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manner in which the scapegoat was guilty offerer was not really penitent, disposed of probably was designed to would he nevertheless be forgiven ? teach the Israelites that their sins and To this it may be replied, that no uncleannesses were as certainly taken such supposition should be made.away from them by means of the The Almighty God commanded him atonement which was made before to repent; he presented the appointed with the blood of the sacrificed goat, sacrifice to the priest at the door of as if they had all been actually heaped the tabernacle, laid his hand in a upon the head of the scapegoat for solemn manner on the head of the him to carry away with him into the victim, and confessed his sin; and on wilderness, from which he was never the annual day of expiation for sin, to return. We have a very similar fasted, and humbled himself before ceremony in Levit. xiv. 4–7, which the Lord for his iniquities, and thererelates to the cleansing of a leper. fore it was taken for granted that he
Upon the whole it appears that was really so; and in many cases it atonement was made for all the sins of would most certainly be so; the sin the children of Israel except for pre- offering therefore became a medium of sumptuous transgressions, which the furgiveness to the offerer. Levit i. 4. law declared to be capital, and many xvi. 29. 2 Sam. xxiv. 22–25. Job i. of which offences it actually names. 4, 5. xlii. 7-9.
If it had not been so, a far greater What if a similar supposition was number of Israelites must have been raised against the real penitence of a put to death than we have any reason wicked heathen, who presented himto believe were; or else there must self as a penitent believer in Jesus have been a great body of out-casts Christ, and who is promised, on his from among them, a thing which we being baptized into Christ, that his never hear or read of; for no guilty or past sins shall be forgiven?—There is polluted person was permitted to ap- no end of such nice queries, which ill pear before God at the tabernacle or accord with the spirit of revelation, and iemple service, on pain of death. especially with the liberal spirit of the
IX. How far did the efficacy or the gospel. "The language of Scripture is, sin offering extend ?
" it shall be forgiven him.”—That is 1. They cleansed the offerer from enough, and ought to suffice us. certain bodily pollutions. It is said in X. If it should be asked, but why Levit. xii. 8, of a female who had been was such a method of purifying the in child-bed, and the priest shall make unclean, and pardoning the guilty, atonement for her and she shall be adopted ? Perhaps some persons clean. And of the leper, and the would consider it as a bold question, priest shall make atonement for him, and say, who knowcth the inind of and he shall be clean. Levit. xiv. 20. the Lord ? His understanding is inSee also Levit. xv.
finite, and his judgment a mighty 2. They procured the offerer the deep. However, as the government forgiveness of such real sins as they of God is evidently formed to promote were offered up for, or for which our moral improvement, it seems atonement was made with their blood; probable that it was adopted, for of such a person it is said, and the 1. Because it is so well adapted to priest shall make atonement for him teach us the purity or holiness of God. before the Lord, and it shall be for- As these sin offerings are said to given for any thing of all that he hath cleanse and sanctify the tabernacle done in trespassing therein. Levit. vi. and temple, the utensils of them, and 14-8. v. 1-14. xix. 20.
the priests, &c. (Exod. xxix. 33. 36, The primary sense of the Hebrew 37. viii. 34, Heb. ix. 22,) and as an word which is translated atonement, unclean person was said to pollute it, signifies to cover over, as Noah's ark and it was death for any person wilwas covered, or smeared over with fully to commit this offence, (Numb. pitch, to preserve it from sinking in xix. 13, Levit. xii. 4, 5), therefore the flood of waters. Gen. vi. 14. So these things would necessarily suggest sin atoned is covered over, that is, to the Israelites that God is indeed a forgiven. Ps. xxxii. 1, Blessed is the most pure and holy Being. Thus man whose iniquity is forgiven, whose ceremonial purity would lead their sin is covered.
thoughts to moral purity, and shew . 3. If it be said, but supposing the them that they must be holy, for Jeho.
Afr. Jevans on the Levitical Sacrifices.
721 vah their God is holy. Levit. xix. 22, and the person who led the scapegoat xi. 43, 44.
into the wilderness were both defiled 2. It would lead them to consider by this service. God as the righteous Governor of the It is therefore very obvious that this world, who notices the different ac- solemn service would lead them, and tions of men, and treats them accord- was designed to lead them to consider ing to them. Human beings are very their past ways, and to excite them to apt to imagine that God takes little or repent of their sins and reform their no notice of the nature of their actions, lives. For in those sacrifices there is or will ever call them to account for a remeinbrance again made of sins them. See Leland's Reason. of Christ. every year. Heb. x. 3. Vol. II. p. 290. 293. 304. 313. 367. 4. It would encourage the penitent 374, octavo ed. Dr. Priestley's Comp. to hope and believe that his sins were of the Hindoo Laws with the Law of forgiven. The language of this serMoses, p. 54. 271. God himself says, vice was, there is forgiveness with God these things hast thou done, and I that he may be feared. The law of kept silence'; thou thoughtest that I was Moses expressly said, and it shall be altogether such an one as thyself: but forgiven him, Lerit. vi. 7, xvi. 30. I will reprove thee, and sei them in And those persons who lived in the order before thine eyes. Ps. I. 21. But latter periods of the patriarchal and the business of sin offerings tended Mosaic dispensations knew that many very much to prevent or correct such persons had actually obtained forgive erroneous notions of the moral govern- ness in this way. See Numb. xvi. 46, ment of God. In close connection 47. xxv. 11. i Sam. xxvi. 19. 2 Sam. with this, I would observe,
xxiv. 21-25. Ezra x.9. i Esdras ix. 3. That it would excite them to 13—20. 2 Maccab. ini. 32, 33. xii. consider their past ways, and to repent 3945. of what had been amiss in their beha- To conclude; these things evidently viour. It should be carefully observed form a part of a religious dispensation, that the victim for the sin offering not indeed calculated for innocent was provided by the offerer (Levit. v. creatures, or for mankind in their 6,7), which put hiin to some expence; highest possible state of improvement, that he brought it to the priest at the but admirably adapted to the character door of the tabernacle ; that it is called and state of ignorant and sinful beings kis sin ; that solemnly laying his hand who require the plairiest and most upon the head of the victim he con- striking modes of moral and religious fessed his sin, and put it to death him- instruction; and therefore they maniself, or the priest for him; that some fest the great wisdom and goodness of of the blood was caught in a bason, God who appointed them. The fooland sprinkled upon the side of the ishness of God is wiser than men, altar (Levit. v.9), that the offerer was and the weakness of God is stronger not permitted to eat any part of his ihan men. I Cor. i. 25. sin offering, though the priest did The moral pbilosophers whose men(Levit. x. 16, &c.), that there was no tal feelings are hurt by such humble oil of incense used, as that would have modes of instruction, should recollect expressed joy; that the annual day of in what plain and simple ways their expiation was a day of general humi. parents first instructed them. When liation for the people to afflict their Solon the Grecian lawgiver was asked souls (Levit. xvi. 17), that then the whether he had given ihe Athenians whole of the sin offering was burnt the best laws ? he answered, the best without the camp, rer. 27, 28; that of those that they would have rethe person who burnt it was defiled by ceived. There is no giving a perfect it, and the vessel broken or cleansed religion to imperfect creatures. All which was used in the service (Levit. things must be adapted to the relations xvi. 28), and that all their sins were which they bear to those things or on that day, confessed by the high persons for whose use or benefit they priest over the head of the scapegoat, are made. To act thus is the highest and the goat then sent away into the wisdom. wilderness, from whence he was never
I am, your's, to return; and that the high priest
Art. I.-The History and Antiquities recent publications on English history
of Dissenting Churches, G'ci would 'enable him to make. Such a (Concluded from p. 677.)
work would, we cannot doubt, be ANY of the cjected ministers countenanced, if not taken in hand by
. sive learning. Some of them possessed Wilson has the requisite knowledge of very valuable libraries. That belong- the subject, and we are inclined to ing to Dr. Lazarus Seaman, the first hope that we might rely upon his pastor of the Presbyterian Church, in impartiality. Silver Street, now extinct, who died In the latter part of the history of in 1695, was sold by auction after his the place of worship in Silver Street, death, and produced seven hundred which has been transformed into a pounds, a very considerable sum in Methodist chapel, Mr. Wilson makes that day. This is said to have been some spirited remarks upon Dissenting the first library that was sold by auc- Pluralist ministers (II. 124, 125). tion in England. A catalogue of it is The poverty of the Dissenters alone preserved in the Museum of the Bap- prevents the instances of ecclesiastical iist Acadeniy at Bristol, (III. 12.) polygamy being more common amongst Dr. Thomas Jacomb, the colleague of them. Some recent events shew that Dr. Seaman, at Silver Street, possessed congregations would secure each a “ an incomparable library of the most portion of the services of some of the valuable books, in every branch of more popular evangelicul ministers, if learning." On his death, which took they were wealthy enough to procure place in 1687, his books were brought them by a suitable offer. to the hammer, and produced thirteen The Independent congregation at hundred pounds. (111. 19.) The cele- Haberdashers Pall is said to have been brated Dr. Thomas Manton, who was formed by a church that met, in the pastor of a Presbyterian congregation, days when lords were voted useless gathered by himself in Bridges Street, and bishops a nuisance, first in the Covent Garden, and who died in 1677, House of Peers and afterwards in “had a fine collection of books, which Westminster Abbey. Several of Cromsold for a considerable sum after his well's lords and members of parliadeath. Amongst them was the noble ment, and two at least of the judges Paris edition of the Councils, in thirty that sat on Charles I. and coremned volumes, folio, which the bookseller him to the block, were amongst ils offered him for sixty pounds, or his members (III. 148–150). Sermons on the ligh Psalm ; but One of the earliest ministers here finding it too great an interruption to was Theophilus Gale, M. A. the author bis other work, to transcribe these of “The Court of the Gentiles," who discourses, he chose rather to pay him is amongst the greatest literary ornathe money." (III. 562.) A' history ments of the Nonconformists. He of the libraries of the Bartholomew was born in 1628, and died in 1078, Confessors would illustrate their cha- having lived long enough to establish racters, and we apprehend furnish a lasting reputation, but too short a affecting proofs of the distress into period to execute all the works that he which many of them were plunged. had planned and his friends expected
Mr. Wilson passes a high and de- for the promotion of sacred learning served encomium upon Dr. Toulmin's Our author has drawn up a judicious edition of Neal's History of the Puric and interesting account of this distintans (III. 99, 100). This, as well as guished scholar (III. 101–168). the former editions has now become In the list of the pastors of this scarce and sells at a very high price. sanie congregation are the respected A person, competent to the underta- names also of John and Thomas Rowe, king, might render great service to the father and son : the latter is well Dissenters, and gain no small reputa- known to have been the tutor of Dr. tion, by a new edition, with such Watts. He had many other pupils improvements as the great number of who rose to eminence. His death was
Review.-Wilson's Dissenting Churches.
723 sudden and untimely, in the year 1705, should be able, with any semblance and the 49th of his age. Amidst of justice, to taunt them with the some common place reflections upon paucity of attendants at their oldest this occurrence, Mr. Wilson relieves place of worship, and on one of their the reader by relating that Mr. Grove inost able and eloquent preachers. published a serion, on the fear of Thomas Doolittle, M. A, one of the death, in which the subject was treated Bartholenyew sufferers, was the first in so masterly a manner, that a per- minister at Monkwell Street, the son of considerable rank in the meeting house being, indeed, of his learned world declared, that after own erection. In the “ troublous reading it he could have laid down times" in which he lived it was not bis head and died with as much satis likely that he should escape persefaction as he had ever done any thing cution : the following extract shews in his life (III. 171).
the dangers to which he was exposed We have an interesting account and the temper of the age, both for (III. 185--190), of the necting-house good and for evil.. in Monkwell Street, the first that wil3 " A king's messager, with a company built after the tire of London, 1666, of the trained bands, canze at midnight to and probably the oldest in London. seize Mr. Doolittle in his house ; but while Here, however, the author has been they were breaking open the door, he got betrayed by his prejudices into a very over the wall to a neighbour's house, and impertinent remark. He says, of this made his escape. He purposed to have place, at present the number of pitached the next morning, but was prepews greatly exceeds that of the vailed upon to forbear ; and the minister hearers, who are so for that the ends who supplied his place, narrowly escaped of pullie worship seem scarcely answered being taken. For ahile in his sermon, a ly ther mecring together. "*"' Has Mr. company of soldiers came into the meetingWilson iten authority to determine house, and the officer who led then cried the exact number of
aloud to the minister, I command you
a con gregation that make public worship minister answered, *1 command you in
in the king's name to come down.' The effectual? He may perhaps have the name of the King of kings, not to heard of high sanction being given disturb his worship, but let me go on.' to the meeting together of two or
Upon which the othicer bade his men fire. three" in the name of Christ. A The minister, undaunted, clapt his hand sarcastic reader might ask whether he upon his breast, and said, “Shoot, if you would have been better pleased if he please, you can only kill the body, and had been obliged to record thai Presby- after that can do no more.' Upon which, terian congregations were much more the people being all in an uproar, and the numerous than they really are? In assembly breaking up, the minister got the present instance he is, we believe, away in the crowd, unobserved, and withmistaken in point of fact. The con. out burt.* After this, Mr. Doolittle was gregation at Monkwell Street is accus absent from home for some weeks, and comed to take the lead, and to set an
on Lord's-days, guards were set before the example that is scarcely ever equalled, meeting-bouse, to prevent the worship of in congregational collections, which God being carried on there. At length is a presumption that the place is not the justices came, and had the pulpit
pulled down, and the doors fastened, with quite deserted; and we are informed the king's broad arrow set upon them. that the congregation has been of late The place being convenient, was soon years on the increase. That the ac- after used as a chapel for the Lord Mayor, tual number of members and hearers without any allowance to the owner. is matter of surprize when the talents Thus liberty and property were invaded and character of the present minister by tyrants, and Christ's faithful servants, are taken into account, we readily by the heat of persecution, driven into acknowledge; and we will add that it corners.”—III. 193, 194. is not creditable to the Presbyterian
We cannot refrain from quoting an body that an unfriendly observer extraordinary relation of a rhetorical
The saine reflection occurs with re- * “ The minister above alluded to, was gard to two other heretical places, Princes Mr. Thomas Sare, the ejected minister of Street, Westminster (IV. 58), and St. Redford, in Gloucestershire, concerning Thomas's, Southwark (IV. 295).
whose history no particulars are preserved."
artifice practised by Mr. Doolittle for office of afternoon preacher so early as the sake of winning a soul.
1803, nor till two years after that “Being engaged in tbe ustral service on period; and the place was not“shut a certain occasion, when he had finished up" on his resignation. Mr. Barbauld his prayer, he looked around upon the was then morning preacher, and Mr. congregation, and obscrved a young man
Thomas Rees was chosen for the just shut into one of the pews, who dis- afternoon. When Mr. Barbauld recovered much uneasiness in that situation, signed, Mr. Rees undertook the mornand seemed 10 wish to go out again. Mr. ing service, and the afternoon service Doolittle feeling a peculiar desire to detain was dropped. On Mr Rees's removal him, hit upou the following expedient. to St. Thomas's in the Borough, Mr. Turning towards one of the members of Gilchrist became morning preacher, his church, who sat in the gallery, he and still continues to exercise that asked him this question aloud, Brother; office along with the pastorship of do you repent of your coming to Christ? "No, Sir, the replied), I never was happy gation at Worship Street.
the General Baptist afternoon congte till then; I only repent that I did not come to him sooner.' Mr. Doolittle then
The history of " Paul's Alley, Bar. turned towards the opposite gallery, and bican, General Baptist, extinct," inaddressed himself to an aged member in cludes inemoirs of the three most the same manner. •Brother, do you re
eminent men whom the General Bappent that you came to Christ?'. No, tists have had in their denomination, Sir, (snid he) I bare known the Lord viz. John Gale, Joseph Burroughs, and from my youth up. He then looked down Dr. James Foster. The life of the upon the young man, whose attention was last preacher was before given; those fully engaged, and fixing tiis eyes upon of Burroughs and of Gale here inserted bim, said, “Young man, are you willing are drawn up in a truly liberal spirit. to come to Christ?'. This unexpected ad- In the list of the Works of Burroughs dress from the pulpit, exciting the obser- there is mentioned, “ A Latin Disvation of all the people, so affected him, that he sat down and hid his face. The from Isaiah lxvi, 1-3; delivered at
course on the Holiness of Places, person who sat next him encouraged him the annual meeting of the Dissenting to rise and answer the question. Mr. Ministers at Dr. Williams's Library, Doolittle repeated it, 'Young man are you willing to come to Christ?'
Red Cross Street." Was it formerly tremulous voice, be replied, “Yes, Sir," the custom for the London Ministers • But when, Sir?” added the minister, in to have annually a concio ad clerum? a solemn and loud tone. He mildly an- Why was it dropped? We can conswered, “Now, Sir.' Then stay (said ceive that it would be of great use to he) and hear the word of the Lord, which revive the custom. The three Deyou will find in 2 Cor. vi. 2. Behold now nominations might select in turn one is the accepted tüne ; behold now is the of the ablest elders of the body to day of salvation. By this sermon God deliver a discourse on some one of the touched the heart of the young man.
many points in which they have an came into the restry, after service, dis- equal interest. The true Dissenting solved in tears. That unwillingness to
principle would thus be kept alive; stay, which he bad discovered, was occasioned by the strict injunction of liis and the yearly meeting would be much fatber,, who threatened, that if ever be
more interesting and attractive than is weut to bear the fanatics, he would turn
now is, being convened for the sole him out of doors. Having now heard, and purpose of passing resolutions which unable to conceal the feelings of his mind, are matters of course, and which every he was afraid to meet bis father. Mr. one knows beforehand and expects. Doolittle sat down, and wrote an affection- Mr. Wilson has given a good engraving ate letter to him, which had so good an of Mr. Burroughs from a painting in effect, that both father and mother came the Red Cross Street Library. (IIL to hear for theinselves. The Lord gra- 228 et seq.) ciously met with them both; and father, Paul's Alley was given up by the mother, and son, were together received General Baptists in 1777, on the with universal joy, into that church."- erection of une new meeting-house in IlI. 198, 199.
Worship Street, and fell into the There are some mistakes in the in. hands of the Sandemanians, of whose cidental account of the congregation tenets and of whose leaders, John Glas at Newington Green (III. 215). Mr. and Robert Sandeman, there is a good (rrow Dr.) Lindsay did not resign his account (IIL 261 et seq.). The pecu