Imatges de pÓgina

quently requested his opinion on par- doctrine would be highly injurious to ticular cases, that he should always the Deity, and derogatory from his treat his penitents with mildness, and most essential attributes as well as encourage them to confide in the mercy most pernicious in its consequences of their Creator. To those who con- to the salutary purposes of true relifessed relapses into sin, the only re- gion. For this reason, when the Ismedy he ought to give them to relieve raelites, at Mount Horeb, meaning their misery, should be to advise them to worship the true God, erected the whenever they fell into the same fault golden call as a fit emblem of the to confess it anew, with a firm reliance object of their religious adoration, it on the mercy and forgiveness of their will not I presume be denied, that heavenly Father, not doubting but by they were guilty of the most blasphemous so doing they would ultimately reform; idolatry; and, when exulting in the which proved to be the fact: by degrees restoration of that mode of religious they became exemplary in their lives worship, in behalf of which they had and manners."

acquired an habitual prejudice in the For my own part I consider the land of Egypt, they loudly proclaimed conduct of this inonk highly calculated that four-footed image to be a just to ensure the salvation of souls. To representation of the Almighty Being fear God is good, but to love him is whose miraculous interposition had still better; and what means can more so lately delivered them from their effectually contribute to this end, than Egyptian bondage; whether we judge to impress men with the clearest idea their conduct by the dictates of reason, possible of his unbounded mercy. or by the law of Moses, they were

Goodness is the genuine object of most certainly guilty of speaking blasJove: the conceptions which we form phemously against God. Let us suppose of the infinite mercy of God raises in then, for a moment, that the means our minds the most lively and sensible of forming the molten image had jinage of his infinite goodness. I have failed them, but that they had asserted before shewn that fear and love are not that the God who broughi them up out incompatible with each other; that of the land of Egypt, bad theretofore froi servile fear we may rise to filial taken the bovine nature upon himn in love. I have also proposed the method the belly of a cow, been made an ox, to be pursued in conducting the sinner and had appeared in Egypt, and, from one to the other, adhering in this though then in heaven, still continued method to a proper and literal explica. incarnate in the body of that animal ; Lion of the sentence, “ Timor Dei ini- and, that even without the use of any tium dilectionis ejus,” comprehending invisible symbol, they had instituted á it even servile dread. But enough of form of divine worship, adapted to the missions. May heaven preserve you name and properties of the fabulous many years.

God, Apis ;-surely, in this case,

both the worship and the language of dn Answer to the Question, What is the Israelites would have been, at Blasphemy?

least, equally blasphemous as in the [This paper has been in print be- other. forc: : we copy it from a prinied sheet There may be some, perhaps, who communicated by a Correspondent. will readily allow the charge of blas

Ed.] phemy in so monstrous and disgusting speak blasphemously, as far as I an instance, as is here supposed, but pression, can only signify, to speak in any degree, blasphenious against dishonourably of God; to speak in Almighty God, to teach, that, in derogation of his Divine nature and another place and period, he became attributes. Now, since both reason incarnate in the body of an animal of and revelation teach us, that the only a more excellent nature and superior true God is IMMUTABLE, INCORPO- rank. But, certainly, whatsoever difREAL, and OMNIPRESENT, should ference there may be in the nature of any doctrine, on the contrary, assert finite beings, when coinpared with that the Divine nature hath under- each other, there is absolutely none gone a change, and assumed a cor- at all when we consider them with foreal form, which must be local, I respect to the infinite and eternal ihink there can be no doubt but such Creator of the universe ; and conse


can see.

An answer to the Question, What is Blasphemy?

709 quently, both the blasphemy of the ex- obvious dictates of his understanding pression, and the impossibility of the respecting this first and most imporfact, must be exactly the same, whe- tant article of theology. For the legisther we affirm the Alınighty to be lative power having in consequence of incarnate, by having been made one this boldest and most unreasonable of the lowest, or one of the highest petitio principiż that ever was heard of, order of those creatures, which his proceeded to assert, that a particular own power and goodness hath called created being, an earthly animal was into existence.

the one true God and the proper object If then it should be found, that the of Divine worship; if any reflecting Emperor Constantine, and almost all conscientious Christian was led to those who have succeeded him in the question the truth and piety of that possession of either the whole or any orthodox persuasion, he was immedipart of the civil power of Europe, have ately, with the niost uncharitable and abused their temporal anthority to the opprobrious language, accused of depurpose of propagating, and enforcing nying the divinity of the legal and only upon their subjects, the doctrine of God; and the bigoted zeal of some, the incarnation of the infinite un- and the malicious rancour of others, changeable Deity, with all the gross recurred eagerly to the inhuman edicts absurdities and impieties that neces- and avenging arm of the civil magissarily flow from such a source, shall trate to condemn and punish, as a we not be forced to acknowledge, that blasphemer, the man who only meant they have indeed opened their mouths in to avoid the guilt of so heinous a sin, blasphemy against God, to blaspheme his and no longer dared to join his voice name and his talernacle? Shall we in uttering blasphemy against the infinot also both see and admire the sin- nite majesty and incommunicable gular propriety of the prophetic lan- attributes of that awful Being, whom guage, in fixing this charge of blas- an inspired teacher 'of Christianity phemy upon the temporal rulers and assures us, no man ever hath seen nor not the ecclesiastics, when we consider, that these arc of necessity under Having mentioned the impossibility the dominion of the former; ihat the of the Incurnation of God, as well as impiety or innocence of such a doc- the blasphemy of such a doctrine, lest trine is a question of common sense, I should appear to speak rashly, and not of theological science; that even to revile long established opinions if any Scriptures could be procured without sufficient grounds, I beg you wherein it was expressly warranted, to consider, that the Deity is, in his the doctrine itself would afford much very nature, omnipresent; that his bestronger reasons for rejecting such a coming incarnate, in a particular body, Scripture, than the best authenticated evidently implies his being more imme Scripture could do for admitting so diately present with that body, than blasphemous a doctrine; and that no with any other: whereas, the very thing less than that powerful influence meaning of omnipresence is, that he upon the strongest passions of the is equally present, equally close conhuman mind, which must needs be nected, as far as such a being can the effect of the rigid pains and penal- properly be said to be connected, with ties on one hand, and the alluring all the bodies in the universe. You rewards and emoluments on the other, will be pleased 10 recollect, likewise, annexed by the laws of the state to that God is imnutable, another attrithe rejection and admission of this bute absolutely inconsistent with his particular tenet, could have induced Incarnation. To evince this, let us inankind so far to abandon their own only attend to the commonly received sense of right and wrong, to give up opinion of man, as a' being comevery rational and becoming idea of pounded of two natures, the one spithe eternal Deity, and to submit pa- ritual, the other carnal. Allowing tiently, nay, to adhere with obstinacy, this idea to be just, and that, at the to so gross and impions a delusion ? dissolution of this composition by

But as things were long circum- death, man exisis simply in a spi-. stanced in every state of Christendom, ritual state, it is certain that the alterait was, in a very high degree, dange- tion made by death in the mode of rous for any man to venture to see with his own eyes, and avow the most

* 1 Tim. vi. 16.


his existence, is the greatest change raded his bowels, i. e. to say when such a compound being can undergo. he found himself upon the point of It is evident, therefore, that were a expiring (and they were the last purely spiritual being, such as the words) that he spake to Crito: “I soul of man is usually presumed to be, owe a cock to Æsculapius, which I when separated from the boly, to be desire you would pay. Do not neg. coine compounded with a carnal na- lect it." .9. d. “I am just upon the ture like our own, he would suffer a point of being cured of all the disorder change exactly equivalent to that which and pains attending this niortal frame, nian is said to suffer at his death. and of entering upon a better life, a And since the difference between the state of perfect health and happiness; nature of God and that of the most and I desire you would thus publicly perfect created being, is infinitely signify my belief and persuasion to the great ; to assert that he who has ex- whole city of Athens, in that way isted from all eternity in a spiritual, which they are all acquainted withi, incorporeal, uncompounded state, hath and will understand." Thus have I at length adopted another mode of given the most favourable interpretaexistence, and is become compounded tion that I have met with to the last with the inaterial, animal body, is to words of that truly great man, whose assert, that the only unchangeable inemory and character I esteem and being in the universe hath undergone reverence, though formerly that order a change infinitely greater than any of from Socrates to his friend, when his own mutable creatures can uu- dying, to offer a cock to Æsculapius, dergo.


used to appear to me ridiculous and a

desire unbecoming so wise and good a Dr. Benson on Socrates' Sacrifice of a man as Socrates.

Cock. SIR,

Newington Green, N reading Life of Sir,

Nov. 2, 1816.

THE following met with the following remarks on the conduct of Socrates just before his of your philological readers in searchdeath, in ordering a cock to be sacri- ing into the meanings and origins of ficed to Æsculapius, which, to say our words. Some of them are probathe least, appear to be ingenious and bly in possession of old English and may not be generally known. On Saxon books and manuscripts (or these accounts, I have thought that have access to them) which the wriperhaps they might be worthy of a ter of this has not been able to proplace in your useful Miscellany. cure: and if they will occasionally I am, your's, &c. send to the Repository curious or sin


gular passages, accompanied by etySOCRATES, according to Plato in mological criticisin and comment, I his Phædo, ordered a cock to be sacrishall deem it a privilege, to contribute ficed to Asculapius. Some think a share, in the same manner, to the that was in ridicule. Others think it common stock of philological knowwas without any regard to Æscula- ledge. It may perhaps be useful to pius, whether serious or ridiculous. etymological students, to inform them, Perhaps the critics have not done that after much search, and being long justice to Socrates upon this article. convinced to the contrary, I am now It might possibly then be at Athens of opinion, that nearly the whole (if a well known custom to offer a cock not the whole) of our language may 10 Esculapius the God of medicine, be traced to Rome and Greece. It is upon a person's recovering from some of the more importance that this be threatening indisposition; and con- well considered, because the ingenious sequently, to have offered a cock to though paradoxical doctrines of Horne Æsculapius, and to have been re- Tooke respecting a Northern origin, stored io health from a dangerous have given modern philologers a false disease, were expressions of the same I cannot enter into proof of import, by patting the sign for the my opinion in this communication thing signified. Plato in the person of (for the evidence is commensurate with Phædo, informs us, that when So- the wide extent of lesicography); but crates had found the poison had in. I think it demonstrable by every rigla

O-Christ,a note, pp. 91, 92

, i Tigeroder in an ile the assistance




Mr. Gilchrist on Etymology. principle and fair rule of etymologizing, stead mother, that is a person in the That even the Gothic and Saxon are stcad, standing or place of father, composed chiefly, at least, of Latin mother, &c. and Greek words.

Selte, sit, sedo, sedeo, &c. are merely The following translation of the softened forms of cado : cadens sol and twenty-third Psalm is from the Psalter setting sun are identical: west is reof Richard Rolle, hermit of Hampole solvable into ge-set, the quarter in as given by the biographer and editor which the sun sets; hetyng in the of Wicklift, from a lis. in the Bri- above translation is evidenily a diffetish Museum. Will any of your rent form of cadens. A fundamental readers who can conveniently consult rule of etymologizing is, that the more the MS. have the goodness to trans- easy forms of a word to the organs of mit a few extracts from it to the speech are to be resolved into that Monthly Repository?

form which is nost difficult, not vice “Our Lord gouvernetb me and nothyng to me shal wante: stede of pas- Stretis (paths in our translation) ture ihar he me sette. In the water and stride, sirut, striddle, tread, trudge, of the helyng forth he me brought: tramp, trip, stair, step, &c. scem ali my soule he turnyde. He ladde me resolvable into grad-ior ; ced-o, cess-us, on the stretis of rygtwisnesse : for his I also take to be a contraction of name. For win gif I hadde goo in grad-ior, gress-us. A mile is in the inyddil of the shadewe of deeth: 1 Durhamn book, mile stræden, thoushal not dreede yueles for thou art sand steppan, that is a thousand strides with me.

Thi geerde and thi staf: or steps; answering to mille passus in thei have coin fourted me. Thou hast Latin, or thousand paces. It would greythid in my syght a bord : agens seemn to some perhaps straining etyhem that angryn me.

Thou fattide mology to resolve pace, pass, foot, myn herred in oyle: and my chalys pes, ped-is pous, pod-is (Greek) ced-o, drinkenyng what is cleer. And thi grad-ior, &c. into one common orimercy shal folewe me: in alle the gin. I am not yet certain whether daves of my lyf. And that I wone in street as well as stratum, &c. have the the hous of of oure Lord in the lengthe same connection and origin; I would of daves."

only remark here (what is suggested What are commonly called pro- by association of ideas) that both walk nouns, conjunctions, &c. with adjec. and kick are resolvable into calc-o, and tive and verbal affixes and prefixes, that heel is a contraction of cal&c. have been already explained or attempted in Philosophic Etymology: To etymologize on every word of I shall here attempt a few of the radi- the foregoing quotation would make cals of the above quotation.

too long an article ; 1 shall therefore Lord is a contraction, hiaford, (Sax. confine myself to a few words evidently, on) the same as calif or khalif with connected with Latin, though comthe affix ord; the same word appears mon readers would not think so. softened and contracted into caput, Mercy is a striking instance of contraccaptain, chief, chieftain, &c. govern, tion, being resolvable into misericordia guberno, super, huper or hyper, or iniseresco : folewe (follow) is the (Greek) sovereign, cover, over, &c. same as fellow, and is resolvable into will be perceived to have the same colligo (which is also collect, connect, origin. “ Have ghe mynde of ghoure &c.). Richard Rolle has speli the soverryns that have spoken to ghou the word more nearly to the primitive word of God.” Heb. xiii. 7. Wick- form in his preface.“ In the transliff's translation.

lacione I felogh the letter als meikle.. Stede is employed by our old wri- I may, and thor I fyne no proper ters where we would' employ place; Ynglys I felogh the wit of the wordis. and it has still the same application In the expowning I felogh holi docin the compound word instead : stead, tors." Chaucer writes it felow. At steady, study, studes, stand, seem to be last ne drede ne might overcame tho essentially the same word : steading is muses that thei ne werren fellowes in the North a building, and we have and seloweden my waie." in English home-stead; stepfather, Day, dies, &c. are evidently the stepmother, &c. are properly as they same word, which properly signifies are still spelt in Danish steadfather, light, but my limits are too narrow




here to go into its origin and many Lady Hartford in London, describing forms and applications. Dawn is a the 'debut of a celebrated lady since different spelling for daying; which come to her grave in a full age." is contracted into dew, which is pro- “I inclose you some verses by Mrs. perly an adjective put elliptically; for Carter who gave them to me. She if the ellipsis be filled up, it is dew was here the other morning, and sur. drops, or dawn drops, or wetness, prised me with her morose looks and &c.

conversation. The former resemble Wone (which is still used in some those of Hebe, the latter has a tenparts of Scotland), is resolvable into dency to a little pedantry : however maneo, as d'ell, which we now en- she has certainly real and extensive ploy instead of wone, is to be resolved learning." into colo. The etymological student

I am, your's, must have observed that the Latin

SELECTOR. guttural c or k frequently sostens into c sofi, ch, s, t, d, &c. when it passes

Jewish Crecd. into the modern dialects: car-us (cher Sir,

Norwich. French) becomes dear; colo becomes RESUMING that the creed of as well as dwell, till, &c.; wont (as in our Unitarian Jewish brethren may wont to resort) is wone with a usual be admissible in an Unitarian Chrisia affix.

ian Miscellany, I have transcribed Hous is merely a slight variety of it from the Prayer-book in use amongst casa, which primarily and properly the descendants of Abraham. ineans what covers or protects: thus 1. I believe, with a firm and perfect case, casket, chest, cask, casque, &c. faith, that God is the Creator of all which have all probably originated in things; that he doth guide and supclaus-us, a, um, close, or closed, &c. port all creatures, that he alone has garda is employed for house in Codex made every thing; and that he still Argentum : castle or castel, castrum, acts and will act during the whole &c. are radically the same word. One eternity. of the most rational explanations in 2. I believe, with a firm and perfect Johnson's Dictionary is that given to faith, that God is one, there is no castle, namely “ a house fortified.” Unity like his; he alone hath been, JAMES GILCHRIST. is, and shall be eternally, our God.

3. I believe, with a firm and perfect SIR,

faith, that God is not corporeal, he N the third volume of the Corre- cannot have any material proportion,

spondence between the Countesses and no corporeal essence can be coinof Hartford and Pomfret, published pared with him. in 1806, I met with the following 4. I believe, with a firm and perfect singularity of a convent at Rome with faith, that God is the beginning and scarcely any thing of conventual re- the end of all things. straint, and this so long ago as in 1741, 5. I believe, with a firm and perfect when papal power was something faith, that God alone ought to be very different from what it is at pre- worshipped, and none but him ought sent. Lady Pomfret thus describes to to be adored. her friend' « convent called the 6. I believe, with a firm and perfect Sette Dolori."

faith, whatever hath been taught by They receive all their friends' the prophets is true. visits, both men and women, in

par. 7. I believe, with a firm and perfect lours without grates. They go abroad faith, the doctrine and prophecy of with their near relations; and they Moses is true. He is the father and make no vow, but that of obedience head of all the doctors that lived to their superior. They are all people before or since, or shall live after of quality and live in good esteem. hiin. Should the nuns wish to marry, they 8. I believe, with a firm and perfect are under no obligation not to do so, faith, the law that we have is the though the incident has never yet same as was given by Moses. happened." Lady P. · found here 9. I believe, with a firm and perfect the fewest nuns she ever saw in such faith, that this law shall never be a place."

altered, and God will give no other. In the same volume is a Letter from 10. I believe, with a firm and

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