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the feast of unleavened bread we of the Lord. See Numb. xvi. 46-48, both kept on the first month of the where we are informed that Aaron year; ove began on the fourteenth and made atonement by incense, to rethe other on the fifteenth day of the move the anger of God for the inuncutmonth. Levit. xxiii. 5, 6. Exod. xii, ing of the people, and the plague was 1, &c. Vumb. xxviii. 15, 22, And stayed. David also offered burnt one goat for a sin offering, to make an offerings and peace offerings to God atonement for you.

for his sin in numbering the people. 2. The feast of pentecost was kept 2 Sam. xxiv. 25. And on another fifty days after the passover. Exod. occasion, when he thought that God xxiii. 16. Levit. xxiii. 10—21. Numb. might possibly be displeased with him, xxviii. 26–32. At ver. 30, it is said, he said, let himn accept an offeringand one kid of t! goats to make an i Sam. xxvi. 19. And when many of atoneinent for you.

the Israelites had broken the law by 3. The day of expiation and the marrying strange wives, they offered a feast of tabernacles were both as one, ram for their trespass. Exod x. 19. as they were only four days apart. 1 Esdras ix. 13—20. In 2 Maccab. Levit. xvi. 23. 26–34. Numb. xxix. iii. 32, 33, there is an account of a 12, &c. Ezek. xlv. 19, 20. On this sacrifice offered for the health of a sick annual day of expiation, Aaron first person, and atonement is said to have made atonement with the blood of a been made. They probably thought bullock for himself and his family; his affliction was the fruit of his sins. and then with the blood of a goat for See also 2 Maccab. xii. 29—+5. Ezek. all the congregation of the children xlv. 19, 20. of Israel. Levit. xvi. 3. A bullock for VI. It also appears that in soine a sin offering, &c. ver. 6. 9. 11-13. cases in which the offences were eviThen shall he kill the goat of the sin dently wilful, not to say presumptuous, offering, that is for the people. These but either were not expressly declared atonements were made by sprinkling by the law to be capital, or were at. the blood before the Lord'in the most tended with some circumstances which holy place, ver. 14, 15. In relation pleaded in favour of the criminals, that to which things, and his confessing they did not immediately put them to their sins over the head of the scapegoat, death, but kept them in ward until they it is said, ver. 21, and confess over had consulted the oracle of God: so it him all the iniquities of the children was in the case of the youth who blas. of Israel, and all their transgressions phemed God, Exod. xxxii. 30, and in all their sins, ver. 30, to cleanse also of the man who gathered sticks on you, that ye may be clean from all the Sabbath day, Nunb. xv. 32–36. your sins, before the Lord. Ver. 33, So far were they from considering he shall make an atonement for the every breach of the law as capital-so priest and all the people of the con- enlarged were their views of making gregation,' ver. 34, för all their sins atonement for sin.

VII. It is however acknowledged 4. It also appears from Numb. that the law of Moses says, “but the xxviii. 11-15, that a sin-offering was soul that doeth aught presumptuously, offered at the beginning of every &c. the same reproacheth the Lord; month for the congregation.

and that soul shall be cut off frem By these various appointments, pro- among his people." Numb. xv. 30. · vision was made for the expiation of Deut. xvii. 12. the generality of these sins which the Human language is imperfect. children of Israel were exposed to, Every presumptuous sin must be wil. which are not declared, by the law, ful; biit probably it will appear that to be capital.

every wilful offence is not, in the eye V. It appears that whenever any of the law, presumptuous. person comınitted a really wilful

1. This is in part evident from the offence, which was not notoriously many instances that have been adpresuinptuous, nor expressly declared duced of atonemeut being made for by the law to be capital, that they did wilful transgressions of the law. not put the person to death, but 2. To make a wilful offence preoffered a sin offering to cleanse him sumptuous, there must, it seems, be from the guilt of it, which also ap. some aggravating additional circumpears to have been right, as their offer. stance or circumstances attevding it, ings on such occasions were aecepted such as a deliberate, delerininate, in

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Mfr. Jevans on the Levitical Sacrifices.

719 solent and daring opposition to the It therefore appears that every wilful will of God. Esther vii. 5.

offence is not, in the eye of the law, a The neglect of Moses in circumci- presumptnous one, at least not that sing his son was a willuloffence, but pro- high presumption which is threatened bably not presumptuous, as Zipporah with death. Therefore it still remains perhaps had opposed the doing of it. true that wilful sins are, in general, Exod. iv. 24, 25. So the captive Jews atoneable by the law of Moses, i. e. marrying strange wives at Babylon was where the law has not expressly de. a wilful oflence, but probably not a lerinined it otherwise. presumptuous transgression, as there VIII. No sin offering was appointed might be a scarcity of Jewish females for idolatry, murder, blasphemy, adulthere. Exod. x. 2.

tery, witchcraft, lying with a beast, But when Moses and Aaron com- &c. or for any capital offence. See manded the Israelites to go up against Exod. xxii. 18—20. Levit. xxiv. 11the Canaanites, and they would noi, 16. Numb. xxv. 3. Deut. xii. 6. xxii. but murmured, and talked of making 22–24. i Kings xxi. 10. These a captain and returning to Egypt, and are all presumptuous offences, and even proposed to stone them with therefore no atonement was to be stones, their offence was highly pre- made for them. When therefore sumptuous. Numb. xiii. 17–35, and David was guilty of murder and adulxiv. 1-10. Therefore ihey were tery, he said to God, thou desirest not very severely punished for it, ver. sacrifice, else would I give it thee. Ps. 23. And afterwards, when they saw

li. 16. And when Cain slew bis their folly, and would go against their brother Abel, no sacrifice was acenetnies, though neither Moses nor the cepted, but he was banished from ark of God was with them, their be- the presence of the Lord. Gen. iv. haviour. was especially criminal, and 11–16. they were made to suffer for it, ver. 42 It may be proper to add here, that if -45. Therefore Moses, many years a person knew himself to be ceremoafter, said unto them, in reference to nially polluted, or guilty of a breach of this circumstance, so I spake unto the law, and nevertheless presented you, and ye would not hear, but re- himself before God at the tabernacle belled against the commandment of or temple service, his crime was prethe Lord, and went presumptuously sumptuous, and he became liable to be up into the hill. Deut. i. 48. xviii. cut off for it. Levit. xv. 31. Numb. 20-22. . Accordingly it is said in xix. 13. Acts xxiv. 6, 18. Deut. xvii. 12, and the inan that will Sometimes atonement was made do presumptuously, and will not with money, Exod. xxx. 19—16, with hearken unto the priest, &c. or prayer and incense, Numb. xvi. 46, 47. unto the judge, even that man shall And if a guilty person was so poor die.

that he could not procure two young The character of such persons is pigeons for a sin offering, he was redescribed by the prophet Jeremiah, quired to present the tenth part of an chap. xviii: 12, who said to him, ephah of fine flour, part of which was when he brought a message from God burnt on the altar. Levit. v. 7–13. to them, there is no hope, we will But the standing rule was to do it with walk after our own devices, and we blood. will every one do after the imagination If it should be said that atonement of his own evil heart.

was made by the scapegoat without 3. The Hebrew words found in the blood, Levit. xvi. it inay be replied, that above passages sigpify acting with a there were two goats provided for the high hand, or doing a thing proudly, business of that day, and that these or arrogantly : as Numb. xv. 30, excelsu two goats were considered so much as manu, Deut. xvii. 12, And the man one, and the service one, that they that will do presumptuously, superlia cast lots which of them should be So Deut. i. 43, and Exod. xxi. 14, and offered a sacrifice to God, and which Ps. xix. 13, derived from superbivit, should be the scapegoat. superbè, arroganter egit. See Buxtorf's of them was put to death, and aloneLex. And Nehemiah speaking of the ment made with his blood, for the very proud, haughty, daring conduct very sins which were afterwards conof Pharoah, uses the same term. See fessed by the high-priest, over the head Nchem. ix. 10.

of the scapegoat; and therefore the

That one

manner in which the scapegoat was guilty offerer was not really penitent, disposed . of probably was designed to would he nevertheless be forgiven ? teach the Israelites that their sins and To this it may be replied, that no uncleannesses were as certainly taken such supposition shonld be made.away from them by ineans of the The Almighty God commanded bim atonement which was made before to repent; he presented the appointed with the blood of the sacrificed goat, sacrifice to the priest at the door of as if they had all been actually heaped the tabernacle, laid his hand in a upon the head of the scapegoat for solemn manner on the head of the him to carry away with him into the victim, and confessed his sin; and on wilderness, from which he was never the annual day of expiation for sin, to return. We have a very similar fasted, and humbled himself before ceremony in Levit. xiv. 4—7, which the Lord for his iniquities, and thererelates to the cleansing of a teper. fore it was taken for granted that he

Upon the whole it appears that was really so; and in many cases it atonement was made for all the sins of would most certainly be so, the sin the children of Israel except for pre- offering therefore became a medium of sumptuous transgressions, which the forgiveness to the offerer. Levit i. 4. law declared to be capital, and many xvi. 29. 2 Sam. xxiv. 22–25. Job i. of which offences it actually names. 4, 5. xlii. 7-9.

If it had not been so, a far greater What if a similar supposition was number of Israelites must have been raised against the real penitence of a put to death than we have any reason wicked heathen, who presented himto believe were ; or else there must self as a penitent believer in Jesus have been a great body of out-casts Christ, and who is promised, on his from among them, a thing which we being baptized into Christ, that his never hear or read of; for no guilty or past sins shall be forgiven ?-There is polluted person was permitted to ap- no end of such nice queries, which il! pear before God at the tabernacle or accord with the spirit of revelation, and temple service, on pain of death. especially with the liberal spirit of the

IX. How far did the efficacy or the gospel. The language of Scripture is, sin offering extend?

it shall le forgiven him.”—That is 1. They cleansed the offerer from enough, and ought to suffice us. certain bodily pollutions. It is said in X. If it should be asked, but why Levit. xii. 8, of a female who had been was such a method of purifying the in child-bed, and the priest shall make unclean, and pardoning the guilty, atonement for her and she shall be adopted ? Perhaps some persoas clean. And of the leper, and the would consider it as a bold question, priest shall make atonement for him, and say, who knoweth the inind of and he shall be clean. Levit. xiv. 20. the Lord? His understanding is inSee also Levit. xv.

finite, and his judginent a mighty 2. They procured the offerer the deep. However, as the government forgiveness of such real sins as they of God is evidently formed to promote were offered up for, or for which our moral improvement, it seems atonement was made with their blood; probable that it was adopted, for of such a person it is said, and the 1. Because it is so well adapted to priest shall make atonement for him teach us the purity or holiness of God. before the Lord, and it shall be for- As these sin offerings are said to given for any thing of all that he hath cleanse and sanctify the tabernacle done in trespassing therein. Levit. via and temple, the utensils of them, and 1-8. VI-14. xix. 20.

the priests, &c. (Exod. xxix. 33. 36, The primary sense of the Hebrew 37. viii. 34, Heb. ix. 22,) and as an word which is translated atonement, unclean person was said to pollute it, signifies to cover over, as Noah's ark and it was death for any person wilwas covered, or smeared over with fully to commit this offence, (Numb. pitch, to preserve it from sinking in xix. 13, Levit. xii. 4, 5), therefore the flood of waters. Gen. vi. 14. So these things would necessarily suggest sin atoned is covered over, that is, to the Israelites that God is indeed a forgiven. Ps. xxxii. 1, Blessed is the most pure and holy Being. Thus man whose iniquity is forgiven, whose ceremonial purity would lead their sin is covered.

thoughts to moral purity, and shew 3. If it be said, but supposing the them that they must be holy, for Jeho.

Afr. Jevans on the Levitical Sacrifices.

721 vah their God is holy. Levit. xix. 22, and the person who led the scapegoat xi. 43, 44.

into the wilderness were both defiled 2. It would lead them to consider by this service. God as the righteous Governor of the It is therefore very obvious that this world, who notices the different ac- solemn service would lead them, and tions of men, and treats them accord- was designed to lead them to consider ing to them. Human beings are very their past ways, and to excite them to apt to imagine that God takes little or repent of their sins and reform their no notice of the nature of their actions, lives. For in those sacrifices there is or will ever call them to account for a remeinbrance again made of sins them. See Leland's Reason. of Christ. every year. Heb. x. 3. Vol. II. p. 290. 293. 304. 313. 367. 4. It would encourage the penitent 374, octavo ed. Dr. Priestley's Comp. to hope and believe that his sins were of the Hindoo Laws with the Law of forgiven. The language of this serMoses, p. 54. 271. God himself says, vice was, there is forgiveness with God these things hast thou done, and I that he may be feared. The law of kept silence'; thou thoughtest that I was Moses expressly said, and it shall be altogether such an one as thyself: but forgiven him, Lerit. vi. 7, xvi. 30. I will reprove thee, and sei them in And those persons who lived in the order before thine eyes. Ps. I. 21. But latter periods of the patriarchal and the business of sin offerings tended Mosaic dispensations knew that many very much to prevent or correct such persons had actually obtained forgive erroneous notions of the moral govern- ness in this way. See Numb. xvi. 46, ment of God. In close connection 47. xxv. 11. i Sam. xxvi. 19. 2 Sam. with this, I would observe,

xxiv. 21-25. Ezra x.9. i Esdras ix. 3. That it would excite them to 13—20. 2 Maccab. ini. 32, 33. xii. consider their past ways, and to repent 3945. of what had been amiss in their beha- To conclude; these things evidently viour. It should be carefully observed form a part of a religious dispensation, that the victim for the sin offering not indeed calculated for innocent was provided by the offerer (Levit. v. creatures, or for mankind in their 6,7), which put hiin to some expence; highest possible state of improvement, that he brought it to the priest at the but admirably adapted to the character door of the tabernacle ; that it is called and state of ignorant and sinful beings kis sin ; that solemnly laying his hand who require the plairiest and most upon the head of the victim he con- striking modes of moral and religious fessed his sin, and put it to death him- instruction; and therefore they maniself, or the priest for him; that some fest the great wisdom and goodness of of the blood was caught in a bason, God who appointed them. The fooland sprinkled upon the side of the ishness of God is wiser than men, altar (Levit. v.9), that the offerer was and the weakness of God is stronger not permitted to eat any part of his ihan men. I Cor. i. 25. sin offering, though the priest did The moral pbilosophers whose men(Levit. x. 16, &c.), that there was no tal feelings are hurt by such humble oil of incense used, as that would have modes of instruction, should recollect expressed joy; that the annual day of in what plain and simple ways their expiation was a day of general humi. parents first instructed them. When liation for the people to afflict their Solon the Grecian lawgiver was asked souls (Levit. xvi. 17), that then the whether he had given ihe Athenians whole of the sin offering was burnt the best laws ? he answered, the best without the camp, rer. 27, 28; that of those that they would have rethe person who burnt it was defiled by ceived. There is no giving a perfect it, and the vessel broken or cleansed religion to imperfect creatures. All which was used in the service (Levit. things must be adapted to the relations xvi. 28), and that all their sins were which they bear to those things or on that day, confessed by the high persons for whose use or benefit they priest over the head of the scapegoat, are made. To act thus is the highest and the goat then sent away into the wisdom. wilderness, from whence he was never

I am, your's, to return; and that the high priest

JOSEPH JEVANS.

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ART. I.-The History and Antiquities recent publications on English history

of Dissenting Churches, &*ci would enable him to make. Such a

(Concluded from p. 677.) work would, we cannot doubt, be

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were men of solid and exten- the more respectable booksellers. Mr. sive learning. Some of them possessed Wilson has the requisite knowledge of very valuable libraries. That belong- the subject, and we are inclined to ing to Dr. Lazarus Seaman, the first hope that we might rely upon his pastor of the Presbyterian Church, in impartiality. Silver Street, now extinct, who died In the latter part of the history of in 1695, was sold by auction after his the place of worship in Silver Street, death, and produced seven hundred which has been transformed into a pounds, a very considerable sum in Methodist chapel, Mr. Wilson makes that day. This is said to have been some spirited remarks upon Dissenting the first library that was sold by auc- Pluralist ministers (II. 124, 125). tion in England. A catalogue of it is The poverty of the Dissenters alone preserved in the Museum of the Bap- prevents the instances of ecclesiastical iist Acadeniy at Bristol, (I11. 12.) polygamy being more common amongst Dr. Thomas Jacomb, the colleague of them. Some recent events shew that Dr. Seaman, at Silver Street, possessed congregations would secure each a “ an incomparable library of the most portion of the services of some of the valuable books, in every branch of more popular ruangelicul ministers, if learning." On his death, which took they were wealthy enough to procure place in 1687, his books were brought them by a suitable offer. io the hammer, and produced thirteen The Independent congregation at hundred pounds. (111. 19.) The cele- Haberdashers' Tall is said to have been brated Dr. Thomas Manton, who was formed by a church that met, in the pastor of a Presbyterian congregation, days when lords were voted useless gathered by himself in Bridges Street, and bishops a nuisance, first in the Covent Garden, and who died in 1677, House of 'Peers and afterwards in “had a fine collection of books, which Westminster Abbey. Several of Cromsold for a considerable sum after his well's lords and members of parliadeath. Amongst them was the noble ment, and two at least of the judges Paris edition of the Councils, in thirty that sat on ('harles I. and condemned volumes, folio, which the bookseller him to the block, were amongst its ofered him for sixty pounds, or his members (III. 148–150). Sermons on the righ Psalm ; but One of the earliest ministers here finding it too great an interruption to was Theophilus Gale, M. A. the author his other work, to transcribe these of “ The Court of the Genules," who discourses, he chose rather to pay him is amongst the greatest literary ornathe money.” (III. 502.) A history ments of the Nonconformists. He of the libraries of the Bartholomew was born in 1628, and died in 1678, Confessors would illustrate their cha- having lived long enough to establish racters, and we apprehend furnish a lasting reputation, but too short a affecting proofs of the distress into period to execute all the works that he which many of them were plunged. had planned and his friends expected

Mr. Wilson passes a high and de- for the promotion of sacred learning served encomiun upon Dr. Toulmin's Our author has drawn up a judicious edition of Neal's History of the Puric and interesting account of this distintans (III. 99, 100). This, as well as guished scholar (III. 101–168). the former editions has now become In the list of the pastors of this scarce and sells at a very high price. sanie congregation are the respected A person, competent to the underta- names also of John and Thomas Rowe, king, might render great service to the father and son: the latter is well Dissenters, and gain no small reputa- known to have been the tutor of Dr. tion, by a new edition, with such Watts. He had many other pupils improvements as the great number of who rose to eminence. His death was

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