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any durst

No. CCLXXXIII. CLEANINGS;. OR, SELECTIONS AND

Makumetan Prayers.

The observance of prayers is much OF GENERAL READING.

commended anong the Mahometans, No. CCLXXXI.

and the richer or greater any one is, Mahomet Mortal.

the sooner he is reputed impious, pagan On the death of Mahomet (Hegira and infidel, if he neglect prayers once

or oftener.

Men of lesser note are 11, March 28, A.D. 632), great confusion arose among his followers ; thrown out of their parishes by their

some of them deserting him, and many derrises or priests, if they go not to • believing he was not dead; among public prayers in the temple ; for tbey

whom was Omar, who drew his sword say“ prayers are the pillar of religion, and swore that if

and whosoever forsakes the prayers, he was

say dead, he would cut him in pieces. But overthrows religion.”. A Turk counts Abubeker coming in, and knowing the it a great injury, and the greatest remistake, cry'd : Do you worship Ma- proach upon him, if any one calls him homet, or the God of Mahomet? If a man without prayers, riz. who does you worship the God of Mahomet, he not daily say his prayers

. Moreover, is inmortal and liveth for ever; but as

the Turkish preachers have a satirical to Mabomet, he is certainly dead." cant against those who don't pray And then from several passages in the daily, by which they contemn them Alcoran, he proved that he must die as

and represent them as ridiculous. well as other men. And since that

Bobovius on Turkish Liturgy, with

Notes by Hyde. time, no one among the Mahometans ever expected that he should return to

No. CCLXXXIV. them here on earth, till the general 'resurrection of all mankind.

Composition of the Trinity. Life of Mahomet , pp. 76, 77, prefixed and Christians by denouncing and op

Mahomet made way amongst Jews to Four Trealises concerning the Doctrine, &c. of Mahometans.- He represents the Trinity as formed

posing the corruption of the Trinity. London. 8vo. 1712.

of God, Jesus Christ and the Virgin

Mary. Had he, like John the BapNo. CCLXXXII.

tist's disciples mentioned by Luke in Mahometan Assumption and Immaculate the acts, not so much as heard wheConception

ther there be any Holy Ghost? The Phatima, the favourite daughter of idolatry of Christians towards a woman Mahornet, one of the only four women might be the reason of the ungallant whom he allowed to be perfect, * and spirit of Islamism. whom he gave in marriage to his cousin The Mahometan notion of the TriAli, is held in such veneration among nity nay be attributed to ignorance or the Mussulmans, that she is reckoned . malice ; yet one of the fathers, Cyril the most excellent woman of all ages; of Alexandria, had called the Mother and the people of Com believe that of God, the Complement or Supplement God carried her into heaven, and that of the Holy Trinity. there is nothing in the temple where See Reflect. on Mahom. in the Four she was buried but a representation of Trcalises, p. 174. her. They believe likewise that she is an immaculate and spotless virgin,

No. CCLXXXV. notwithstanding she was the mother Happy Apology for a Speech. of several children. It is not therefore A Swedish gentleman was lately the Church of Rome alone that ho- present at the dinner of the Friends of nours the assumption of virgins, and Foreigners in Distress, and a toast believes the immaculate conception being given complimentary to his and perpetual virginity of a mother. country, it was expected that he should The Same, p. 80. rise and address the company. He

arose after some hesitation and under

great embarrassment, from his not • The other three were Asiah, the wife thoroughly understanding the English of Pharoah, Mary, the mother of Christ, language, and not being in the habit and Cadigha, Mahomet's krst wife, the. of public speaking, said, " I wish you wotber of Phatima.

to consider me a foreigner in distress.".

Observations on the intended Sacrifice of Isaac by Abraham. 661 No. CCLXXXVI. for that the trappings of a monarchy Sir Robert Horard.

might set up an ordinary commonwealth. Sir Robert Howard (savs Toland, in The work of Sir Robert Howard's his Life of Miltoir, Works, I. 43.), alluded to was The History of Religion. lately deceased, a gentleman of great Written by a Person of Quality. 8vo. generosity, a patron of letters and a 1694. He thought and probably. conhearty friend to the liberty of his versed with the early English Unitacountry, being told that he was charged rians. He was a great admirer of in a book with whipping the Protestant Archbishop. Tillotson, and was accused, clergy on the back of the Heathen and nogether with Tillotson, of Deism if Popish priests, he presently asked What not Atheism, by the accuser of the they had to do there? He was a great brethren, Lesley. There is a letter of admirer of Milton to his dying day, his ia reply, in a well-written and and being his particular acquaintance amusing book, called a Twofold Vinwopld tell many pleasant stories of dication of the la!e Archbishop of Canterhiin: as, that he himself having de- lury und of the Author of the History of manded of him once, Whal made him lieligion. 8vo. 1696. The writer of side with the Republicans ? Milton an- the second part of this work, a clergyswered, among other reasons. Because mau, was an Unilarian, thongh not a their's was the most frugal government ; Socinian. See pp. 89, 101, 145.

BIBLICAL CRITICISM.

Nov. Ist, 1816. piety be asfirmed of God that he seduces Observations on the intended Sacrifice of any being into wickedness, and as, so Isaac by Abraham.

far, he “tempteth no man," it is eqnally A

S Isaac was the child of the old true that he sees fit to prové, by various

age (for such we should call it) tests, the integrity and devout confidence of Abraham and Sarah; as, in the of his servants. event of his death, there was no human In this manner, to this extent, and jurospect of his place being supplied; no further, did he tempt Abraham, and as it was expressly promised that when he said, * “ Take now thy son, in the patriarch's seed all the families thine only son, Isaac, whom thou of the earth were to be blessed, we may lovest, and get thce into the land of with ease conceive how particularly Moriah; and offer him there for a dear such a son would be to his parenis. burut-offeriug, upon one of the mounWhat then would be the trial of their tains which I will tell thee of." Nor faith, of the faith of the father espe- was the patriarch disobedient to the cially, were they summoned to surrender celestial voice, whether it spake to him such a gifi! This test of confidence, in vision, or otherwise. " Abraham of duty and submission, they actually stretched forth his hand, and took the underwent.

kuite, 10 slay his son.". It was an “ God," says the Apostle James eventful moment; with what contend. (i. 13), " is not tempied with evil; ing emotions must bis heart have neither templeth he any man." Yu, struggled! But every painful feeling in the sacred history, we read (Gen. soon vanished before the joy and wonxxii. 1) “God did tempt Abraham." der of which he was conscious: for, at For the removal of this seeming diffi- this critical period, the angel of the calty, I observe that the original «x« Lord called unto him out of heaven, pression, which our translators almost and said, 7." Lay not thine hand upon invariably render by the word icmpit, the lad, &c." As the consequence, the does not always admit this sense. blessings of which Abraham had more Sometimes, as in the clause now quoted than once received assurances were from the book of Genesis, it incans again promised to hiin, in terms yet simply, to try, or make trial of, the stronger than before: and this test of faith and virtue of an individual; at his ohedience, while it answered the other times, it has the signification end of illustrating and heightening the commonly affixed to the verb temps, and imports “ to seduce into sin." Now

• Gen. xxii. 2. mit cannot without injustice and ini

+Gen. xxii, 11 d. VOL. IT

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excellence of his personal character, could not be so perverted excepting by súbserved the interests of even his re- 'individuals whom either enthusiasm hiote descendants.

or vice has rendered absolutely insane. The intenderł sacrifice of Isaac, is Thus, the only question which renever represented in the Scriptures as mains to be considered is, whether the typical of the death of Christ. On a patriarch had rational evidence of the subject of this nature conjecture must command being addressed to him by not be opposed to facts: nor must ima: God? And that it proceeded from no ginatiou gain ascendancy over the un. inferior authority, is amply proved by derstanding.

previous and by subsequent events in It has been asked, whether God did the life of Abraham. He had already not require Abraham to commit an been favoured with many important aggravated murder, to slay, with his communications from the Deity, and own hands, a tenderly beloved child? was able to distinguish between these Now that a voice from heaven called and the suggestions of his own mind. on the patriarch to make this sacrifice, Thę substantial benefit of obeying is undeniabie. Yet, before we pro- these communications he had also nounce il murder in intention, we experienced ; and therefore he would should attend to the circunstances of not be less disposed to exercise a similar "the case; to the situation, the pre- ebedience at present. I add that he rogative, the motives of the parties. actually reaped she advantage of his The Sovereign Lord of life, may readiness to make this costly sacrifice doubiless revolie this grant, when and to the Divine Will. The remainder how he pleases: In fact however it of his life, was eminently peaceful was not his design that human blood and happy: the faith thus tried was should be shed in the present instance, invigorated by the trial; and the men Consequently, no murder was autho- of that age and country, and distant rized by the Divine decree, which generations, would receive important oughi to govern our interpretation of lessons from the event. the language here employed. And Abraham was specially educated though Abraham was on the point, by God, for purposes of infinite me of sacrificing his son, no malignant ment to all mankind. To form a just feelings prompted him to the action. opinion of his history and character, The crime of murder, which has diffe- we should go back, in our thoughts, rent shades of guilt, essentially con- to other tinies and regions than our sists in «

taking away life unlaw- own, to the infancy of the world, to fully." What, nevertheless, if

, under a period when the sun of Dirine circumstances so peculiar that they are Truth was far indeed from haring not likely to befal any other indivi- reached it's perfect day. And if any dual, or to occur in any other age, a person be still inclined to exclaim father's devout confidence and attach- respecting the cominand of which I ment he tried by the injunction him am treating, “It is a hard saging : self to slay bis child? If murder be who can bear it?" I may be permitestimated by the existence of the ted to illustrate this langnage by Solo wicked mind and principle which mon's, * on a menjorable occasion : dictates it, I inaintain that the deed he ordered that a living child should represented is not murder.

be divided in two; not designing howSoine men, it is certain, are fond ever that the order should be execuof appealing to precedents, real or sup- ted, because it was not fit to be.exe posed, in justification of their own cuted-and yet, remarks the authort views and conduct. Nor shall I to whom I am indebted for the illus shrink froin granting the possibility tration, “ the success of this method that a particular description of persons shewed the count and to be very fit may be disposed to seek in the exam- and expedient." ple before us a defence of actions from

N. which our nature shudders. Sull, I cannot recollect a single case of this

1 Kings ii. 16. abuse of Abraham's history: and every + Grove, in a Sermon on this part of thipking man will be sensible that it Abraham's History.

( 663 )

REVIEW
** Still pleased to praise, yet not afraid to blame."--Popr.

ART. I.d Letter to the Unitarian To the Advertisement is annexed the

Christians in South Wales, occasioned Letter which Mr. Belsham inserted in.. ly the Animadversions of the Right our last Volume X: 746], on some , Reverend the Lord Bishop of St. passages in Dr. Estlin's late publication, Duvid's. To which are annexed in reply to Bishop Burgess, reviewed 1. Letters, before published in The in a recent Number (p. 57+). The Re.. Gentleman's Magazine, in Reply to solutions of the South Wales Unitarian his Lordship's Letters to the Unita- Brok Society, at their last meeting, an rians. 2. A Brief Review of his account of which is given in this Vom Lordship's Treatise, entitled “The lume of our Magazine (p. 427), shew Bible, and Nothing but the Bible, that Dr. Estlin was mistaken iv sup: the Religion of the Church of En- posing that any disservice had been gland." 3. An Estimate of his done to the Unitarian cause in the Lordship's Character and Qnalifica- Principality by any of Mr. Belsham's. tions as a Theological Polemic. By writings. There are points on which Thomas Belshamn. 8vo. pp. 141. the Unitarians amicably divide ; but Huuter.

there can be but o:e opinion amongst I

teract their venom by the repetitiou Belshamı as the defender of their greut of their own bite. Certainty, bigoted and good causc. and angry polemics become in a little The question between Mr. Belshamn time perfecily harmless. Their power and the Bishop of St. David's is a his of hitting is derived from public opi: torical and learned one; but Mr. Bel. nion, which, however it may be misled shain has we think made it intelligible Tor a moment, will not finally leod it- to every English reader.. Why, indeed, self to prejudice and passion.

should not any controversy, excepting Bishop Burgess has found in Mr. only such as are verbal and gramına, Belsham a champion whoin he cannot tical, which cannot be of the first ini, alarm by his vauntings, terrify by his portance, be intelligible to all men of mnenaces, or worry and vex and weaken understanding and general reading, or, by his continual attacks. Secure in his in words which we Aatter ourselves argument, steady to his point and con- are of the sime meaning as these last, scious of his powers, Mr. Belsham 10 Unitarians in the humbler ranksta enters the arena with firm and intrepid In the Letter, Mr. Belsham makes a step, maintains the conflict according happy use of the philosophical argir to the 'rules of honourable warfare, ment for Unitarianism. He puts the detects and foils his antagonist when- following case with regard to ihe silence ever he takes up inlawful weapons, of the New Testament on the Deity of and retires when the contest is fairly Christ : ended, cheerfully awaiting the decision of the intelligent and learned public,

“ If Bishop Burgess had undertaken to the only proper judges, but expecting write a history of Jesus Christ for the in

structiọn of early and uninformed connot presumptuously

nor unreasonably, that to him the palin will be awarded.

verts, would be, like Matthew, Mark, Mr. Belsham explains in an Adver- nature in absolute silence, or with an

and Luke, bave passed drer his Divine tisement that he addresses the Unitarian incidental, distant, and ambiguous alldChristians in South Wales, because sion to it? If this learned prelaté had ehey are a numerous and rapidly in continued the history of the apostles' creasing body;. because that distriet preaching and doctrive for thirty yeare hieing the principal seat of Bishop after our Lord's Ascension, would he, is Burgess's residence, it is there that his it possible that be could, hare forborne to Lordship's works are most likely to be record a single instance in which the aposread and to make impression and.be- tes taught of the first disciples professed. cause he has been actually called upon the sublime doctrine of our Lord's diviby soine persons of consideration among wity? Would the reperable Bishop, of the Unitarians there to rake notice of Solin Davidis, wbeo dictating.a pastoral and his Lordship's animadversions,

paternal charge, to his younger clers

se express design of which was to direct Buchanan's interesting • Account of the
them in what manner they were to act, State of Christianity in lodia.'"-Note,
and upon wliat topics to insist in their p. 22.
ministerial instructions, forget to nen-

It is fortunate for the cause of truth
tion, or at best, but obscurely bint at that Bishop Burgess provoked a dis-
those sublime mysteries, 'the belief and
profession of which are essential to salva- cussion concerning the merits of Dr.
tion? I am confident that the learned Priestley's, celebrated argument with
prelate, lukewarm and indifferent as his Dr. Horsley, in the Genlleman's Ma-
feelings must be upon these subjects in cazine ; sor by draguing Mr. Belshamu
comparison with those of the early be- rito a correspondence in that work, he
lievers, would never bare heen guilty of so

has forced a number of clerical and important an omission. How then can, other readers to understand a dispute this omission be accounted for in the apos- of which they would otherwise protles of Christ and in the writers of the bably have gone down to their graves New Testament!”—Pp. 10, 11. in utter ignorance. Mr. Belsham has He argues also very conclusively

proved that Dr. Horsley was com. upon the necessary effect of the revela pletely vanquished by Drs Priestley, tion of the divinity of Christ

and in exhibiting this proof in his upon

the minds of the apostles:

usual able manner, he himself has

satisfactorily confuted the present Bi“ Their whole souls would bare been shop of St. David's. The argument is absorbed in this unexpected and over- of so much consequence that we shall whelming discovery. Their imaginations extract Mr. Belshanu's statement of it: would bare been' wholly occupied with the stupendous idea. Their minds could have that the Emperor Adrian" razed the city

“ Your atteutive readers will recollect thought, and their tongues could bave spoken of nothing but the Divine glories upon the same site be built a new city

,

of Jerusalem to the ground ; tbat' nearly of their great Master, of the amazing which he called Ælia; which he colonized condescension of the Almighty Creator in with Gentiles, to which be granted many becoming incarnate, and in submitting to be rocked in a cradle and suspended on a

privileges, and from which he excluded cross. This wondrous theme would have all Jews under pain of death : also that a been the first and the last, the Alpha and

Christian Church was formed in the new Omega, of their discourse, the unceasing city, of which Marcus, a Gentile, was topic of their public harangues, and the

the first Bishop. Mosheim, in' bis Condarling subject of their social conversation. mentaries, states his opinion, that this Their writings would bave been filled with church consisted chiefly of beliering He it from beginning to end. Nor would it brews, who abandoned ibe rites of Moses bare been possible for Matthew, Mark, for the sake of being admitted to the priand Luke, for Paul, and Peter, and James, vileges of the Ælian colony. In support to have left it to the Apostle John, many the testimony of Sulpitius and Epiphanias;

of this hypothesis, Moslicim appeals to years after their decease, to hare dicclosed this great mystery to the astonished and to bis judgment Bishop Horsley ac· world."-Pp. 16, 17.

cedes. Dr. Priestley opposes Mosbeim's

supposition. He makes light of that We are much pleased with the fol- learned writer's authorities and withi lowing hint to the Bible Society, by Tillemont, Fleury, and the great body of which, if its judgment and honesty be modern ecclesiastical writers, he maid. equal to its resources and zeal, it will tains that all Jews, without exception, not fail to proht: the

were excluded from Ælia hy Adrian's de refers 10

passage the notorious forgery of the text relating to the Three Heavenly Witnesses, 1 in the following words (Tracts, p. 409) :

“ Bishop Horsley pursues the argument John v.7:

To convict my adversary of sbame* This spurious text is wanting in the ful precipitance, absolves not ne of tbe * Syriac manuscripts wbich have been found imputation, that I have related, upon the among the native Christians in the Penin- authority of Mosheim, what Mosbeim resula of India. It is said tbe Bible Society Inted upon none. I will tberefore briety are printing the New Testament in Syriac state the principles which determine me for the use of these Christians. It is to to abide by Mosheim's account of the he hoped that they will not presume to transactions in questica. I take for insert this exploded text into the printed granted then these things :copies, and thus pollute and debase their ““). A Church of Hebrew Christiana, great and honourable work by a wilful adhering to the observance of the Mosaic adulteration of the sacred text. See Dr. law, subsisted for a time at Jerusalet,

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