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of the most random-minded, flighty, and es- of the situation. She is not so disinterested sentially unreal men that ever lived. We as she affects to be, or as may at first sight are not governed by a second-rate romance appear. Roumania, constituted in 1856, as writer for nothing.". The writer expresses a barrier between Russia and Turkey, is the fear that, after all, the phlegmatic Secre- governed by a German Prince; the unificatary may be beguiled into “some flashy cation of Germany is not complete in patrischeme of eastern policy which will do no- otic eyes so long as Austria has a single thing but mischief in every direction.” The German subject; and, above all, the Chanresult has proved that these forebodings cellor is well aware that, sooner or later, were baseless in fact. The Berlin note was Germany must meet allied Russia and intended to be the thin end of the wedge France upon the battle-field. As for the with which the Turkish Empire was to be rent little war now going on, it may either be asunder, and dealt with as the conspirators snuffed out by the mediation of the Powers, might agree, or possibly had already agreed. or may turn out to be the prologue of a It proposed that in the event of Turkey failing bloodier drama yet to be enacted in Europe. to carry out immediately the reforms agreed upon in the Andrassy note-although the The election of M. Buffet to the Senate, signatories were perfectly aware that that was vice M. Ricard, by a majority of three, has absolutely impossible-armed intervention borne immediate fruit. A coalition of the

A should take place. France and Italy agreed, Right and the Bonapartists has defeated the but England peremptorily refused to sub- University Bill, by which the exclusive right scribe to it, and sent her iron-clads eastward; to confer academic degrees was to be rethus the game of the conspirators was foiled. stored to the State. This seems to portend England has no intention of lifting a finger a chronic state of dead-lock between the on behalf of Turkey unless her territory is, Chambers-at least upon all questions where in danger of partition amongst the Powers, religion can be dragged in. Signor De preor of absorption by any one of them. tis has not been long in office as Italian She will be absolutely and scrupulously Premier without a ministerial crisis. His neutral so long as they are neutral, but no Bill to establish free ports nearly made longer. Of course, Russia was in high shipwreck, and may yet do so. It will be dudgeon at the check she had received, but remembered that the Minghetti Government the Czar, who is the champion of peace, must was ousted on the question of purchasing have been secretly gratified. Bismarck has, the railways. The present Government beno doubt, favoured the designs of Russia, longed to the Left, and were desperately because he desires to see her weakened by Radical when out of office, but they have war, and because, also, Austria, which is for the most part followed upon the lines of rapidly recovering from the blow she received their predecessors since they obtained their at Sadowa, would in any case suffer by the in- portfolios. That bird of ill-omen, ex-Queen tervention. A great deal of speculation has Isabella, has got back to Spain, to intrigue been indulged in regarding the recent de- for the clerics. Nothing but mischief can signs of the Powers, and theories of the most come of her return, which signifies absoluopposite character have found supporters. tism and intolerance—the first steps in the One thing only can be safely affirmed, and fatal march to a new revolution. that is that Germany holds the master-key

BOOK REVIEWS.

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THE UNSEEN UNIVERSE AND OTHER Essays. , utterly in such a sphere, or even by a scientific

By John Fiske, M.A., LL.B., Assistant Li- hypothesis which is by no means inconceivable, brarian, &c., at Harvard University. Boston: but which can never be proved. James R. Osgood & Co.

Mr. Fiske's criticisms of Scripture are by

no means equal to his criticisms in science. Mr. Fiske has won for himself a foremost He is troubled with the excessive tendency to place among American writers on physical analysis that besets many acute minds, leading science, and the present volum of essays them to reject everything that cannot be enbears testimony not only to his ability as a tirely understood, and to dissect spiritual truth physicist, but to his versatility of mind and till they destroy its vitality, and in consequence critical powers as well. The present collec- are led to throw away its empty shell-forgettion of essays—fragments gathered up from re-ful, as to the first, that when even external views and magazines-ranges over a large nature shows us glimpses of incomprehensible variety of subjects,-physical science, philoso- mystery, a Revelation proceeding from the same phy, theology, biblical and historical criticism, Source might surely be expected to do the same. music, art in general, and sociology. As might He rejects Miracles and the Resurrection, with be expected, the author is not equally pro- all the dogmatic truth which is linked with found or accurate in his treatment of so hete- these. It is an instance of the extent to which rogeneous a list of topics. To the first two criticism, even when apparently honest, can essays of the fourteen we must give the prior lead away even able and acute minds, that he ity as to both ability and interest. Though should indulge in such daring assumptions as they come first in the volume, they are proba- that the Apostle John (whom he believes to have bly, if not certainly, the latest in order of time, written the Apocalypse, but not the Fourth Goshaving first appeared in recent numbers of the pel) was “the most narrow and rigid of JudaAtlantic Monthly. Taken together, they con- izers," intensely hating Paul and his followers ;” stitute a masterly and suggestive review of the and that “the Epistle of Jude is solely a polemremarkable volume entitled “The Unseen ic directed against the innovations of Paul !" Universe," which has received recent notice in It may well be wondered how any careful and this magazine, combined with very sound cri- candid reading of this epistle could have perticisms on the materialistic arguments which mitted such an extraordinary misinterpretation that volume was designed to combat. Mr. of its aim. The individuals denounced by Fiske points out that however ingenious is the Jude are nameless men, who crept in unawares, hypothesis defended by its authors, it is and —who were Antinomians and Unitarians,must remain purely a hypothesis, without a not one of which characteristics applies to Paul, shadow of tangible intellectual proof. But but all of which do apply to opponents of he shows, also, that the arguments adduced Paul repeatedly denounced by him. The folby materialists against immortality, from the lowing echo from Matthew Arnold is, however, absence of any scientific evidence in favour profoundly true, and cannot be too strongly of the persistence of physical phenomena impressed :-"Faith, in Paul's apprehension, when the material conditions are wanting, are was not an intellectual assent to definitely preutterly worthless. For as we have “no organ scribed dogmas, but, as Matthew Arnold has or faculty for the perception of soul apart from well pointed out, it was an emotional striving the material structure and activities in which after righteousness, a developing consciousness it has been manifested throughout the whole of God in the soul, or in Paul's phraseology, a course of our experience,” any such scientific subjugation of the flesh by the spirit.” This, evidence would be, in the nature of things, at least, is one of those fundamental truths on utterly impossible. And, as he truly remarks, which men of the most diverse schools of the entire absence of testimony does not raise thought can find a common standing grounda negative presumption except in cases where an earnest, let us hope, of a growing harmony testimony is accessible.He therefore con- of thought in the future. siders that science leaves this momentous ques- The essay on “Historical Difficulties" touchtion an entirely open one, to be decided rather es on some curious questions of history, as, for by the moral and spiritual part of man's nature instance, whether the Caliph Omar really dethan by a scientific analysis which must fail 'stroyed the Alexandrian library (it would ap

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pear that he did not), and as to whether Jeanne ance of a collected edition of the half-dozen d'Arc was really burned at Rouen, or escaped, papers recently contributed to Harper's Magasurvived, and was married, like any ordinary zine by Mr. Rau, under the above title, is conmaiden, as some old disinterred papers would sequently timely, and likely to fill, at least parseem to suggest. The reviews of Mr. Motley's tially, a gap which needed closing up. continuation of the History of the Netherlands, Investigators in this fascinating branch of and of M. Taine's Philosophy of Art, are both science hav as is well know divided the interesting; but more interesting than either period during which man has existed on the is the essay entitled “Athenian and American earth into three principal eras, known as the Life,"—a consideration of the contrast between Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age. the joyous, leisurely, physically healthful, men- This classification, though in the main accurate, tally tranquil life of the old Greeks, and the is probably not complete for the whole earth. anxious, high-pressure, wealth-worshipping, The use of copper must almost certainly have health-sacrificing, nervously overstrained life preceded that of bronze, and, accordingly, a of the modern Americans. Mr. Fiske reads his Copper Age should be interposed between countrymen some lessons which they need, those of Bronze and Iron. Evidence of the would they only profit by them. “Industrial use of copper at a time preceding that of bronze barbarism, by which I mean the inability of a has, in fact, been found by General Cesnola, in community to direct a portion of its time to Cyprus ; by Schliemann, at Hissarlik, the prepurposes of spiritual life, after providing for its sumed site of Troy; and also on this continent physical maintenance,-this kind of barbarism and elsewhere. Furthermore, the Stone Age the modern world has by no means outgrown. itself is subdivided into two clearly marked To-day, the great work of life is to live; while periods : an earlier, when the stone implements the amount of labour consumed in living has were merely rudely chipped ; and a later, when throughout the present century been rapidly they were polished. These are known respecincreasing. Nearly the whole of this American tively as the Old Stone, or Palæolithic, Age, community toils from youth to old age in merely and the New Stone, or Neolithic. Some wriprocuring the means for satisfying the transient ters, among whom Mr. Rau is apparently to be wants of life. Our time and energies, our spirit classed, believe even that the Palæolithic Age, and buoyancy, are quite used up in what is in Europe at least, includes two distinct periods, called 'getting on.' Success in life' has be- to the latter of which they give the name, Reincome synonymous with becoming wealthy.' deer Epoch. A man who is successful in what he undertakes, The Iron Age corresponds tolerably accuis a man who makes his employment pay him rately with historic times ; the Bronze and in money.” “We lack culture because we live Stone being prehistoric. Of course it is not in a hurry, and because our attention is given pretended that each of the three divisions exup to pursuits which call into activity and de- isted everywhere simultaneously. At the prevelop but one side of us. Our literary workers sent day many savage tribes are yet in their must work without co-operation, they must Stone Age ; and doubtless the ancient Egypwrite in a hurry, and they must write for those tians were in their Age of Iron while yet the who have no leisure for aught but hasty and inhabitants of Europe were altogether unsuperficial reading.” believe enough acquainted with the use of metals. . What has been said to show that the great complexity anthropologists mean by this division into ages of modern life, with its multiplicity of demands is, that man, in the earlier period of his existupon our energy, has got us into a state of ence on earth, being unable to work metal, was chronic hurry, the results of which are every- obliged to fashion his tools and weapons of where to be seen in the shape of less thorough stone, or bone and horn; that later on, the art workmanship and less rounded culture.” That of working in copper and bronze (the latter imsuch thoughts need to be considered among our plying a knowledge of the art of smelting tin) neighbours, no one will question. Are we not was introduced ; and still later, the smelting of beginning to need to consider them in Canada iron. also ?

The evidence in proof of this theory, and of the immense remoteness of the Early Stone or

Palæolithic Age, when man existed contempoEARLY MAN IN EUROPE. By Charles Rau. raneously with animals now extinct, such as New York : Harper & Bros. 1876.

the mammoth, the woolly rhinoceros, the cave

bear, and the cave lion, is now so enormous in The question of the antiquity of the human quantity and so unimpeachable in quality that race, after having been keenly, at times even it is hardly possible, in spite of the countervailfiercely, debated during the last twenty-five or ing considerations urged by such writers as thirty years, has at length reached the stage Mr. Southall, to fairly digest it without becomwhen, the main conclusions of scientific men ing a convert both to the theory and to the having become sufficiently settled, its popular belief in the vast antiquity of the human race. treatment seems desirable ; and the appear- The evidence comes from nearly every spot of

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land on the earth's surface. It has been found glacial periods, thus lasting about 70,000 years. in every country in Europe ; throughout the For ourselves, we have no doubt whatever that continent of America, from California, Lake the years during which man has existed on the Superior, and Newfoundland, to Tierra del earth must be numbered, not by the thousand, Fuego ; in Africa, from Egypt and Algiers to but by the hundred thousand. We will even

; the Cape of Good Hope ; and in various coun- go so far as to venture a suspicion that before tries of Asia-including Palestine, Asia Minor, very many years have elapsed, indubitable India, China, and Japan. As regards quantity, proof will be discovered of the existence of we may instance the fact given by Mr. Rau man during the tertiary period; in which case (p. 138), that the collections in Denmark are the years of our race will have to be numbered thought to contain about 30,000 articles of by the million. stone belonging to the Neolithic Age, found in To those wishing to investigate the interestthat country alone, besides large numbers sent | ing subject of the early life of man we can to museums in other countries.

cordially recommend Mr. Rau's book, as being As intimated above, Mr. Rau's exposition of a cheap, excellent, and popular introduction to the subject is only partial : he deals exclusively the more elaborate and costly works of Lyell, with the Stone Age, and, as the title of his book Lubbock, Wilson, Evans, Dawkins, Geikie, imports, confines his attention solely to Europe. Croll, Tylor, Foster, and Southall. Within the limits thus prescribed to himself, he has performed his task exceedingly well. In the compass of six brief chapters he gives an accurate, tolerably full, and very interesting POETS AND NOVELists. By George Barnett account of man as he existed in Europe during Smith. New York : D. Appleton & Co. the Stone Age. He recounts briefly the re- Toronto : Adam, Stevenson & Co. searches in the caves of England, France, Belgium, Germany, and Italy; in the Kitchen- Mr. Smith has here reprinted a series of middens (or refuse heaps) and tumuli of Den- literary studies of Thackeray, Mrs. Browning, mark and Scandinavia ; and in the Lake Dwell- Peacock, Hawthorne, the Brontes, Fielding, ings of Switzerland and the neighbouring and Buchanan, with an additional notice of regions. Descriptions are given of the various some English fugitive poets. He has expressed tools and weapons unearthed, and of the fossil the accepted judgments of the day on the remains of man and of the various animals, several writers whose works he discusses, and some of them extinct, and more formidable for people who are not familiar with the curthan any now existing, with which he was en- rent critical literature, the book is not without gaged in a ceaseless struggle for existence; value. But to others who may naturally exand the author draws the natural inferences as pect an interesting book on such pregnant to the mode of life and the grade of civilization themes it is rather disappointing. Mr. Smith, attained by man in those far-off times. The in his remarks about Thomas Love Peacock, descriptions are made clear by numerous excel complains that modern criticism is deficient in lent illustrations.

vis. This is precisely the defect we are pain. It is perhaps to be regretted that Mr. Rau fully conscious of in 'Mr. Smith's own critical has not attempted any numerical estimate of essays. The vital force of originality is wantthe time that has elapsed since the men lived ing, nor is its place supplied by the possession and died whose remains, after being buried for of any other remarkable virtues. We fear, inso many ages, rise up again and speak to us so deed, that the unpardonable sin of dulness eloquently. No doubt the investigation is a might be laid at his door, were it not for the difficult one, and any solution hazarded must quotations with which he illuminates his esbe merely tentative. Still, there is evidence in says, and which are the part of the book we existence on which to base a conjectural esti- can conscientiously commend. Mr. Smith mate, and which has been dealt with for that claims for his book the merit of “exhaustivepurpose by Lyell. There seems to be no doubt

We fear it cannot be called exhaustive that man existed in Europe in pre-glacial, or at in any but an uncomplimentary sense, nor is it least in inter-glacial times. Mr. Rau gives likely that the labour of many critics yet to (p. 33) one item of evidence, from Switzerland, come will exhaust such perennially interesting in proof of this fact ; and another (the human subjects as the genius and works of Fielding or thigh-bone discovered in 1873, in Victoria Thackeray. Mr. Smith further claims to have Cave, Yorkshire) is adduced by Mr. Geikie in been the first to recognise the merits of his “Great Ice Age” (p. 510). Now, Mr. Croll | Thomas Love Peacock, and he evidently reseems to have definitively shown that the last gards him with some of the enthusiasm of proglacial sepoch (or rather series of epochs, for prietorship. Peacock is most widely known as there were probably two or three in compara- | the author of a satirical novel called “Headtively close connection) extended from about long Hall,” in which he sets in a ridiculous 150,000 years ago to about 80,000 years ago ; light the popular theories of his time, under the whole series, together with the warm inter- the form of dialogues between such transparent

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personages as Mr. Crotchet, Mr. MacQuedy A GENERAL HISTORY OF GREECE. Ву (Mac Q. E. D.), the Rev. Dr. Folliott, &c. George W. Cox, M.A. New York: Harper He did not possess much creative power, and & Brothers ; D. Appleton & Co. 1876. his satire is not of the kind that lives. Among the objects of his sarcasm, clergymen occupy This work comprehends in an octavo volume a conspicuous place, and Mr. Smith seems of about 700 pages, the history of the Greeks inclined himself to discharge a few shafts in from the earliest times to the death of Alexanthe same direction. Mr. Smith's remarks on der the Great, with a sketch of the subsequent this topic will serve as a specimen of his style history down to the present decennium. The and discernment. The life of the parson of work is intended for the higher class of stusixty years ago was, he tells us, “passed be- dents, and is not a mere record of events and tween fox-hunting, card-playing, and drinking. circumstances connected with the life of the Since then the muscular Christian and other Hellenic race ; but the effort has been most excellent men have arisen. But there have successfully made to connect together these also sprung up with them men almost of a facts, so as to present them in their natural and more mischievous type than the old fox-hunter. philosophic sequence. Nor is the work in any There are too many pitiful shepherds left who, sense a compilation, either from Grote or in quiet, out-of-the-way villages, make the life Thirlwall, or even from the author's larger hisof the poor a burden to them. These con- tory in four volumes, of which, in fact, but two tinually enlarge on the duty of labourers to have as yet been published. It is in every keep their proper stations, and to revere the meaning of the word a new work, based upon clergy and the squirearchy, the former of an independent examination of the original auwhom are to provide for them their opinions thorities. Mr. Cox is a man of marvellous inand their spiritual food, the latter their tem- dustry and enormous erudition, and he has poral comforts. Many of the latter clergy are, made himself a thorough master of his subject ; in the eyes of sensible men, little less con- and he sometimes takes occasion to call in temptible than the old ; the venue of our con- question the opinions of his predecessors, and tempt has been changed, that is all.” The to express views at variance with those genergood old parson who cared more for his din- ally received ; and in these cases his presentaner than his flock was a worthier subject of tion of the subject is well worthy of attention. satire than the most conservative of his suc- Of course, in a volume of this kind, it would cessors. Peacock's satire was no doubt relished i be absurd to look for that minute detail and when it first appeared, but it is not very enter- those full discussions of moot points which one taining now. His humour is lively enough, finds in the works of Grote and Thirlwall, and but it is wanting in depth. The advance of also in the larger history of Mr. Cox himself. ages has brought with it certain new evils, But nevertheless, the author's style and manand placed mankind in some respects in a ner,without any straining for effect, is so clear worse position than our ancestors occupied; and pleasant, that the reader's interest is kept but we do not discern much truth or point | up in the story—a story full of poetic emotion, in the following bit of satire :

philosophic contemplation, tragic situation, Forsooth, this is the enlightened age. and dramatic circumstance; and fruitful in Not any how ! Did our ancestors go peeping lessons--social and political-even to us living about with dark lanterns, and do we walk in the light of the nineteenth century. In his about at our ease in broad sunshine ? What preface, the author tells us that he has atdo we see by it which our ancestors saw not, tempted to bring “the actors in this great and which at the same time is worth seeing ? drama before the reader as living persons with We see a hundred men hanged, where they whom we may sympathise, while they must be saw one. We see five hundred transported submitted to the judgment of the moral triwhere they saw one. We see scores of Bible bunal to which we are all responsible.” In the Societies, where they saw none. We first half of this attempt the success of the ausee men in stays, where they saw men in thor is unqualified : but in submitting his armour.

We see prisons, where they various characters" to the judgment of the saw castles. In short, they saw true men moral tribunal to which we are all responsible," where we see false knaves. They saw Milton, it appears to us that the author's fervid moral and we see Mr. Sackbut.”

feeling sometimes leads him to the practical Peacock wrote, besides his novels, one or unfairness of subjecting the ancient Greek to the two poems, not of any great merit, as might criterion of the morality of the nineteenth cenbe inferred from the quality of his humour. tury after Christ, instead of to that of the fourth We are disposed to think that, in spite of his and fifth centuries before Him, and that his “precise style, his great research, his bound- judgments are, by consequence, sometimes unless sarcasm, his intense abhorrence of cant," duly harsh. Á similar want of moral perspecwith all of which Mr. Smith, with more or tive was noticeable in the author's small work less truth, credits him, the neglect into which on “The Crusades.” The error, if it be an Peacock has fallen is not undeserved.

error, is on the right side; and is, of course, one

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