« AnteriorContinua »
Bromley, Jan. 28, 1816. of the Rise and Progress of the HerrnSir,
huters. Mr. Rimius was a German THE following early account of who had frequented their public reDoddridge, so far as I can learn, bas has given the German originals and never been printed. It came into my translations of numerous passages from possession among some old family pa. the Count's published Sermons and pers, and must have been copied at least Hymns, which shew what shocking sixty years ago, probably much near. iudecencies, at least in phraseology, er the date of Dr. Poddridge's letters. he had connected with his theologiThese dates are omitted in the extracts, cal system. Of these Dr. Maclaine but from internal circumstances may has preserved quite sufficient, to surbe safely fixed at 1736 or 1737. It ap- prise and disgust any reader, in his pears from Mr. La Trobe's English edi. Translation of Mosheim, Ed. 2nd. tion of Crantz's History of the Brethren, (p. 85. Note s.) A larger account is in German, (p. 213,) that Count Zin- in the Gen. Biog. Dict. 1784 (ix. zendorf arrived in London, Jan, 20, 327). 1737, and there received in August In 1754, Mr. Rimius added A Sofollowing a congratulatory letter from lemn Call on Count Zinzendorf, and Potter, Archbishop of Canterbury, ou in 1755, A Supplement to the Candid his having become a Bishop of the Narrative. Count Zinzendorf, who Moravian Church. The Latin origi- lived till 1760, died and made no sign. nal and translation are preserved He could not venture to examine the by Mr. La Trobe, in his preface, Candid Narrative. Nor has Crantz, where he adds, that “ Dr. Isaac who wrote in 1771, nor Mr. La Trobe Watts also gave a testimony to this his editor, in 1780, and whose soberchurch, under the patronage of that mindedness, like that of Mr. Gambold, noble and excellent person, Count Zin- tended to redeem the character of his zendorf, in a letter, dated Dec. 21, sect, ever' mentioned the name of 1738." By a note (p. 240) it appears Rimius or referred to his Charges that this letter is preserved in the against Zinzendorf; a sufficient proof Acta Fratrum, App. 56, p. 42, and of their inability to refute them, that Dr. Doddridge corresponded with though no evidence of their candour, the Brethren the same year.
or even iotegrity as historians. It would be unjust to the memo- I have added a few notes to explain ries of such men as Watts and Dod- or confirm some passages in the exdridge, and indeed of the persons men- tracts, and remain, Sir, tioned in these extracts, to introduce
Yours, them in connexion with such an equi
J. T. RUTT. vocal character, to say the least, as Zinzendorf, without recollecting that Extracts of two Letters from the Rev. the Count, at the date of these ex- Mr. [Dr.] Doddridge, at Northamptracts, and, as I apprehend, for some ton, to the Rev. Mr. (Dr.) Isaac
Watts. years afterwards, was known in Eng
Letter I. land, only as a very zealous and in
SIR, defatigable Christian Propagandist.
I am ashamed to think how long I have Watts and Doddridge were both de- neglected to fulfil my promise of sending ceased before Mr. Rimius, the histo- to you some account of those remarkable rian of the House of Brunswick, pub- particulars, relating to the Moravian Brelished in 1753, bis Candid Narrative ihren, which I promised you several months VOL. II.
ago. I had just then received an account tinuance there, happened to pass throngly from my reverend and worthy friend, Mr. that wood, and saw a little but lately Ingham, a Clergyman of the Church of raised, and perceiving a smoke in it, had England,* who having spent almost a the curiosity to alight
and go into it, whore twelvemonth at Saranpa, in company with be found these five refugees who, in a very several of them, received the greatest part respectful manner, owned themselves tresof his information from them, and espe- passers on his ground, and discovering cially, froin the Rev. Mr. Spangenberg, their religion and circumstances implored Pastor, or as they call it, Bishop of the his protection. This he readily granted, Moravian Church at Philadelphia.t and entering into some religious discourse
I need not tell you, Sir, how well the with them, was so much impressed that he names of the Moravian and Bohemian Bre- invited, and encouraged their frequent thren were known, long before Luther's visits, and soou set up, first weekly, then time, for I doubt not but you are inuch daily preaching, exposition and prayer, in better acquainted than I with those sin- his family, to which any one that pleased galar footsteps of Divine Providence by to come was admitted. I which the beginning of a reformation was The number of the congregation soon raised among them, as it had been long grew considerable, and one of the Morabefore among the Waldenses, from whom, vians was dispatched to carry the agreenevertheless, I cannot find that doctrine able news into his native country : but, or discipline was derived; though there either in his journey or return, he was was a great resemblance between them. seized by the Roman Catholics, whipt from Those churches, throughout all the snc- town to town like a felon, frequently ceeding ages, have remained, in part at threatened with immediate death, all the least, a distinct body, neither incorpora- intimations of which be received with the ted with the Lutherans, nor Calvinists, nor most heroic resolution, and at last died any other sect in Germany; and in cou- of their repeated ill usage.|| Nevertheless sequence of that, together with the remarkable strictness of their discipline, though in doctrine they have indulged to
The five refugees from Moravia were a great latitude; they have been conti- brothers, named Neisser, who had joined nually exposed to persecution not only
Christian David, a carpenter. He began from Papists but from Protestants too.
the settlement at des Herrn Hut or the I think it now about fifteen years since
Watch of the Lord, by striking his axe five of them, flying from the violence to into a tree, and exclaiming, Here hath the which they were exposed at home, took sparrow found an house, and the swallow refuge in a wood at Herrnhut, which was a nest for herself; even thine altars 0 a part of the celebrated Count Zinzendorf's Lord of Hosts. Count Zinzendorf « even estáte. That pious noblemán, returning in the 10th year of his age, bad formed from the Court of Dresden, weary of their the resolution of being a preacher of the impieties and immoralities, and fearful of gospel,” though in 1721, “ in obedience hazarding his salvation by a longer con
to his grandmother he had accepted a post in the administration at Dresden.” That
year, however, he became acquainted with Benjamin Ingham, in the same ship Christian David. Yet he does not appear with John and Charles Wesley, accompa- to have been apprized of the settlement at nied to Georgia in the spring of 1735, the Herrnhut till 1722, when he was returning third colony sent out by the Moravians. from Ebersdorf, where he had married the “ Ingham, in conjuuctioa with the Bohe. Countess Reuss. “On the 21st of Decemmian brother Rosa and his wife set up a ber, he was conducting his Lady to Hen. sebool for the Indians, not far from an In- nersdorf ; and having descried from tho dian village." In 1738, Mr. Ingham, road a house in the wood, he signified: with John Wesley, accompanied from his surprise, but also his satisfaction ; England a “ Moravian brother," into Ger- went in to these Moravians, and, bidding many, which Mr. I. appears soon to Have them welcome, fell with them upon his left, and become a very popular preacher knees and prayed. Soon after, he moved in Yorkshire. See La Trobe's History, into his newly-erected mansion at Berthpp. 194, 226, 228.
oldsdorf.” Id. p. 94-101. + Augustus Gottlieb Spangeuberg, A.M. || No account agreeing to this appears of the University of Halle. He united in Crantz's History or La Trobe's Notes, himself to Couni Zinzendorf at Herrnhut It appears that in 1723, “ Christian Dain 1733, was in Georgia, and afterwards vid set out again for Moravia," where at Philadelphia in 1736, but not conse. his conversations occasioned a great emo, crated Bishop till 1744. He finally re- tion," and roused the zeal of Melchior turned to Europe in 1762, and was com- Nitschmann, who was confined “a long missioned in 1764 to write the Life of Zin- time in prison, and was there treated most zendorf. Id. pp. 182, 258, 310, 531, unmercifully but was at lengtla set free 604.
with derision. Another of the same name
Dr, Doddridge's Account of the Moravian Brethren. wheresoever he was carried, and ever English sailors were in the utmost conwhile they were lashing him, he preached sternation, the Morarians stood upon deck the gospel with great success; and in con- singing psalms, with all the marks of joy sequence of his witness and sufferings and composure in their countenances, crowds flucked into the Church at Herrnhut, imagining they were come to the period of in which there are, if I recollect right, all their trials and just entering upon about six hundred adult communicants, glory. On which Mr. Wesley observes four handred of whom, being under religi. that he could not forbear representing to ons convictions, they call illuminated, and the sailors, in a short discourse, the sintwo hundred catechumegs. They sent out gular happiness of the servants of God missionaries to propngate the gospel in va- abore all others. rious parts, and particularly in Lapland, I may, perhaps, communicate to you where I am told they met with considerable from their original papers the substance of success.
a conference which these Englishmen had Though the Count, who, it seems, has with Mr. Spangenberg. It will be suffi. takeu orders, has devoted his whole estate, cient to add that they soon entered into which is very considerable, to charitable measures for a mission to the Indians of uses; yet the number of exiles, flowing in Georgia, with some remarkable success. upon them, has beeu greater than his li- Those poor creatures run seven or eight berality could support, which joined with miles, after their day's work, and spend their zeal of propagating their religion great part of the night in receiving reli. has induced many of them to go over to gious instructions, though they are sure, Georgia as others have done to Pensylvania. at their return, in the morning, to be Friend Ingham had the pleasure of the most severely scourged by their Christian pious company of fifteen in the ship which masters, if their journey has been discaconreyed him and Mr. Wesley to Georgia, vered. I I will, in my next, which you and I cannot forbear mentioning a little may very quickly expect, give you a parcircumstance which I find in the journal ticular account of some very remarkable now, by the favour of that fraternity, in providences with respect to these Mora. my hands, which is, that a riolent storm viaus which, if they may be believed, on arising, in which the whole company ex. the credit of the gentleman mentioned, are pected to perish, immediately when the worthy of notice, to which I shall' add
something further of Mr. Ingham. is said to hare ended his race on Maun
LETTBR II. day Thursday, 1729, in prison, after I resume the subject of my last, and three years' confinement for the sake of mention two or three more remarkable cirthe gospel, which he attempted to bring cumstances, relating to the Moravians, lo bis country people in Moravia." Id. which I had from my good friend, Mr. Pp. 103 and 107,
Ingbam. . In 1734 three of the Brethren offered He tells me there is a most remarkable to undertake a inission to Lapland. They spirit of prayer amongst them, and espetraversed Swedish Lapland, but attempting cially for the propagating of religion in the a mission to Russian Lapland, they were world; to which end, that prayers may be arrested at Archangel, in 1738, as Swe- made contiuually, there are a certaiu numdish Spies, and after suffering great hard. ber of them formed into two little societies, ships, brought to Petersburg, where their one of men and the other of women, who simplicity and uprightness helped them do in their turns keep up prayers through through. A certain great minister for- all the hours both night and day.ll The nished them with a passport to Lubec, with these words: Ye may go your way, good people ; your service is not wanted here." | This is an exact description of the Id. pp. 188, 189.
treatment negroes have ofteo endured, but + The Brethren early 5 established a it appears from Morse that Negroes were fand, called by them the Lamb's, or the not at this time employed in Georgia. It Saviour's Chest, which became very con- is difficult to understand who were these siderable by the contributions of the pro. Indians, Slaves to Christian Marters, as selytes of Herrnhutism. From the begin. the school mentioned in Note *, p. 66, was ning two brethren were trusted with it, for the children of free Indians, the Creeks, of whom one kept the chest and the other and encouraged by their King Tomo. See the key." The Countess is said to have Morse. Georg., 8vo. p. 453, &c, and La “ so well husbanded the scanty funds of Trobe, Hist. pp. 194 and 230). the society that nothing was ever wanting, 11 " At all hours, whether day or night, either in her family, or among the bro- some persons of both sexes are appoiuted therhood, though thero bad been a neces. by rotation, to pray for the society. These sity of furnishing from thence above one people, without call, clock or watch, are million of erowns for sundry undertakings." acquainted by an inward feeling when their Rimius's Cand. Nar. p. 28...
honr comes, in which they are to perform
children of those who are members of the mixture of ostentation, one day, receiving church are, as they were ainongst the La- the sacrament amongst them, was taken cedemonians, looked upon as the property, with convulsive pains and died in the asrather of the public, than their own pa- sembly, crying with his last breath, and rents, from whom they are taken when with the greatest horror, Spiritual Pride! a year old, and put to a school, where the Spiritual Pride! first lesson taught them is simple obedience These people were misrepresented to and quietness.* They have several elders the late King of Poland, so that he sent whose business is to give the Bishop, or an order against them, which would pro, Pastor, who, by the way, is a mechanic, bably have ended in extirpation; but it the most exact information they can re- was very remarkable that a few days be. lating to the religious state of the whole fore it was to be executed he got that accommunity.t They suspend each other cidental hurt in bis wve, which mortified froin cominuvion, or withdraw themselves and proved the occasion of his death. The from it, not only from any scandalous of- present King sent a commission to inquire fence, wbich seidom happens among them, after them, but receired a report so much but on account of any little misdemeanor, in their favour thai he secretly protected which seems contrary to the honour of the them. gospel. Count Zinzendorf was once sus- Mr. Ingbam assures me that he has seen pended for being in a passion with one of amongst them such extraordinary answers his servants, and was obliged to acknow- of prayer as has thrown him into great ledge his fault, and to ask purdon publicly anazement. [ Persons have been recovered before he was restored.
from dangerous and desperate illness, as it They tell one remarkable story concern- seems, by this means; and he added a liting a person who was a member with them, tle story, for the truth of which he under. but something offended at the strictness of takes to answer, upon bis own knowledge. their discipline. He did not submit to fra. One of the brethren, who is an Elder, was ternal correction, as they call it. They bathing in a river, a little above Savanna, therefore proceeded to admonish him, at when an alligator darted directly at him. which he was greatly exasperated. Being The Moravian did not attempt to fly, but a person of eininent rank, he then set finding bimself inwardly supported, as he them at open defiance, and insulted them afterwards declared, with a full assurance in a very audacious manner. Upon which of being delivered, be swam directly 10they excommunicated him, very solemnly. wards the alligator, and laid his hands on He was then seized with violent agonies, the head of that voracious creature, with. both of body and mind; and when he had out the least degree of fear upon him. Upfor several weeks tried most noted physi- on which the alligator sunk down like a cians, and every method of amusement stone, to the bottom of the river, and and comfort he could think of, to no pur- made no other attempt upon him. He says pose, he at last sent for the elders, and that several of the inhabitants were at that desired them to pray for him. But they time within sight, and it was as a sort of insisted on his being brought, I think, on a standing saying among some sort of the his couch, to their public assembly, where English, that the little man had beat the be made an open confession of his sin. It alligator. is a very melancholy incident they tell of I might have added, that in dubious another of their number wbo having made cases their Church has often recourse to a very florid profession, not without some the determination of lots,ll and Mr. In.
their duty.” Le Long, a Moravian Au- I Dr. Doddridge himself, as Dr. Kipthor, in Rimius, p. 10.
pis, bis biographer, wbo knew him well, * “ They pay an uncommon attention has observed, carried his notions on this to the instruction of youth. There are as- subject “ somewhat farther than reason and semblies held of little children that are truth will warrant," so as to ascribe to not yet in a condition to walk. They are prayer“ such an immediate influence upon carried thither. Hymns are sung in these the Supreme Mind, and to expect from it meetings and prayers made; even sermons such interpositions as are scarcely copeis. are preached to them, suitable to the ea- tent with the regular order of Providence, pacities of these infant hearers.” Rimius, and the stated course of events in the p. 9.
world.” Dr. K. considers Dr. Price and + “Every member is daily visited by Dr. Ogden as having also exceeded, on one of his class, who gives him exborta- this point. B. Britt., v. 305. tions, and takes notice of the actual state Il This mode of determination was of bis soul, whereof he makes a report to adopted on a remarkable occasion by the the Elders. The Elders have the sole Congregation-Church. In 1731, “ The right of making matches. No promise of Count having endeavoured to evince the marriage is of any validity, without their utility of a total conformity with the Lu. consent." Rimius, pp. 8 and 11. theran Church, it was resolved that we
Character of Charles James Fox.
00 gham passed his last voyage upon that is- fully determined to return, as soon as Prusue. The Moravian Church was called vidence gives him an opportunity. Ho together upon the occasion, at least, the speaks of the four months be spent amongst elders of it, and after several hours spent the Indians, as the most delightful part in prayer, one of them threw a lot which of his life, though he was but beginning determined him to return to England. Ne- to understand their language, and had no vertheless the good man, in whom, I must accommodations of life about him but such say, there is as much of the Christian as they use, his English dress being exapostolic spirit as I ever saw on so little cepted. acquaintance in any person living ; is
Jan. 12, 1816. this were all, we could account for it easiVHE following character of Mr. ly; but we must listen in silent astonishat the age of twenty-eight, may suit sudden unexpected incident, and discuss ably follow the interesting extracts perhaps a deep intricate subject for an
hour, with an ability, perspicuity and from his speeches, which have ap- precision, that would induce such as are peared in your last volume.
unacquainted with his habits, or are ig. “Mr. Fox is certainly one of the first na- norant of his talents, to be persuaded that tive orators in the House, but he is ex. he came to the House previously prepared tremely negligent. His discourses are fre- and informed, in order to deliver his opinquently finished pieces of argumentation, ion. With these almost unrivalled gifts abounding in the best pojated observations, which nature has bestowed, Mr. Fox is and the justest conclusions; and supported far from being a pleasing or persuasire by a weight of reasoning, a manly boldness orator. His utterance is rapid, disagreeand energy of expression, almost unequal. able, and sometimes scarcely intelligible. led; and never, within the course of our He speaks always as if he was in a passion, knowledge or experience, surpassed. His and the arguments of passionate people do extemporary speeches on facts, arguments not come well recommended. He someand details, not immediately arising from times descends to personal attacks, to anecnor connected with the proper subject of dotes and puerilities, much beneath the debate, at least not foreseen, are truly ad- dignity of a British Senator, particularly mirable. They bear every appearance of a man of his consummate talents." the most studied and laboured harangues,
I copy this passage from P. iii. of in every thing but the delivery, which, however rapid, is not able to keep pace Review of the Public Conduct and Abi
“Characters: containing an Impartial with the crowded conceptions of the
speak- lities of the most Eminent Personages er. His ideas are inexhaustible, and are ever ready at his command; but even if in the Parliament of Great Britain ;*
published at Dublin in 1777. Those
Prime Actors in the political Drama should resign ourselves to the entire will of their day, have all quitted the stage; of our Saviour. Therefore the two follow. their love and their hatred and their ing lots (texts) were writter, and with fervent prayer, one of them was drawn by enry is now perished. They were ninea child of four years old :
teen in number, of whom the Duke 1. To them that are without law, &c. of Grafton was, I believe, the last 1 Cor. ix. 21.
survivor. 2. Therefore brethren, stand fast, $c.
N. L. T. 2 Thess, ii. 15.
The last was drawn. We entered from that day, into a covenant with each other,
Bath, January 3, 1818. to remain upon this footing, and in this
Sir, constitution to carry on the work of the
OU will give me leave to introLord, and to preach bis gospel in all the
duce to the notice of your read. world and among all nations, whithersoerer ers one uncommon sentiment of Dr. he should be pleased to send and scatter Chauncey, which was, that the righteus abroad, and sang,
ous, in successive ages, would pass Guard thou us, in thy affair,
through many deaths, or states of With the holy watcher's care."
oblivion. As they must die in this La Trobe Hist. p. 137 present world before they can enter