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Review.— JFilson's Dissenting Churches.

673 there are now only five, one (Dun- see not the absurdity : we see on the ning's Alley) having become extinct : contrary a wise and constitutional these we believe, are the churches jealousy of the court. Had the disa under the pastoral care of Messrs. pensing power been admitted, what Evans, Gilchrist, Moon, Dan Taylor security would the Dissenters or any and Shenston. The question of the in- other class of the cominunity have had. Auence of endowments upon Dissent, for liberty, property or even life? The ing congregations is difficultosdecision; decision adopted by the Dissenters at most readers will think, we believe, the instance of Dr. Williams, is virtuie that our anthor has in this case pro- ally justified by Mr. Fox, who shews nounced an opinion (II. 175) for (Hist. of James II. passim) that the which he was not qualified.

liberty granted to Nonconformists was A large space is properly allotted by merely a pretext for granting liberty to Mr. Wilson to the biography of Dr. Papists, and that that was ultimately Daniel Williams, the great benefactor designed to introduce and establish to the Dissenters, especially of the arbitrary power. As Dissenters, we Presbyterian denomination. In one in- should have blushıcd for our forefathers, stance the biographer censures, where if they had truckled to a mean and he ought, in our judgment, i have treacherous tyrant, and, for the sake of commended him. We extract the pas- a momentary peace, a merely sectariani sage as far as it is historical :

advantage, had hartered away the all

tient liberties of Englishmen. “During the troubles of Ireland, at the latter end of the reign of King James the Presbyterian, Estinct," enjoyed the

New Broad Street, Petly France, escaping some threatening dangers by the services of several respectable ministyrannical and violent proceedings of a

ters, of whom Dr. Daniel Williams popish administration, He returned to

was the third in succession, and Mr. : England in 1687, and made London the John Palmer the last. place of his retreat. Here he was of great “JOAN PALMER.This gentleman ras' use upon a very critical and important oc- born in Londoo, in the year 1729. His casion. Some of the court agents at that father carried on the business of an undertime, endeavoured to bring the Dissenters taker, in Southwark. Both his parents in the city, to address the king upon bis were serious persons, of the Calvinistical dispeosing with the penal laws. To a con- persuasion, and njembers of the Independent ference at one of their meetings, upon that church in Collier's Rents, Southwark, occasion, in the presence of some of the roder the pastoral care of the Rer. Johti agents, Mr. Williams declared, • That it Rogers. They devoted their son to the was with him past doubt, that the severities moistry, and after giving him a school of the former reign upon the Protestant education, placed him under the care of the Dissenters, were rather, as they stood, is learned Dr. David Jenuings, under whoni the way of arbitrary power, than for their he pursued his theological studies. Epon religious dissent: so it were better for the death of Mr. Jancs Readi, ja 1759,' them to be reduced to their former hard- Mr. Palmer was chosen assistant to Dr.' ships, than declare for measores destructive Allen, at New Broad-street; and npors his of the liberties of their country'; and that removal to Worcester, in 1769, succeeded for himself, before he would concur in an to the pastoral charge. address wbich should be thought an appro- “ Mr. Palmer's first publication, we be bation of the dispensing power, he should liere, was · A Sermon occasioned by the chuse to lay down his liberty at bis Majesty's Death of King George II. preacher a New" feet.' He is said to bave pursued the ar- Broad-street, Nov. 2, 176, ou 1 Chron. gument with such clearness and strength, xxiv. 27, 28.' In 1766, be rerised, corthat the company present rejected the mo- rected, and prepared for the press, a posttion, and the emissaries went away disap- humous work of the Rer. Joho Alexander, pointed. There was a meeting at the same of Birmingham, with whom he had been time of a considerable number of the city upon terms of peculiar intimacy. It was clergy, waiting the issue of their delibera- entitled, ' A Paraphrase upon the fifteenth tions; who were greatly animated and en-. Chapter of the first Epistle to the Corinthecouraged by this brisk resolution of the ians; with Critical Notes and Observations, Disseating nipisters.”—II. 199, 200. and a preliminary Dissertation. A ComMr. Wilson says it was absurd, infi- sixth, serenth, and part of the eighth

nuentary, with Critical Remarks upon the milely absurd in the Presbyterians to Chapters to the Romans : To which is quarrel with their liberty, on account of added, a Sermon on Eccles. ix. 10, comthe qnarter from whence it came. We posed by the Aútbor the day preceding luis

229.

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Death. London. 1766. Quarto.' In for the abolition of sabscription to the 1769, Mr. Palmer published an Oration at Thirty-nine Articles. Though he was bred the interment of the Rev. Timothy Lauglier, up and educaled in Calvinistical principles, of Hackney; which was annexed to Dr. yet he gradually relinquished thein, and, at Kippis's funeral discourse upon the sanue length, imbibed the Socinian scheme. He occasion. His next publication, we be- died at his bouse in Islington, June the liere, was a small octain rolunie, eotitled, 26th, 1790, aged 61 years. Mr. Palmer • Prayers for the Use of Families, and Per- was for many years one of the trustees sops in Private.' This little work passed for Dr. Williams's charities."-II. 227to a second edition, in 1785, and has been much esteemed by those who are called rational Dissentera. In 1779, he pub

There was another Dissenting milished, "Free Thoughts on the Inconsis- nister of the same name, John Paliner, tency of confurning to any Religious of Macclesfield, and afterwards of Bite Test, us a Condition of Toleration, with mingham, who was also an author and the true Principles of Protedant Dissent. an Unitrian. He corresponded in the It was in this year that he was called to Theological Repository with Dr. Priest Januut the loss of an intimate friend in the ley, who has given an account of him Rer. (aleb Fleming, D. D. whose death in that work, VI. 217, 22+. he attempted to improve, in a sermon at In the history of “ Pinners' Hall, New Broad-street, August the Ist, in that dependent, Extinct," ourauthor encounyear. This discourse was afterwards print. ters the unwelcome names of Dr. James ed, together with an oration at the Doctor's Foster and Dr. Calat Firming. He says interwent, iw Bunhill-Fields, by Dr. Towers of the former (II 280) that he me The text of Mr: Palmer's sermon is, 2 Cor. jected those doctrines which are purely i. 12. Ja the same year he published, in actaro, • Observations in Defence of the

matters of revelation," and without Liberty of Man, as a Moral Agent; in meaning it, unsays this slander again Answer to Dr. Priestley's Illustratious of and again ; and of the latter, (II. 286, Philosophical Necessity. This is a judi. 287) that most of the doctrines of re cious and able piece upon the subject; velation " afforded him subject of ridiand in the following year, he published a de cule," that he “discovered enmity to fence of it in. An Appendix to the Obser- those doctrines which are the peculiar rations ;' occasioned by Dr. Priestley's let- glory of the gospel," and that he set ters to the author, in defence of the doctrine down for fools and enthusiasts all who of Necessity. Mr. Palmer's last publication, were vet Socinians." Dr. Foster's rewhich was printed in 1788, was, ' A Simm- putation and Christian character are so mary View of the Grounus of Christian well established that it has long seemed Baptism; with a more particular Reference unnecessary to protect him either to the Baptism of Infants : coniaining Ree against the spiritual Bucchanals who marks argumentative and critical, iu Expla- dance over the graves of hereties (M. mation and Defence of the Rite.'

“Some scars before the publication of Repos. II. 63, 64,] or the Siatri vho the last piece, Mr. Palmer bad desisted

strive to wound the good name of meri from any ministerial work. The lease of of creeds different from their own, bis meeting-house expiring about 1780, when conscience or cowardice restrains the congregation, which was in a very re

them from more honest persecution ; duced state, did not judge proper to renew, but Dr. Caleb Fleming is less knows it, and the society dissolvedl

. . After this, and therefore less respected and less seMr. Palmer wbully left of preaching, and cure from the attacks of bigotry. It is Tetired to Islington, where he lived pri- suflicient however for his vindication vately to the time of his death. He married that his life was unblaueable; that he a lady of considerable property, and during made considerable temporal sacrifices the latter years of his lite, kept up but for conscience sake; that he was inces littie coppexion with the Dissenters, He

samıly enoployed in promoting, accordwas a man of considerable talents, and, ing to his own persuasions, the interests Dećounted a very seusible and rational. of truth and freedom; that by Dr. James preacler. His pulpit compositions were

Foster, whose assistant he had been, he drawn up with much perspicuity, and delivered with great distinctness and pro

was recommended to his congregarion priety. He allowed himself great latitude

as his successor ; that between his flock in bis religious sentiments, and was a de- and himself there subsisted great hartermined enemy to any religious test wbat- mony and friendship, that he enjoyed

In this particular, he differed from the esteem of the most respected of his several of bis brethren, who, notwithstand- brethren, one of whom, Mr. John yug, lavoured the application to parliament Palmer, pronounced the highest culo

soever.

Review.Wilson's Dissenting Churches.

675 gium upon him in his funeral sermon; account, with all its faults, of no small and especially that he was for years the use. confidential friend of Dr. Lardner. The In a History of Dissenling Churches list of his publications is enough to we did not expect an account of a faprove both the impartiality and the ac- natical Deist who delivered lectures tivity of his mind.' His theological sys- at Carpenters' Hall [11. 290, 292). lem was of his own framing from the This was Jacob Ilive, a printer and Scriptures. He was the zealous advo- letter-founder. He published several cale of revealed religion, of Protestant: pamphlets, for one of which“Remarks ism, of nonconformity, and of some on the Bishop of London's (Dr. Sherdocirines which are accounted ortho- lock's) Discourses" he was imprisoned dox, such as the inmortality of the in Clerkenwell Bridewel two years. soul, the sancuity of the Sabbath, and During his confinement he appears to the liberty of the will

. His Unitarian, have written "The Book of Jasher," ism only' was against him. But for which he procured to be privately that, the present historian, who reports prinied, and which purported to be a the opinion and feeling of a large body translation from the original of Alcuin, of theologians, would not have termed a British monk. It is a small folio. his “specimens of divinity" “ wreich- live died in the year 1763. There is ed," or his interpretations of Scripture an account of him in Gough's British perverse ; nor would he in a virtual Topography, l. 637. comparison of himn with “ Mr. John 'The Old Jerry is rich in Dissenting Dove, a member of Mr. Pike's con- biography, having been always cele gregation," who was known by the brated for the number and respectabiliiy name of “The Hebrew Tailor," have of its congregation and the eminence given the seemiug preference to that of its ministers. At the beginning of learned artificer. Mr. Wilson has, this article, the historian notes duron, however, made some amends to Dr. what from the specimens lately given Fleming, by inserting in his work a the reader might not have observed, handsome engraving of him, from a that “the words Calvinist and Arian Portrait in Dr. Williains's library, and he uses as terms neither of honous nor a full and tolerably correct list of his reproach, but for the sake of convenipublications. The number in this list ence" (11. 305). is sixty, and there are several in our We cannot even enumerate all the possession not included.

ministers that as pastors, assistants or A life of Dr. Fleming was looked lecturers have rendered the Old Jewry for at the hands of the late Dr. Towers, so distinguished a Dissenting station, who came into possession of his papers, but must content ourselves with a few including, according to Dr. Kippis notices and remarks. (Life of Lardner, p. xcvi.)," a series of Mr. Wilson relates a

very stri. letters written to Dr. Fleming by Dr. king anecdote" (11.322—390), of

Lardner, in which he freely disclosed John Rogers, one of the Bartholomew I his thoughts concerning, men and confessors, and father of Timothy Ro

things." Why will not the represcn. gers, niivister at the Old Jewry. "The Talive of Dr. Towers, who is so capable anecdote is, in substance, that Mr. of doing justice to the characters of the Rogers was on the point of being sent friends of truth and freedom, gratify to jail for his Nonconformity, by Sir our wishes ? ' If he had not considered Richard Cradock, a persecuting' Jus. this gentleman as the proper biogra- tice of the Peace, but was delivered by pher of Dr. Fleming, the late Dr. Sir Richard's grand-daughter, a headToulinin would have commouicated a strong girl of six or seven years of age, menoir of this decided, intrepid, zealous who took a liking to The Puritan and laborious Unitarian teacher, to the preacher and threatened to drown Monthly Repository. Notices of him herself if he were ill-used. Mr. Timoare scatiered through this work (III. thy Rogers once related this story at 485–487. IV.151. VI. 44. VIII. 339. the house of a Mrs. Tooley, where lie X. 28.3], which we refer to in the hope was dining in company with Mr. 'T. that they may excite suitable attention Bradbury; when the hostess revealed to a neglected character. It is right to that she was the grand-daughter of Sir add that should a complete menoir of R. Cradock, and the person to whom Ds. Fleming be prepared for the press, the story referred. Her guests were aire compiler will. liud. Mr. Wilson's anxious to learn her religious bistari,

Tous.

and she proceeded to narrate by what and, as I'think, with yery good reason, means she had been converted'; these that it is an infringement of Christian lie were the artifices of a religious apothe- berty, to use compulsive methods, to oblige cary who laid her imder an involun- meu to do even what they take not to be tary obligation to read the New Testa- sinful, or to subscribe all that they believe : ment, and a dream eventually realized forasunuch as this is confining where God in a Serinon from Mr. Shower at the has left at liberty, and making necessary

what be has left indifferent.'- Hors bap. Old Jewry. The story is ".striking" enongh, this method of suhscribing, had never

py bad it been for the church and world, if and may also be true; but Mr. Wil come into the mind of men, more than into son has omitted his authority for rela- the mind of God! If, af' that holy man, ting it. We read it in our boyish Mr. Baxter, expresses it, the devil had days in the Spiritual Magazine, the dever put on his gown, stept into the inwrapper of which was rendered awful fallible chair and in a fit of reverend zeal, in our eyes by the head of John Cal- taken upon him to preserve and perfect the rin, in a wood-cut. It is in the Num- faith of the church! This was opening ber for March, 1784, and is thus Pandora's box. Had not Satan turned headed, with an appearance of autho- orthodox, and tempted Christian ministers rity, “The substance of a letter from to 'makc, and meud, sind enlarge creeds, Mr. Davidson, of Braimtree, to Mr. and prevent and core heresy by subscrip Archibald Wallace, Merchant, in tion, to their own ternus and forms, peace

and truth had been much better preserved Edinburgh, dated 12h Oct. 1767." A very interesting account is given, the engine of the devil, as that wise and

than they bare been, or erer will be, till (II. 338-358,) of Simon Browne, good man called it, be orerthrown." whose peculiar malady has procured il. 340, 341. hini a degree of fame which his talents and virtues, though great, would

Brownie's publications were numenot alone have obtained. Dr. Hawkes

He was one of the authors of worth has describes the case with all

“ The Occasional Papers," and also his usual fascination of style in No. 88,

one of Matthew Henry's Continyof the Adventurer. Browne imagined the first Epistle

to the Corinthians.

ators; the part assigned to him was ihat Almighty God had annihilated his thinking substance; yet whilst he

The life of Chandler must occupy a was under this melancholy delusion large space in any history not merely he composed works which discovered

of ihe Old Jewry but likewise of the remarkable strength and acuteness of

Dissenters. His fame as a preacher mind. There are various accounts of has not yet died away ; and his writhe origin of his disorder. Dr. Per-tings will be ever valued by the biblicira! suggests [Works, II. 80.] that cal student. He possessed extensive it might be owing to his study of the and correct learning, a penetrating Platonic writers, who represent the

and comprehensive intellect and a most perfect worship of the Deity as

sound judgment. The memoir of consisting in self-annihilation.

him, which is here given, is crediIt is recorded to the honoar of Sic table to Mr. Wilson's liberality. The mon Browne that he was oite of the following notice may be useful to fu. non-subscribing ministers at the Sal- ture translators and commentators op ters' Hall synod. He appeared before

the Scriptures : the public and encountered present

“ Dr. Chandler left in his interleaved reprouch as their advocate. Mr. Wil- bible, a large number of critical notes, son has furnished us with two admis chiefly in Latin. They arc drawn up in rable extracts from his pamphlet on

the manner of Raphelius, Bos, Elsaer, that occasion :

and other writers of the like kiod. Those

on the Old Testament are thinly scatter. “ Upon the subject of subscribing heed, excepting in a few particular places. expres-es himself thus : ' For my own "But tbose on the New Testament are very part, I always took it, that subscriptions of copious aod display a close study of the all kinds, whether to liturgies or articles, Holy Scriptures, and an extensive acquainhad been a grievance to our fathers, as tance with ancient authors. They were well as to us; though ratber than be ren- purebased for a small consideration by dered utterly incapable of public useful- Dr. Amory, Mr. Farmer, Dr. Furneans, liess, they and we have submitted to the Dr. Price, Dr. Sarage, and Dr. Kippis, hardship, and subscribed to some of the 39 with an intention of committing them to articles.--But there are many that judge, the press, if any, bookseller could be found

677

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Review. Dr. Wults's Lasi Thoughts on the Trinity. who would be willing to run the risk of of describing this and kindred parties; publication. But it was not judged that but we would remind him that notlic taste of the age would afford sufficient thing can absolve a Christian from encouragement for the prosecation of the the duties of truth and justice and design. Dr. Furneaux employed such candour; that any appearance of artilabour upon the manuscript ; baving tranfice or unfairness towards such as scribed some of the nutes, and examined throw out large accusations against the anthorities on which they are founded their fellow Christians, only confirms Dr. Kippis, the last surviving proprietor, them in their surmises and ill-will ; deposited the work iu Dr. Williams's Library, Redcross-street. It is in the quarte and that, in reality, the filtest objects form, very fairly written, and the Hebrew of fair-dealing and charity are those in particular, remarkably correct and beau- that know not how to contend withtiful."-II. 382.

oul animosity or to differ without re

sentment. The article “ Free-Thinkers" (II. 523) savours of bigotry. The people Art. III.-A Faithful Enquiry after referred to denominate themselves

the Antient and Original Doctrine of Free-Thinking Christians." Whats

the Trinity, taught by Christ and his ever be thought of the name, whether

Apostles. By Isaac Watts, B. D. it be considered impolilie, or guaint,

1745. 8vo. Pp. 56. Eatou. 1816. or arrogant; or, in the present instance,

R. WATTS's last sentimients misapplied, it is the appellation of the DR.

have been frequently and fully party, and as such ought to be adopted discussed in our pages (VIII. 683, by their historian. * Free-thinkers" 714, 715—723, 768–770); and it is is, Mr. Wilson knows, synonimous, we think quite clear that he died in in common acceptation, with Sceptics the disbelief of the Trinity. The tract or Unbelievers; and for that reason, before us is a record by his own pen probably, he uses the term, for he of his misgivings

, doubts and inquisays, somewhat unintelligibly, “ they ries. It was printed in 1745, but meet to discuss suljects, connected in- carefully suppressed. One copy aq deed with theology, but intended to least escaped and fell into the hands undermine the doctrines of revelation, of the Rev. Gabriel Watts, of Frome, and erect sceptical indifferrnop upon who re-published it in the year 1802, the ruins of the Christian faith.” This with a Preface explaining the inanner is sitting in judgment upon men's in which it came into his possession. motives, and pronouncing sentence. The edition had been tong out of upon them not according to their print, and therefore the presem Ediprofessions or actions, but according to for has, with the leave of the former' the censor's suspicion or ill-nature. Editor, issued a third impression. The “ Free-thinking Christians" al

Dr. Watts's Solenin Address to the ways declared themselves believers in Trinitg is prefixed; a striking monuDivine Revelation, and since Mt. ment of the distracting tendency of Wilson wrote this part of the history, the doctrine upon an intelligent and! they have published a very valuable

conscientious nrind. pamphlet on the Evidences of Christ

This liale publication is better sanity, (See Mon. Repos. X. 515.) adapted than any other with which Unfortunately for Mr. Wilson, he re

we are acquainted to dissolve that collected that this little party met in persaasion of infallibility which pre a.room contiguous to that in which fails amongst Trinitarians, and which another party still less, the Haldanites, renders them inaccessible to arguwere accustomed to meet, and called

ment; and on this ground we' ear. to mind some lines of De Foe's, and nestly recommend its distribution, was unable to resist the temptation to luogh, though at the expence of cha-- Art. IV. - Ileresies Considered, in rity: he assails the “ Free-thinking

Connexion with the Chardeter of the Christians," with these couplets ;

Approred. A Sermoni, preached at *** Whereyer God erects-a House of Prayer, the Opening of the Unitarian Cha. The Devil always builds a chapel there; pel, in Thorne, on Friday, 28th of And 'twill be found, upon examination, June,_1816. By Nathaniel Phi. The latter has the largest congregation." lipps, D. 1). 8vo, pp40. Hunter. We are aware of the defence which

ERESY was once a stinging

term, but Unitarians have ren. VOL, XI.

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