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his existence, is the greatest change vaded his bowels, i. e. to say when such a compound being can undergo. he found himself upon the point of It is evident, therefore, that were a expiring (and they were the last purely spiritual being, such as the words) that he spake to Crito: “I soul of man is usually presumed to be, owe a cock 10 Æsculapius, which I when separated from the borly, to be- desire you would pay. Do not neg. coine compounded with a carnal na- lect it.".q. d. “I am just upon the ture like our own, he would suffer a point of being cared of all the disorder change exactly equivalent to that which and pains attending this mortal frame, man is said to suffer at his death. and of entering upon a better life, a And since the difference between the state of perfect health and happiness; nature of God and that of the most and I desire you would thus publicly perfect created being, is infinitely signify my belief and persuasion to the great ; to assert that he who has ex- whole city of Athens, in that way isted from all eternity in a spiritual, which they are all acquainted with, incorporeal, uncompounded state, hath and will understand." Thus have I at length adopted another mode of given the most favourable interpretaexistence, and is become compounded tion that I have met with to the last with the inaterial, animal body, is to words of that truly great man, whose assert, that the only unchangeable inemory and character I esteem and being in the universe hath undergone reverence, though formerly that order a change infinitely greater than any of from Socrates to his friend, when his own mutable creatures can un- dying, to offer a cock to Æsculapius, dergo.

used to appear to me ridiculous and

desire unbecoming so wise and good a Dr. Benson on Socrates' Sacrifice of a man as Socrates.

Cock. Sir,

Nercington Green, ON N reading Dr. Benson's Life of

SIR,

Nov. 2, 1816. Christ, in a note, pp. 91, 92, I met with the following remarks on

THE following communication is THE

intended to invite the assistance the conduct of Socrates just before his of your philological readers in searchdeath, in ordering a cock to be sacri- ing into the meanings and origins of ficed to Æsculapius, which, to say our words. Some of them are proba. the least, appear to be ingenious and bly in possession of old English and may not be generally known. On Saxon books and manuscripts (or these accounts, I have thought that have access to them) which the wriperhaps they might be worthy of a ter of this has not been able to proplace in your useful Miscellany. cure: and if they will occasionally I am, your's, &c. send to the Repository curious or sin

P.

gular passages, accoinpanied by etySOCRATES, according to Plato in mological criticisin and comment, I his Phædo, ordered a cock to be sacri- shall deem it a privilege, to contribute siced to Asculapius. Some think a share, in the same manner, to the that was in ridicule. Others think it common stock of philological knowwas without any regard to Æscula- ledge. It may perhaps be useful to pius, whether serious or ridiculous. etymological students, to inform them, Perhaps the critics have not done that after much search, and being long justice to Socrates upon this article. convinced to the contrary, I am now It might possibly then be at Athens of opinion, that nearly the whole (if a well known custom to offer a cock nou ihe whole) of our language may to Esculapius the God of medicine, be traced to Rome and Greece. It is upon a person's recovering from some of the more importance that this be threatening indisposition; and con- well considered, because the ingenious sequently to have offered a cock to though paradoxical doctrines of Horne Æsculapius, and to have been re- Tooke respecting a Northern origin, stored io health from a dangerous have given modern philologers a false disease, were expressions of the same scent. I cannot enter into proof of import, by putting the sign for the my opinion in this communication thing signified. Plato in the person of (fór the evidence is commensurate with Phædo, informs us, that when So- the wide extent of lexicography); but crates had found the poison had in. I think it demonstrable by erery rigla

711

versa.

Mr. Gilchrist on Etymology. principle and fair rule of etymologizing, stead mother, that is a person in the That even the Gothic and Saxon are stcad, standing or place of father, composed chiefly, at least, of Latin mother, &c. and Greek words.

Selte, sit, sedo, sedeo, &c. are merely The following translation of the softened forms of cado : cadens sol and twenty-third Psalm is from the Psalter setting sun are identical: west is reof Richard Rolle, hermit of Hampole solvable into ge-set, the quarter in as given by the biographer and editor which the sun sets; hetyng in the of Wicklift, from a lis. in the Bri- above translation is evidenily a diffetish Museum. Will any of your rent form of cadens. A fundamental readers who can conveniently consult rule of etymologizing is, that the more the MS. have the goodness to trans- easy forms of a word to the organs of mit a few extracts from it to the speech are to be resolved into that Monthly Repository?

form which is nost difficult, not vice “Our Lord gouvernetb me and nothyng to me shal wante: stede of pas- Stretis (paths in our translation) ture ihar he me sette. In the water and stride, sirut, striddle, tread, trudge, of the helyng forth he me brought: tramp, trip, stair, step, &c. scem ali my soule he turnyde. He ladde me resolvable into grad-ior ; ced-o, cess-us, on the stretis of rygtwisnesse : for his I also take to be a contraction of name. For win gif I hadde goo in grad-ior, gress-us. A mile is in the inyddil of the shadewe of deeth: 1 Durhamn book, mile stræden, thoushal not dreede yueles for thou art sand steppan, that is a thousand strides with me.

Thi geerde and thi staf: or steps; answering to mille passus in thei have coin fourted me. Thou hast Latin, or thousand paces. It would greythid in my syght a bord : agens seemn to some perhaps straining etyhem that angryn me.

Thou fattide mology to resolve pace, pass, foot, myn herred in oyle: and my chalys pes, ped-is pous, pod-is (Greek) ced-o, drinkenyng what is cleer. And thi grad-ior, &c. into one common orimercy shal folewe me: in alle the gin. I am not yet certain whether daves of my lyf. And that I wone in street as well as stratum, &c. have the the hous of of oure Lord in the lengthe same connection and origin; I would of daves."

only remark here (what is suggested What are commonly called pro- by association of ideas) that both walk nouns, conjunctions, &c. with adjec. and kick are resolvable into calc-o, and tive and verbal affixes and prefixes, that heel is a contraction of cal&c. have been already explained or attempted in Philosophic Etymology: To etymologize on every word of I shall here attempt a few of the radi- the foregoing quotation would make cals of the above quotation.

too long an article ; 1 shall therefore Lord is a contraction, hiaford, (Sax. confine myself to a few words evidently, on) the same as calif or khalif with connected with Latin, though comthe affix ord; the same word appears mon readers would not think so. softened and contracted into caput, Mercy is a striking instance of contraccaptain, chief, chieftain, &c. govern, tion, being resolvable into misericordia guberno, super, huper or hyper, or iniseresco : folewe (follow) is the (Greek) sovereign, cover, over, &c. same as fellow, and is resolvable into will be perceived to have the same colligo (which is also collect, connect, origin. “ Have ghe mynde of ghoure &c.). Richard Rolle has speli the soverryns that have spoken to ghou the word more nearly to the primitive word of God.” Heb. xiii. 7. Wick- form in his preface.“ In the transliff's translation.

lacione I felogh the letter als meikle.. Stede is employed by our old wri- I may, and thor I fyne no proper ters where we would' employ place; Ynglys I felogh the wit of the wordis. and it has still the same application In the expowning I felogh holi docin the compound word instead : stead, tors." Chaucer writes it felow. At steady, study, studes, stand, seem to be last ne drede ne might overcame tho essentially the same word : steading is muses that thei ne werren fellowes in the North a building, and we have and seloweden my waie." in English home-stead; stepfather, Day, dies, &c. are evidently the stepmother, &c. are properly as they same word, which properly signifies are still spelt in Danish steadfather, light, but my limits are too narrow

cancum.

as

POLES

here to go into its origin and many Lady Hartford in London, describing forms and applications. Dawn is a the 'debut of a celebrated lady since different spelling for daying; which come to her grave in a full age." is contracted into dew, which is pro- “I inclose you some verses by Mrs. perly an adjective put elliptically; for Carter who gave them to me. She if the ellipsis be filled up, it is dew was here the other morning, and sur. drops, or dawn drops, or wetness, prised me with her morose looks and &c.

conversation. The former resemble Wone (which is still used in some those of Hebe, the latter has a tenparts of Scotland), is resolvable into dency to a little pedantry : however maneo, as d'ell, which we now en- she has certainly real and extensive ploy instead of wone, is to be resolved learning." into colo. The etymological student

I am, your's, must have observed that the Latin

SELECTOR. guttural c or k frequently sostens into c sofi, ch, s, t, d, &c. when it passes

Jewish Crecd. into the modern dialects: car-us (cher Sir,

Norwich. French) becomes dear; colo becomes RESUMING that the creed of as well as dwell, till, &c.; wont (as in our Unitarian Jewish brethren may wont to resort) is wone with a usual be admissible in an Unitarian Chrisia affix.

ian Miscellany, I have transcribed Hous is merely a slight variety of it from the Prayer-book in use amongst casa, which primarily and properly the descendants of Abraham. ineans what covers or protects: thus 1. I believe, with a firm and perfect case, casket, chest, cask, casque, &c. faith, that God is the Creator of all which have all probably originated in things; that he doth guide and supclaus-us, a, um, close, or closed, &c. port all creatures, that he alone has garda is employed for house in Codex made every thing; and that he still Argentum : castle or castel, castrum, acts and will act during the whole &c. are radically the same word. One eternity. of the most rational explanations in 2. I believe, with a firm and perfect Johnson's Dictionary is that given to faith, that God is one, there is no castle, namely “ a house fortified.” Unity like his; he alone hath been, JAMES GILCHRIST. is, and shall be eternally, our God.

3. I believe, with a firm and perfect SIR,

faith, that God is not corporeal, he N the third volume of the Corre- cannot have any material proportion,

spondence between the Countesses and no corporeal essence can be coinof Hartford and Pomfret, published pared with him. in 1806, I met with the following 4. I believe, with a firm and perfect singularity of a convent at Rome with faith, that God is the beginning and scarcely any thing of conventual re- the end of all things. straint, and this so long ago as in 1741, 5. I believe, with a firm and perfect when papal power was something faith, that God alone ought to be very different from what it is at pre- worshipped, and none but him ought sent. Lady Pomfret thus describes to to be adored. her friend' « convent called the 6. I believe, with a firm and perfect Sette Dolori."

faith, whatever hath been taught by They receive all their friends' the prophets is true. visits, both men and women, in

par. 7. I believe, with a firm and perfect lours without grates. They go abroad faith, the doctrine and prophecy of with their near relations; and they Moses is true. He is the father and make no vow, but that of obedience head of all the doctors that lived to their superior. They are all people before or since, or shall live after of quality and live in good esteem. hiin. Should the nuns wish to marry, they 8. I believe, with a firm and perfect are under no obligation not to do so, faith, the law that we have is the though the incident has never yet same as was given by Moses. happened." Lady P. · found here 9. I believe, with a firm and perfect the fewest nuns she ever saw in such faith, that this law shall never be a place."

altered, and God will give no other. In the same volume is a Letter from 10. I believe, with a firm and

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Dr. Astruc a Physician and Theological Writer.

713 perfect faith, that God knoweth all servations on Man attracted so much the thoughts and actions of men. attention out of his own country as to

11. I believe, with a firm and per- have been translated into French, not fect faith, that God will reward the long after its first publication in 1749. works of all those who perform his I lately met with an account of an commandments, and punish those eminent French physician, who had who trangres, his laws.

also pursued his inquiries beyond his 12. I believe, with a firm and per- own profession. fect faith, that the Messiah is to This was Dr. Astruc, who died at come; although he tarrieth, I will Paris in 1766, aged 83. In “ Letters wait and expect daily his coming: concerning the Present State of the

13. I believe, with a firm and per- French Nation,” 1769, p. 230, is a fect faith, the resurrection of the list of his numerous publications, dead shall happen when God shall nearly all medical except the followthink fit. Blessed and glorified eter- ing, of which perbaps some of your nally be the name of the Creator. readers may be able to give an acAmen.

Conjectures sur les mémoires I hope some liberal-minded and originaux dont il paroit que Moyse s'est learned son of Israel will favour us servé pour composer le livre de la Genese, through the medium of your Reposi- 12mo. 1753. tory, with a brief historical account of Conjectures concerning the original the compilation of this creed and records from which Moses appears to the prayers in use ainongst the wor- have compiled the Book of Genesis. shippers of Jehovah in the Synagogue Dissertation sur l'immatérialité, l'imat this day.

mortalité, et la liberté de l'ame, 12mo. It is I think more than probable 1756. that the writer of the Athanasian Dissertation on the immateriality, Creed had never been a Jew, for in the immortality and the freedom of such creeds as the above there is

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the soul. spicuity and no tincture of illiberality. Whatever opinions Dr. Astruc. Notwithstanding all that the enemies maintained, they do not appear to of Athanasius have advanced against have brought into question his faith him, historical evidence acquits hiin in revelation, though he could scarcely of having written the creed which is have held the common notion of passed on the world under his name. inspiration in connection with the If the writer had drunk deep of the first of these publications. In the streams of Polytheism, and acquired Nov. Dict. Histor. Par. 1772, (I. 238,) a smallering of the learning of the both works are mentioned, and the schools, it is not difficult to account author is immediately commended as for the singularity of the composition. displaying l'ardcur et le zele d'un medeSome persons on the supposition that cin, ami de l'humanité et d'un philosophe the author is unknown, have consi- Chretien The ardent zeal of a phydered it as a jeu d'espril to shew what sician, the friend of humanity and of consequences were fairly deducible a philosophic Christian. from the doctrines of the Trinity. Not 'In the Letters which I have quoted, however to treat lightly what is con- there is also a list of the numerous sidered by some Christians as solemnly works of Calmet. Among them. I religious, I apprehend there can be observe Dissertation sur les apparitions neither levity nor heresy in according des esprits, 12mo. 1746, and Dissertawith Archbishop Tilloison, who did tion sur les vampires ou revenans de Hon. not hesitate to say, “ I wish we were grie. 12mo. 2 vols. 1749. It would well rid of it."

be a gratification to curiosity to know I remain,

how a learned father of the Roinish Your's respectfully, Church had treated those subjects at MELANCTHON. so late a period as the middle of the

last century. From a note to one of SIR,

Lord Byron's poems it appears that NEVERAL professors of medicine Hungary is famous for spectral creknown as writers on theology and vampires. metaphysics. Among these Dr. Hart

OTIOSUS. ley is justly distinguished, whose 06

A respecting Dr. Bekker, that his A pository for Preciber, ".p.26,211,

SIR, Clapton, Dec. 1, 1816.

SIR, Chichester, Dec. 9, 1816. a few words more

appeared in the Re case may be left as correctly stated as froin Mr. C. Saint, calling on Mr.B. possible in your present volume.

Travers, or some of his friends, for the There are several general biogra- publication of a statement of the suins phies under the same title of Dic- collected for the Southampton Chapel. tionaire Historique, &c. published at It is surprising that Mr. Saint's respect different places in France. That con- for the feelings of an afflicted family sulted by Mr. Flower, (p. 654,) for should not have led him to the more his account of Bekker, appears to delicate mode of a private application. describe “the ecclesiastical synod," He well knows that Mr. Travers is by which he was “ deprived of his incapacitated, by a heavy affliction, functions," as having "continued his for making any reply to his inquiries, salary as minister." This lenity, the He, and every one acquainted with Dictionaire which I quoted (p. 656,) that gentleman, must also know that as well as the Biographical Dictionary, he was by no means cold or backward expressly ascribes to "the magistrates in expressing his gratitude to those of Amsterdam.” The words are les who by exertions or contributions magistrats lui en conserverent la pension, seconded his own strenuous and well and I am sure no one will be more meant efforts to introduce Unitariandisposed than Mr. Flower to allow the ism at Southampton. Illness alone importance of the distinction.

frustrated his intention of making in From a passage in a letter of Locke the course of this year such exerions to Limborch subscquent to that I quo- as would have freed the chapel from ted, and which I then overlooked, it its incumbrances; after which it was appears that he was not a little inte his design to publish in the Repository rested in the fate of Bekker. Mr. a complete statement with his acLocke thus inquires in his letter of knowledgments to the donors. He 29 Feb. 1692.

had drawn up a list for this purpose, Quid tandem devenit paradoxorum ille which will be forwarded for your inde angelis auctor scire cupio, și casit sertion. Had Providence seen fit 10 mirum est, quanquam co res inclinare preserve his health and powers, it is videbatur quo tempore scripsisti, favente not improbable that the ability and etiam Amstelodamensium prædicatorum perseverance with which he was condesidia, vix tamen veniam ez datam credo. ducting the cause at Southampton Hujus modi orthodoxiæ propugnatores non would have been attended with a sucsolent errantibus ignoscere.

cess that would have satisfied all the There can be no doubt that among contributors and been the most clothe ministers of Amsterdam Le Clerc quent thanks for their liberality. and Limborch, at least, would have

W. J. FOX. skreened Bekker if they had not the courage to share his lot; but these, as remonstrunts, had little influence, if List of Collections and Subscriptions indeed they could belong to the synod,

for the Chapel at Southampton, from which is scareely probable.

a paper drawn up by Mr. Travers, R.

duted July 15, 1816, and inscribed

To be inserted in the Repository." P.S. In the note

p. 656, the second line should have been printed

By B. TRAVERS. there never was really a possessed or Southampton a sorcerer.

London

Bridport + I wish to know what is at last to be- Portsmouth and Portsea come of the author of the paradoxes con- Bristol cerning angels. It will be wonderful if Bath .. hé escape, although things looked that St. Albans way when you wrote ; for however favour- Chichester able to bitn may be the dilatory proceed- Poole.. ings of the preachers at Amsterdam, he Taunton will scarcely be acquitted.. These cham- Plymouth and Exeter pions of orthodoxy are not accustomed thus Isle of Wight te excuse the erroneous.

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