denied."I The latter was censured as containing

When I was in Holland about " strange expressions, unscriptural potwenty-five years since, I turned over sitions, and dangerous opinions," for Dr. Bekker's Heretical Work alluded which “ the author was prosecuted beto, and which passed throngh several fore the ecclesiastical assemblies,” and editions. Notwithstanding it abounds for four years endured “ much trouble with singular opinions and fancies, it and vexation." displays much learning, ingenuity and “ In 1679 he was chosen minister entertainment.

at Amsterdam. The comet which ap You will perceive by the account of peared in 1680 and 1681 gave him an the French Biographer, that although opportunity of publishing a small hook, the synod first suspended, and after. in Low Dutch, entitled, Ondersoch over wards deprived the learned but here. de K’ometei, that is, An Inquiry concernrical divine of his functions, they con- ing Comets, wherein he endeavoured to tinued him his salary. Should other shew that comets are not the presages ecclesiastical bodies take it inio their or forerunners of any evil. This piece heads to inquire into the heterodoxy gained him great reputation, as did of their members, should they act likewise his Erposition on the Prophet with similar liberality, and only de- Duniel, wherein he gave many proofs prive them of their employments, it will of his learning and sound judginent. not perhaps render the proceedings of But the Work which_rendered hiin those learned bodies very alarming to most famous, is his De Betoner Wereld, the generality of ecclesiasties.

or The World Bewitched. He enters B. FLOWER. into an inquiry of the common opinion

concerning spirits, their nature and Sir, Clapton, Nov. 9, 1816. power, authority and actions; as also OUR Correspondent A. F.(p: 594)

what men can do by their power and in several Works which preceded Mr. that it grieved him to see the great

honours, powers, and miracles which • Dictionnaire Historique, &c. Vol. II. are ascribed to the devil. It is come

to that pass,' says he, that men think | Robinson's Works, Vol. I. p. 84.

it piety and godliness to ascribe a great Ibid. p. 78.

many wonders to the devil, and im

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piety and heresy if a man will not be- This contrast of the biographer relieve that the devil can do what a minds me of the following lines which thousand persons say he does. It is I have somewhere read as written in now reckoned godliness, if a man who complinient to Pope : fears God, fear also the devil. If he

“ What te thy outward form all-righteous be not afraid of the devil, he passes for

ihear'n an Atheist, who does not believe in

Deny'd, to thy more perfect mind was God, because he cannot think that

gir'n; there are two Gods, the one good, the So vicely pois'd great Nature's scale we other bad. But these, I think, with inuch inore

reason may be called So just thou uniform deformity." Ditheists. For my part, if on ac- The case of this persecuted theologian count of my opinion they will give me attracted the attention of Mr. Locke, a new name, let them call me Mo- who during his cxile in Holland, from notheist, a believer of but one God.'

; 1682 to 1689, had probably net with This work raised a great clamour Bekker at Amsterdani, in the society against Bekker, The consistory at of Professor Limborch, to whom he Ainsterdam, the classes and synods, thus writes fronz London, 14th Noproceeded against him, and after having vember, 1091:suspended hin froin the holy commu

Quid tandem factum est cum doctore nion, deposed him at last from the isto theologo qui tam mira docuit de anoffice of a minister. The magistrates gelis, in libro suo, de spirituum existentia ? of Amsterdam were so generous, how- An non expertus est fratrun suoruin pro ever, as to pay him his salary as long religione, pro veritate, pro: orthodaria as he lived." A very odd medal was zelun?' Alirum si impunè etadat." In struck in Holland, on his deposition: the margin of the Familiar Letters it represented a devil, cloathed like a (1708, p. 535), is printed Balthasar minister, riding upon an ass, and hold. Bekker.** ing a banner in his hand, as a proof of I recollect also to have once seen a the victory, which he gained in the respectful reference to Bekker and his synods. With the medal was published opinion, in the preface to a French a small piece, in Dutch, to explain it; translation of Dr. Sykes's Inquiry into in which was an account of what had the Meaning of Demoniacs, &c. primed, been done in the consistory classes and I think, at Leyden, in 1738. synods. Bekker died of a pleurisy, But it would be unjust to the meJune 11, 1698."

mory of this innovating theologian, not In the Nouveau Dictionnaire Histo- to shew how Dr. Bentley has avoided rique, Paris, 1772, is a short article of the fault of Dr. Mosheim, and even

Bekker, whose design in the work for left Bekker in orthodox company. I which he was persecuted is thus de- refer to his Remarks on the Discourse of scribed : Le livre est fait pour prouver, Frce-thinking, in which he has been qu'il n'y a jamais eu, ni possedé, ni sorcier,

severe enough against Collins, and, ocet que

les diables ne se mélent pas des af- casionally, more severe than just. The faires des hommes, et ne peuvent rien sur latter, in the Discourse (pp. 28-30), leur personnes.

had attributed the prevalence of a beThe article closes in the following lief in diabolical agency to the influence terms, contrasting the disadvantageous of priests, and its declíne to a freedom forin of Bekker with his agreeable cha- of thinking encouraged at the Revoluracter and accomplishments : “BEK- tion. Bentley, under the character of KER étoit horriblement laid ; mais il avoit Phileleutherus Lipsiensis, or a Lover of l'esprit assez juste. . Ses maurs étoient Truth, at Leipsic, thus replies to his pures, et son "une ferme et incapable de professed correspondent in England: plier.”+

“ What then has lessened, in En* That book is designed to prove that there never was really a professed sorcerer, • What has been done, at last, with that and that devils have no influence in the learned divine who has broached such concerns of men nor power over their strange opinions concerning angels in his persons.

book on the existence of spirits? Will be + Bekker was shockingly deformed, but not prore the zeal of bis brethren for rehe possessed a correct understanding. His ligion, for the truth, for orthodoxy? It manners were pure, with a strength of mind will be strange indeed if he escape with incapable of unworthy compliance. impunity.

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gland, your stories of sorceries? Notting some useful discussion on synothe growing sect, but the growth of nimes, I shall present you with a few philosophy and medicine. No thanks quotations from Cicero. Let it not be io Atheists, but to the Royal Society supposed, however, that I wish to deand College of Physicians; to the preciate the nuerits of that great masBayles and Newtons, the Sydenhams ier of wisdom and rhetoric. Whoever and Ratcliffs. When the people saw does not adınire, or rather adore every the diseases they had imputed to witch- particle of his original, profound, elocraft quite cured by a course of physic, quent, and truly classical compositions, they 100 were cured of their former is to be pitied for want of true taste, error. They learned truth by the rather than convicted of bad judgment. event, not by a false position, à priori, . Language has two offices--one to exthat there was neither witch, devil, nor press meaning, another to produce God. And then as to the frauds and harmony: the purposes of harmony impostures in this way, they have most require inany insignificant particles, of them been detected by the clergy; beautiful tauiologies, and elegant exThe two strongest books I have read pletives. My object is simply to point on this subject, were both written by out a few of the beautiful tautologies priests, the one by Dr. Bekher, in or elegant expletives which abound in Holland, and the oiher by a Doctor of the incomparable compositions of the your own, whose name I've forgot, divine Tully. Such words as I conthat was afterwards Archbishop of sider tautological, ! shall distinguish York." -Remarks, 8th ed. 1742, by italics; and let it be observed that Pp. 48, 49.

though I am not satisfied with any It is obvious how little to Dr. Bent. thing I have yet seen on the doctrine ley's purpose, or rather how directly of synonimes, and though I have opposed io his conclusion, was the case thought a good deal on the subject, I of Bekker, who for ceasing to be a am far from assuming any infallibility priest, or authoritative supporter of an of opinion, or attempting to dogmatize, established dogma, had been persecuted and ought to be considered (even if a by all the priests of a consistory, and heretic) as only provoking wild and saved from want only by the kind con- fair discussion. sideration of the civil magistrates. Sintque pares in amore et æquales.

Can atiy of your readers say who was amicitiarum sua cuique permanent the Doctor whose naine the pretended stalilis et certa possessio. Quin etiain Leipsic thcologian did not choose to necesse erit cupere et oplare ut quam recollect, and who had been Archbishop sæpissime peccet amicus-necesse erit of York before 1713—the date of the angi, dolere invidere.-Sunt firmi et staReinarks? During that year Dr. Sharp liles et constantes eligendi --quis natura died, who had filled the Sec of York desiderat abundantiam et copiam-sic ever since 1692. He was an intimate habendum est nullam in amicitis friend of Tillotson, and might be more pestein esse majorem quam aduladisposed to rational innovation than tionem, blanditiun, assentationem.-- Quimany of his contemporaries.

bus nihil opis est in ipsis ad bene leuteR. que vivendum, iis omnis gravis est

ætas.--Nec vero corpori soli subveni.

Nov. 2, 1816. endum est sed menti atque animo multo I

WOULD fain draw the attention magis :-huic divino muneri ac dono

of your classic and learned readers nihil esse tam inimicum quam volupto a subject of great logical importance. tatem.-guin nihil sit animus admixIt has been long assumed as a kind of tum nihil concretum nihil copulatum axioru' by rhetoricians, that there are nihil coagmentatum nihil duplex. Qnod hardly two words in any language cum ita sit, certe nec secerni nec dividi which have precisely the same idea; nec discerni nec distrahi potest.---Mens but with much deference to venerable enim et ratio et consilinin, in senibus. opinions, I think the converse of the The above are a few quotations seabove position the true one, namely, lected without much searching; and that there is hardly any idea which your classic readers know that if all may not in every language be expressed similar words were marked in italics. by several words, or different modes of the compositions of Cicero would apspeech. With the intention of iovi- pear richly gemmed with elegant tau:

SIR,

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