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Newchurch, Rossendale-Unitarian Baptists, York.

715 Brought up

463 14 6 to seule down into their present conSheffield

O victions. These letters will form a Birmingham

pamphlet of considerable size, and may Sherborne.

consist probably of about sixty thickly Romsey..

4

printed octavo pages. I am unable Yeovil

definitively to fix the price, but I Dorchester

0

hope it may be afforded for about nineReresby..

pence to subscribers. Profit is not ani Crewkerne Ilminster

object in its publication, but indemnity Kidderminster

from loss is desirable. Ringwood.

• posed therefore to publish very few Beaminster

inore copies than are previously subWareham

scribed for. With this view I Rochdale

address myself more particularly to the Manchester

O secretaries and committee-members of By C. N. Saint.

our tract societies, and should be glad Southern Fund

to receive orders from them for as Birmingham

many copies as their local exigencies Bewdley

may require, on or before the first of Dudley

Filruary, 1817; as on that day the Coventry

o pamphlet will be put to press, and Warwick

the number of copies will be deterShrewsbury

o mined by the previous orders. Chester..

This pamphlet it is presumed will Liverpool

be peculiarly well adapted to promote Gateacre

O the leading object of the tract societies,

viz. to disseminate amongst the lower 6 classes of society, and in a form level

to the humblest capacity, plain state

ments of the Unitarian doctrine and Proposed Publication of an Account of Scriptural arguments in its support.

the Rise, Progress and Present State of Doub'less there are at this moment a Society of Unitarian Christians at many knots of inquirers, many small Newchurch, in Rossendule.

bodies of Christians, connected or

scarcely connected with other religious OME of your readers may remem- denominations, who are dissatisfied

ber that in the brief account of an with their present profession, but who Unitarian church at Rossendale, in do not clearly see the way out of their Lancashire, Mon. Repos. X. 313, I doubts and difficulties. This pamphlet expressed a hope that ihe brevity and affords a clue to lead them our of the deficiences of that account would be labyrinth, by detailing the doubts and supplied by an enlarged narrative from difficulties in which others similarly the pen of Mr. John Ashworth, the circunstanced were involved and the resident minister at Newchurch, and means by which they were ed step by I engaged that such detailed narrative step to the light, truth ind liberty should somehow or other be laid be- which they at present enjo. fore the Unitarian public. That hope

I am, Sir, has been realized, and that pledge I

Your's &c. am about to redeem. Mr. Ashworth

JOHN TIMSON. has drawn up a series of letters to a All orders may be sen, post paid, friend containing a particular account to Dr. Thomson, Halifai, on oi le of the rise, progress and present statefore the 1st of February, 1817. of the religious societies with which he is connected, and more especially Sir,

Nov. 15, 1816.

N a late Number of your Reposidoctrines of reputed orthodoxy came tory, (p. 684) I observed an apa into discussion and were relinquished peal from the Unitarian Faptists at by them; and has stated minutely the York to the Unitarian publiz, solicitarguments from Scripture and from ing donations in aid of purchasing a common seuse which led them to new chapel. I have been gveri to relinquish their former sentiinents and understand that by this churebe at

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OF GENERAL READING.

716

Gleanings. York, baptism is held as an essential No. CCLXXXVIII. pre-requisite to communion. If so, Matt. Henry's Continuators. I think this ought fairly to have been It is well known that Matt. Henry stated. It is no part of my present was taken away by death in the midst object to inquire how far such a term of his great work, the Commentary. of church communion is Scriptural or He had proceeded no further than the not. I believe it is rejected by a very Acts of the Apostles. The following great majority of the Unitarian body, is a list of his Continuators : and it is for the inembers of that body Rev. John Evans, Rom. to determine how far they are called

Siinon Browne, 1 Cor. upon to assist in purchasing a place of

Daniel Mayo, 2 Cor. and 1 meeting for a church, which what

and 2 Thess. ever opinions it may hold in common

Joshua Bayes, Gal. with that body, maintains a principle

Samuel Rosewell, Ephes. which is one of exclusion to all Uni

William Harris, Philipp. tarians who have not submitted to

and Coll adult baptism. I shall be glad to find

Benjamin Andrew Atkinthat I have been misinformed in this

son, 1 and 2 Tim. particular; and if so, will send you

Jeremiah Smith, Tit. and a donation for the baptists at York.

Philem. I am, Sir,

William Tong, Heb. and A. F.

Rer.

Samuel Wright, James. GLEANINGS; OR, SELECTIONS AND

Zechariah Merrill, 1 Pet. REFLECTIONS MADE IN A COURSE

Joseph Hill, 2 Pet.
John Reynolds, 1,2, and 3

John.
No. CCLXXXVII.

John Billingsley, Jude.
Unitarian Martyr.
Francis 1. King of France, had a

No. CCLXXXIX. bastard son by Madame Cureau, of A Singular Orthodox Preacher. Orleans, who was 'brought up and Acosta the Spanish author, who was sent to college by the name of Stephen born about the year 1539 and died in Doei. He published Commentarii 1600, published a celebrated work, Linguæ Latinæ, in two volumes folio, highly praised by Dr. Robertson, De which were beautifully printed at Natura Novi Orbis

. In this work he Lyons in 1536. He also wrote De acknowledges the cruelties of the Re Narali, and a poem on his father's Spaniards in their conquest of Amegests. Unfortunately he got acquaint- rica ; but represents them as the agents ed at Lyons with the celebrated Ser- of heaven in the conversion of the veto, became a zealous propagandist natives, supported in their mission by of his opinions, sent heretical books various miraculous attestations. He to Paris, ncurred first an imprison- says, however, that a curious orthodox ment, and after relapsing, the con- preacher had preceded them: his demnation to be burnt alive. This words are, “ That which is difficult horrible sentence was executed at in our law to believe, has been made Paris in 1548, and was the model and easy among the Indians ; because the precursor of that which Calvin in- Devil had made them comprehend even Hicted on Serreto at Geneva.

the self-same things, which he had stolen Calvin meitions Dolet in the same from our Evangelical law,-as, their phrase with Agrippa and Serveto, of manner of confession, their adoration Villanova, a follows :- Agrippam, of three in one, and such like; the Villanovanum, Doletum, et similes vulgo which against the will of the enemy, notum est tanquam Cyclopas quospiam have holpen for the easy receiving of evangrlium semper fastuose sprevisse. the truth". This is a singular figure of vituperative This extract is taken from the oratory, to represent the Unitarians as English Translation of the History, one-eyed and to call them Cyclops. published at London, in 4to. in the

Monthly Mag. year 1604.

BIBLICAL CRITICISM.

Mr. Jevans on the Levitical Sacrifices. his trespass offering. And he shall SIR,

bring his trespass offering unto the HOPE it was proved in my Lord, a ram without blemish out of X. p. 646), that the patriarchs offered trespass offering unto the priest: and such sacrifices to God, and that the the priest shall make an atonement real design of them was pointed out for him before the Lord: and it shall I shall now endeavour to‘shew what be forgiven him, for any thing of all is said on the same subject in the Le- that he hath done in trespassing vitical law.

therein. Also Nunıb. v. 5-8. 1. It appears that a sin offering was From hence it appears that atoneoffered to God, and atonement made ment was made for the wilful sins of with its blood for Aaron and his sons lying, fraud, theft, dishonest traffic, when they were consecrated, or set attended with perjury; which are apart, to the priest's office. Levit. vii. breaches of several of the laws con14-17. For the altar, Exod. xxix. tained in the decalogue. 36. For the sanctuary and tabernacle, Hallet says, “ it is certain that there Levit. vii. For the Levites, Numb. were sacrifices under the law appointed viii. 11, 12, and 21. For Aaron and to make atonement for moral evil, and his sons, and all the people of Israel, for moral guilt ; particularly for lying, when the whole congregation of Israel theft, fraud, extortion, perjury, as it was at one and the same time, set is written, Lev. vi. 1, 2, &c."-Notes apart for God, Levit. ix. 1-11. And and Dis. Vol. II. p. 277, 278. for a woman who had been in child It is said, Levit. xix. 20—23, Whobed, Levit. xii. 8. For a leper, Levit. soever lieth carnally with a woman xiv. 20–24. For a Nazarite, Numb. that is a bondmaid betrothed to an vi. 13, 14.

husband, and not at all redeemed, II. Sin offerings were offered for all nor freedom given her; she (LXX. sins of ignorance, though sometimes they) shall be scourged: they shall there must have been a considerable not be put to death, because she was degree of guilt attached to them. not free. And he shall bring his tres Levit. iv. 2. 23. 26. v. 1-15. Heb. ix. pass offering unto the Lord, unto the 22. Acts viii. 1-3. comp. 1 Tim.i. 13. door of the tabernacle of the congre

III. A sin offering was offered to gation, even a ram for a trespass God, and atonement made with its offering. And the priest shall make blood for certain wilful transgressions. an atonement for him with the ram of

It is said, Levit. vi. 1-7, And the the trespass offering before the Lord, Lord spake unto Moses, saying, if a for his sin which he hath done: and soul sin, and commit a trespass against the sin which he hath done shall be the Lord, and lie unto his neighbour forgiven him. Comp. Deut. xxii. 24. in that which was delivered him to Here is another wilful crime of no keep, or in fellowship, or in a thing small magnitude, for which alonetaken away by violence, or hath de- ment was appointed to be made. It ceived his neighbour ; or have found is also evident that soine of these that which was lost, and lieth con- crimes would often be committed, and cerning it, and sweareth falsely; in therefore atonement not unfrequently any of all these that a man doeth, be made for them. sinning therein : then it shall be, be IV. All the males of the children cause he hath sinned and is guilty, of Israel, who were of a proper age, that he shall restore that which he were required to appear before God took violently away, or the thing at the city of Jerusalem every year, at which he hath deceitfully gotten, or the three great feasts; at other seasons that which was delivered him to keep, they probably might go or not as they or the lost thing which he found, or pleased. Exod. xxiii. 14-16. xiií

. all that about which he hath sworn 17. xxxiv. 23. Deut. xvi. 6. At each falsely; he shall even restore it in the of these feasts a sin offering was apprincipal, and shall add the fifth part pointed to be offered to God for the more thereto, and give it unto him to sins of the congregation in general. whom it appertaineth, in the day of 1. The feast of the passover and

VOL. XI.

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718

Mr. Jevans on the Levitical Sacrifices. the feast of unleavened bread were of the Lord. See Numb. xvi. 46-48, both kept on the first month of the where we are informed that Aaron year; one began on the fourteenth and made atonement by incense, to rethe other on the fifteenth day of the move the anger of God for the inurburmonth. : Levit. xxiii. 5, 6. Exod. xii. ing of the people, and the plague was 1, &c. Numb. xsviii. 15, 22, And stayed. David also offered burnt one goat for a sin offering, to make an offerings and peace offerings to God atonement for you.

for his sin in numbering the people. 2. The feast of pentecost was kept 2 Sam. xxiv. 25. And on another fifty days after the passover. Exod. occasion, when he thought that God xxiii. 16. Levit. xxiii. 10—21. Numb. might possibly be displeased with him, xxviii. 26–32. At ver. 30, it is said, he said, let hiin accept an offering. and one kid of the goats to make an 1 Sam. xxvi. 19. And when many of atonement for you.

the Israelites had broken the law by 3. The day of expiation and the marrying strange wives, they offered a feast of tabernacles were both as one, ram for their trespass. Exod x. 19. as they were only four days apart. 1 Esdras ix. 13—20. In 2 Maccab. Levit. xvi. 23. 26–34. Numb. xxix. iii. 32, 33, there is an account of a 12, &c. Ezek. xlv. 19, 20. On this sacrifice offered for the health of a sick annual day of expiation, Aaron first person, and atonement is said to have made atonement with the blood of a been made. They probably thought bullock for himself and his family; his affliction was the fruit of his sins. and then with the blood of a goat for See also 2 Maccab. xii. 29–45. Ezek. all the congregation of the children xlv. 19, 20. of Israel. Levit. xvi. 3. A bullock for VI. It also appears that in soine a sin offering, &c. ver. 6. 9. 11–13. cases in which the offences were eviThen shall he kill the goat of the sin dently wilful, not to say presumptuous, offering, that is for the people. These but either were not expressly declared atonements were made by sprinkling by the law to be capital, or were atthe blood before the Lord in the most tended with some circumstances which holy place, ver. 14, 15. In relation pleaded in favour of the criminals, that to which things, and his confessing they did not immediately put them to their sins over the head of the scapegoat, death, but kept them inward until they it is said, ver. 21, and confess over had consulted the oracle of God: so it him all the iniquities of the children was in the case of the youth who blas. of Israel, and all their transgressions phemed God, Exod. xxxii. 30, and in all their sins, ver. 30, to cleanse also of the man who gathered sticks on you, that ye may be clean from all the Sabbath day, Numb. xv. 32–36. your sins, before the Lord. Ver. 33, So far were they from considering he shall make an atonement for the every breach of the law as capital-so priest and all the people of the con- enlarged were their views of making gregation,' ver. 34, for all their sins atonement for sin. once a year.

VII. It is however acknowledged 4. It also appears from Numb. that the law of Moses says, “but the xxviii. 11-15, that a sin offering was soul that doeth aught presumptuously, offered at the beginning of erery &c. the same reproacheth the Lord; month for the congregation.

and that soul shall be cut off from By these various appointments, pro- among his people.” Numb. xv. 30. vision was made for the expiation of Deut. xvii. 12. the generality of these sins which the Human language is imperfect. children of Israel were exposed to, Every presumptuous sin must be wil. which are not declared, by the law, ful; but probably it will appear that to be capital.

every wilful offence is nor, in the eye V. It appears that whenever any of the law, presumptuous. person committed a really wilful 1. This is in part evident from the offence, which was not notoriously many instand that have been ad. presumptuous, nor expressly declared duced of atonement being made for by the law to be capital, that they did wilful transgressions of the law. not put the person to death, but 2. To make a wilful offence preoffered a sin offering to cleanse him sumptuous, there must, it seems, be from the guilt of it, which also ap some aggravating additional circumpears to have been right, as their offer. stance or circumstances attending it, ings on such occasions were accepted such as a deliberate, determinate, in

Mfr. Jevans on the Levitical Sacrifices.

719 solent and daring opposition to the It therefore appears that every wilful will of God. Esther vii. 5.

offence is not, in the eye of the law, a The neglect of Moses in circumci- presumptnous one, at least not that sing his son was a willuloffence, but pro- high presumption which is threatened bably not presumptuous, as Zipporah with death. Therefore it still remains perhaps had opposed the doing of it. true that wilful sins are, in general, Exod. iv. 24, 25. So the captive Jews atoneable by the law of Moses, i. e. marrying strange wives at Babylon was where the law has not expressly de. a wilful oflence, but probably not a lerinined it otherwise. presumptuous transgression, as there VIII. No sin offering was appointed might be a scarcity of Jewish females for idolatry, murder, blasphemy, adulthere. Exod. x. 2.

tery, witchcraft, lying with a beast, But when Moses and Aaron com &c. or for any capital offence. See manded the Israelites to go up against Exod. xxii. 18—20. Levit. xxiv. 11the Canaanites, and they would noi, 16. Numb. xxv. 3. Deut. xii. 6. xxii. but murmured, and talked of making 22–24. i Kings xxi. 10. These a captain and returning to Egypt, and are all presumptuous offences, and even proposed to stone them with therefore no atonement was to be stones, their offence was highly pre- made for them. When therefore sumptuous. Numb. xiii. 17–35, and David was guilty of murder and adulxiv. 1-10. Therefore ihey were tery, he said to God, thou desirest not very severely punished for it, ver. sacrifice, else would I give it thee. Ps. 23. And afterwards, when they saw

li. 16. And when Cain slew bis their folly, and would go against their brother Abel, no sacrifice was acenetnies, though neither Moses nor the cepted, but he was banished from ark of God was with them, their be- the presence of the Lord. Gen. iv. haviour. was especially criminal, and 11–16. they were made to suffer for it, ver. 42 It may be proper to add here, that if -45. Therefore Moses, many years a person knew himself to be ceremoafter, said unto them, in reference to nially polluted, or guilty of a breach of this circumstance, so I spake unto the law, and nevertheless presented you, and ye would not hear, but re- himself before God at the tabernacle belled against the commandment of or temple service, his crime was prethe Lord, and went presumptuously sumptuous, and he became liable to be up into the hill. Deut. i. 48. xviii. cut off for it. Levit. xv. 31. Numb. 20-22. . Accordingly it is said in xix. 13. Acts xxiv. 6, 18. Deut. xvii. 12, and the inan that will Sometimes atonement was made do presumptuously, and will not with money, Exod. xxx. 19—16, with hearken unto the priest, &c. or prayer and incense, Numb. xvi. 46, 47. unto the judge, even that man shall And if a guilty person was so poor die.

that he could not procure two young The character of such persons is pigeons for a sin offering, he was redescribed by the prophet Jeremiah, quired to present the tenth part of an chap. xviii: 12, who said to him, ephah of fine flour, part of which was when he brought a message from God burnt on the altar. Levit. v. 7–13. to them, there is no hope, we will But the standing rule was to do it with walk after our own devices, and we blood. will every one do after the imagination If it should be said that atonement of his own evil heart.

was made by the scapegoat without 3. The Hebrew words found in the blood, Levit. xvi. it inay be replied, that above passages sigpify acting with a there were two goats provided for the high hand, or doing a thing proudly, business of that day, and that these or arrogantly : as Numb. xv. 30, excelsu two goats were considered so much as manu, Deut. xvii. 12, And the man one, and the service one, that they that will do presumptuously, superlia cast lots which of them should be So Deut. i. 43, and Exod. xxi. 14, and offered a sacrifice to God, and which Ps. xix. 13, derived from superbivit, should be the scapegoat. superbè, arroganter egit. See Buxtorf's of them was put to death, and aloneLex. And Nehemiah speaking of the ment made with his blood, for the very proud, haughty, daring conduct very sins which were afterwards conof Pharoah, uses the same term. See fessed by the high-priest, over the head Nchem. ix. 10.

of the scapegoat; and therefore the

That one

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