« AnteriorContinua »
merous literary and philosophical pa- be the case, when it is considered that pers, hitherto unpublished, &c. among the most intiinate friends of
The first, and perhaps the most this great man, were Dr. Priestley, Dr. interesting portion which is to appear, Price, Burke, Fox, the Bishop of St. is his correspondence; the second wilí Asaph, Sir Joseph Banks, Brand be the genuine life; and the third the Hollis, Granville Sharp, Buffon, Dahitherto unpublished literary and phi- vid Hartley, Lord Shelburne, Lord losophical papers, &c.
Grantham, Baron Maseris, the Earl of The correspondence is most impa. Buchan, Beccaria, Baskerville, &c. tiently expected; and this may well &c. &c.
MONTHLY RETROSPECT of PUBLIC AFFAIRS;
The Christian's Survey of the Political World. ANOTHER deliberative body has strongly marked : the noble, the learn commenced its discussions, which are ed, and the common people. The likely to be of considerable importance noble distinguished by pride and ignoto Europe. The members of this body rance; the learned by indefatigable are of the higher ranks, and their ob application ; the people by unwearied ject is to settle the affairs of Germany, industry and the heavy yoke of oppresThe overthrow of the Germanic or sion. "To the two latter classes the holy Roman empire was followed by world is indebted for great improve the confederation of the Rhine, in ments in literature, science, and for which Buonaparte held a rank similar much mechanical ingenuity. The to that so long possessed by the House trade of the former class was war, and of Austria. The changes that hare young and old improved their fortunes taken place in consequence of the by commissions, in their own and destruction of the system set up by neighbouring countries. One great Buonaparte, have rendered it necessary benefit of the French revolution is the to take some steps for a new constitu- lowering of the pride of the nobles ; tion in Germany. This is taken in for not to them but to the people is hand chiefly by ihe great estates, that Europe indebted for the final overthrow Isave parted out this fine country of the mighty monarch. anjongst theinselves. They have sent In consequence of the late struggle, their deputies to Frankfurt, and their the people of Germany are alive to session resembles that of the antient their rights, and this will probably be diet. It was opened by the deputy seen in the course of the discussious. from Austria, who presides on this It is not to be expected that the line occasion; and in his speech he expa- of distinction between the nobles and tiated in strong terms on the excel- the other classes will be completely lencies of the German nation, and withdrawn. The former will continue promised on the part of his master not to pride themselves on the quarterings to exercise farther interference in in their arms, and may disdain to mix the debates, than what became him their blood with that of the classes, as chairman of so avgust an assembly. whom they look upon as so much He was followed liy the deputy from beneath them) : but still they will be the King of Holland, whose speech brought nearer to each other, and was wholly panegyrical, and it now offices of state will be inore widely remains to see what will be the re- diffused. The discussions also that sult of this meeting.
will arise throughout Gerinany on the All that the above-mentioned subject of the debates, will be benespeaker advanced on the excellence official; and it is not improbable that the German character is very little if an effort will be made to introduce at all exaggerated ; but this praise be the representative system. We shall longs to the people, not to the class
see more of this however in the issue. which has so long domineered over The debates will partake of the slow: them. Nothing could be
ness of the German character, but wretched than the antient state of something will be gained on the side Germany, in which three classes were of freedom.
Stute of Public Affairs.
691 The death of the King of Wirtem- measure. It is in contemplation to burg promises to put an end to the dis- let them receive testamentary gifts, putes in his dornains. This kingdom, but it is in vain to attempt to raise founded by Buonaparte, seenis likely to them to their former splendour. The be the first to enjoy the representative age of delusion is gone by; and unless systein. The new sovereign was they, come nearer to Christianity, friendly to the demands of the sub- which is not very likely, they will sink jects, and he has a fine opportunity to lower in public estimation. The Probegin his reign in a popular manner. ' testants, however, will be preserved It is probable also, that the power from such proceedings as took place at given to the Duke of Cambridge may Nismes; and, if they conduct thembe beneficial to the Hanoverian states. selves with prudence, will at least not Prussia begins to feel some embarrass- suffer any infringement on their rights. ments from its new subjects of Saxony: The affairs of the insurgents on This latter country was the best as the shores washed by the gulph of Prussia was the worst governed of all Mexico, appear to be unsuccessful, the States of Germany, and the ideas but how far this extends to the country of the new may be beneficial to the properly called the kingdom of Mexico, old subjects. Indeed, if it is true that is not ascertained. French officers are a minister from one of the pulpits of said to be expatriating themselves in Prussia, who had served against Buo- great numbers for these regions, and naparte, inquired what have we been we are yet to learn what has become fighting for if we are not to have a of Humboldt and his expedition. In constitution ? we have reason to.be - South America the cause of indepenlieve that the subjects may answer the dence bears a more favourable aspect, question, and keep the sovereign to his and the shores of La Plata seem to be promise.
advancing fast towards a settled conThe national assembly of France stitation. has met. The sessions was opened by At home, meetings continue to be the king with the usual forinalities. held, some on the subject of parliaHe went in solemn procession to the mentary reform, others on the disa teinple of her who is profanely called tresses of the times. Amongst the for the Mother of God; was adedressed by mer, Cornwall holds a high pre-emithe priests in language which Protes- nence; and that county in which the tants deem profane ; and after assisting abuses of representation are the greatat their rites, delivered an oration to est, speaks the loudest for the correction his assembled states. His speecb has of them. The late meetings have also been re-echoed by the usual addresses, had very beneficial effecis. A general and the chambers have been employed disposition prevails to alleviate as much in verifying the powers of the deputies. as possible present distress ; and let us Great questions are to come before hope that 'benevolence duly exerted them; but by all accounts the ultra- will be crowned with success. In this royalist party seems to be in a mino- as in every thing belonging to his ofrity. This augurs well for the French fice, the Lord Mayor co-operates with people, and it will be curious to see his usual energy. His entrance into the ultra-royalists taking up the cause office for the second time must not of liberty. Their grand advocate has pass without a remark. The proces. already published doctrines consonantsion upon these occasions returned not to those held by thc Whigs at our Re as usual by water, but by land through volution. The liberty of the press is Westminster ; and wherever the state loudly called for, and the espionage of coach passed, the acclamations of the the police held out to deserved con- people, and the crowded windows tempi. But it does not seem likely manifested the delight of the two cities that their ministers will part with this in the popularity so well earned by too grand engine of despotism. Nor this exemplary magistrate. Some umdo the French secm to have acquired brage was taken at this procession by as yet just notions of the decorum that one of the ministers; but the publicabelongs to a deliberative body: The tion of the correspondence between affairs of the church seem likely to him and the Lord Mayor, tended only form a prominent part in the debates; to raise the latter in public estimation. some agreement has been negotiated The case of Lord Cochrane has again with the pope ; and the clergy will been brought before the public. "He aim at raising themselves a little by the appeared before the judges to reccive
their sentence for breach of prison, to to keep the peace. After a lapse of which crime they attached a penalty time, ihe party challenged became the of one hundred pounds, and of course challenger, and in a very scurrilous letimprisonment till the fine was paid. ter appointed Calais for the place of His Lordship not paying the fine was settling their differences within a time conveyed to prison, and his friends had limited. Thither the parties resorted, a meeting to raise it by subscription and bred each his pistol at the other To this no objection can be made. nearly instantaneously, and one of The subscribers inay gratify themselves them only was wonnded. They then in thus releasing his Lordship from returned to England, and the account confinement; but it is evident that the of these disgusting proceedings was set laws inust be obeyed, and after a trial forth in all the public papers. Wheby jury and connimment on that trial, ther the last challenger has received there cannot be a doubt that breach of what is vulgarly called satisfaction, we prison is a crime. If in the imprisons do not know, for no explanation took ment there has been any injury sus- place op the ground. He has returned tained by the person confined, he has unhurt, and all that has been gained by his redress by law: but in this case as their attempts at murder, has been the far as the crime and penalty are con- proof, that each can stand to be shot at. nected together, it will be generally The annals of duelling do not present thought that his Lordship can have no an instance, in which such vulgar reason to complain of the severity of abuse and scurrilous language have his last sentence.
been used. It remains to be seen The'moral world has been shocked what part the bar will take on this by a transaction rendered too notorious, transaction ; but surely it cannot be berrcen iwo barristers. d violent al- countenanced by a profession to which tercation it seems took place between we look up for peculiar attention to the them, and one of the parties thought laws of our country. On the folly and it requisite to demand satisfaction ac- wickedness of this mode of settling dilcording to the false principles of honour, ferences, it is not necessary for us to against which they ought to have been expatiate. The characters of the pare the first to set themselves in opposition. ties cannot be raised in our estimation Some demur took place in accepting by, such a paltry expedient; and, if the challenge, and in the mean time, either of them had died, we should not the parties were prevented from putting have acquitted the other of the guilt of their murderous intentions into execu-, murder. tion, by being bound over by a magistrate
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Estimate of the Philosophical Character In the prosecution of his very able
of the Antagonists of Lobbes. argument on this subject, Cudworth
prefixed to Supplement to Encyclopædia and choice erudition, penetrated
throughout with a peculiar vein of
earth, sun, and stars; read profound
and admire the wisdom of the composer ; becanie indispensably necessary, either
while, to the other, nothing appears but to expose the sophistry of the attempt, black strokes drawn on white paper. The or to adınit, wiih Hóbbes, that man
reason of which is, that the mind of the is a beast of prey, incapable of being one is furnished with certain previous in, governed by any motives but fear, ward anticipations, ideas, and instrucand the desire of self-preservation. tion, that the other wants."-"In the
Between some of these tenets of the room of this book of human composition, courtly. Hobbists, and those incul. let us now substitute the book of Nature, cated by the Cromwellian Antino- written all over with the characters and mians, there was a very extraordinary impressions of divine wisdom and goodand unfortunate coincidence; the lat- ness, but legible only to an intellectual ter insisting, that, in expectation of eye. To the sense both of man and brute, Christ's second coming, "the obliga- there appears nothing else in it, but, as in tions of morality and natural law were the other, so many inky scrawls; that is, suspended ; and that the elect, guided mind, which hath a participation of the
nothing but figures and colours. But the by an internal principle, more perfect divine wisdom that made it, upon occaand divine, were superior to the bego sion of those sensible delineations, exertgorly elements of justice and huma- ing its own inward activity, will have not nity."'* It was the object of Cud- only a wonderful scene, and large prosworth to vindicate, against the assaults pects of other thoughts laid open before it, of both parties, the immutability of and variety of knowledge, logical, mathemorat distinctions.
matical, and moral displayed; but also
clearly read the divine wisdom and goods, ,
Dess in every page of this great volume, as
I do not pretend to be an adept in the
Another coincidence between the Hobbists), “grew up from the docHobbists and the Antinomians, may trine of the fatal necessity of all actions be remarked in their common zeal for and events, as from its proper root." the scheme of necessity ; which both of The unsettled, and, at the same time, them stated in such a way as to be disputatious period during which Cud. equally inconsistent with the moral worth lived, afforded him peculiarly
and with the moral favourable opportunities of judging attributes of God.* The strongest of from experience, of the practical tenall presumptions against this scheme is dency of this metaphysical dogma; afforded by the other tenets with and the result of his observations de which it is almost universally com- serves the serious attention of those bined, and accordingly, it was very who may be disposed to regard it in shrewdly observed by Cudworth, that the light of a fair and harmless theme the licentivus system which flourished for the display of controversial subtilty. in his riine, (under which title, I pre- To argue, in this manner, against a sume, he comprehended the immoral speculative principle from its palpable tenets of the fanatics, as well as of the effects, is not always so illogical as
some authors have supposed. philosophy of Kant; but I certainly think repeat to me incessantly,” says Rous
seau to one of his correspondents, I pay it a very high compliment, when I
“ that truth can never be injurious to suppose, that, in the Critic of pure Rca
the world. I myself believe so as *son, the leading idea is somewhat analogous to what is so much better expressed firınly as you do ; and it is for this in the foregoing passage. To Kant it was very reason. I am satisfied that your probably suggested by the following very proposition is false,"+. acute and decisive remark of Leibnitz on But the principal importance of Locke's Essay: “ Nempe, nihil est in Cudworth, as an ethical writer, arises "intellectu, quod non fuerit in sensu, nisi from the influence of his argument ipse intellectus."
concerning the immutability of right In justice to Aristotle, it may be here and wrong on the various theories of observed, that, although the general strain morals which appeared in the
course of his language is strictly conformable to of the eighteenth century. To this the scholastic maxim just quoted, he does argument may, more particularly, be not seem to have altogether overlooked the traced the origin of the celebrated important exception to it pointed out by Leibnitz. Indeed, this exception or limi- question, Whether the principle of tation is very nearly a translation of moral approbation is to be ultimately Aristotle's words. Και αυτος δε νους
resolved into reason, or into sentiνοητος εστιν, ώσπερ τα νοητα. επι nished the chief ground of difference
ment ? question, which has fur, μεν γαρ των ανευ υλης, το αυτο
between the systems of Cudworth aud
TO YOOULLEVOY. of Clarke, on the one hand; and “ And the mind itself is an object of those of Shaftesbury, Hutcheson, knowledge, as well as other things which Hume, and Smith, ou the other. are intelligible. For, in immaterial
The Intellectual System of Cudbeings, that which understands is the worth, embraces a field much wider same with that which is understood.” than his treatise of Immutable Morality: (Do Anima, Lib iii. cap. *) quote The latter is particularly directed this very curious, and, I suspect, very little known sentence, in order to vindi. against the ethical doctrines of Hobbes, cato Aristotle against the misrepresenta- and of the Antinomians ; but the tions of some of his present idolaters, who, former aspires to lear up by the roots in their anxiety to secure to him all the all the principles, both physical and credit of Locke's doctrine concerning the metaphysical, of the Epicurcan phiOrigin of our Ideas, haye overlooked the losophy. It is a work, certainly. occasional traces which occur in his works, which reflects much honour on the of that higher and sounder philosophy in talents of the author, and still more which he had been educated."
on the boundless extent of his learn: # “ The doctrines of fate or destiny were deemed by the Independents cssen- + « Voas répétez sans cesse que la tial to all religion. In these rigid opi- vérité ne peut jamais faire de inal aux nions, the whole 'sectaries, amidst all hommes; je le crois, et c'est pour moi la their other differences, unanimously con.
preuve que ce que vous dites n'est pas la catred." Hume's History, chap. Irij. vérité.''